Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 15.204
Filtrar
1.
Am Psychol ; 75(5): 729-730, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673018

RESUMO

Bleidorn et al. (2019) argued that personality traits, as important determinants of life outcomes, should be the object of treatment interventions. They suggested that self-reports on standard personality questionnaires provide necessary and sufficient evidence of trait change. However, the self-concept-on which self-reports are based-may change without any alteration in the underlying trait. Additional evidence, such as that provided by independent informant ratings, is needed, and multimethod assessments should be a feature of all studies of trait change. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Humanos , Determinação da Personalidade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Autorrelato
2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233435, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421752

RESUMO

Core self-evaluation (CSE) is a theory that includes four personality dimensions: self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control and emotional stability. CSE proved to be a significant predictor of the research on cognitive, emotional and behavioral responses across various situations in the workplace. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between personality traits of the core self-evaluation and clinical decision-making in nurses' profession. A cross-sectional design was applied. Data was collected with standardized instruments: Core Self-Evaluation Scale and Clinical Decision-Making Nurses Scale, 584 nurses have participated in the study. Correlation and hierarchical regression analysis were used to test the relations and prediction of variables. The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between overall core self-evaluation and nurses' clinical decision-making, and there is a significant contribution of self-esteem, self-efficacy and locus of control on all dimensions of clinical decision, especially in the area of canvassing of objectives and values. Nurses with high CSE have positive self-views and tend to be confident in their ability and they also feel in control while performing nursing interventions, whereas those with low CSE tend to have fewer accessible positive resources and are more prone to risk aversion.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Enfermagem , Determinação da Personalidade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Autoimagem , Autoeficácia , Local de Trabalho
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348331

RESUMO

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) can come in different forms, presenting problems for diagnostic classification. Here, we examined personality traits in a large sample of patients (N = 265) diagnosed with SAD in comparison to healthy controls (N = 164) by use of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). In addition, we identified subtypes of SAD based on cluster analysis of the NEO-PI-R Big Five personality dimensions. Significant group differences in personality traits between patients and controls were noted on all Big Five dimensions except agreeableness. Group differences were further noted on most lower-order facets of NEO-PI-R, and nearly all KSP variables. A logistic regression analysis showed, however, that only neuroticism and extraversion remained significant independent predictors of patient/control group when controlling for the effects of the other Big Five dimensions. Also, only neuroticism and extraversion yielded large effect sizes when SAD patients were compared to Swedish normative data for the NEO-PI-R. A two-step cluster analysis resulted in three separate clusters labelled Prototypical (33%), Introvert-Conscientious (29%), and Instable-Open (38%) SAD. Individuals in the Prototypical cluster deviated most on the Big Five dimensions and they were at the most severe end in profile analyses of social anxiety, self-rated fear during public speaking, trait anxiety, and anxiety-related KSP variables. While additional studies are needed to determine if personality subtypes in SAD differ in etiological and treatment-related factors, the present results demonstrate considerable personality heterogeneity in socially anxious individuals, further underscoring that SAD is a multidimensional disorder.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Fobia Social/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Fobia Social/classificação , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231313, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294122

RESUMO

In our experiment, we tested how exposure to a mock televised news segment, with a systematically manipulated emotional valence of voiceover, images and TV tickers (in the updating format) impacts viewers' perception. Subjects (N = 603) watched specially prepared professional video material which portrayed the story of a candidate for local mayor. Following exposure to the video, subjects assessed the politician in terms of competence, sociability, and morality. Results showed that positive images improved the assessment of the politician, whereas negative images lowered it. In addition, unexpectedly, positive tickers led to a negative assessment, and negative ones led to more beneficial assessments. However, in a situation of inconsistency between the voiceover and information provided on visual add-ons, additional elements are apparently ignored, especially when they are negative and the narrative is positive. We then discuss the implications of these findings.


Assuntos
Propaganda , Percepção Social , Emoções , Humanos , Maquiavelismo , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Política , Televisão
5.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 28(10): 395-409, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015248

RESUMO

Orthopaedic surgery has increasingly emerged as one of the most popular and competitive of all medical specialties. The selection of the best applicants has become a more difficult process because the number of qualified medical students has concomitantly grown. Although there are standardized guidelines in residency selection, there are several intangible factors that determine an applicant's fit into a program. Personality assessments, such as the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, are proficiencies that have garnered significant interest to help fill this void. Understanding and measuring empirically supported measures of personality traits and styles of medical students and residents may be valuable to medical educators and program directors in a variety of applications such as residency selection, mentoring, and education. Similar to personality identification, emotional intelligence assessments, such as the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, can prove to be pivotal tools in residency education and training. Emotional intelligence has shown to align with current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education residency standardized core competencies that emphasize aptitude in noncognitive characteristics.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional , Internato e Residência , Ortopedia/educação , Determinação da Personalidade , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Humanos , Internato e Residência/normas
6.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 22(3): 14, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025914

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the paper is reviewing recent literature on the epidemiology, assessment, and treatment of personality disorders (PDs) among older adults (≥ 60 years). RECENT FINDINGS: Since 2015, 12 primary empirical studies have been published addressing PDs in older adults; 3 addressing epidemiological aspects, 6 on assessment, 2 exploring both epidemiology and assessment, and 1 examining treatment. PD research in older adults is steadily growing and is predominantly focused on assessment. The studies showed that PDs were rather prevalent ranging from 10.6-14.5% in community-dwelling older adults, to 57.8% in nursing home-residing older adults. The Severity Indices of Personality Problems-Short Form, Gerontological Personality disorders Scale, and Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders turned out to be promising instruments for assessing PDs in later life. Furthermore, schema therapy seems to be a feasible and effective intervention. Despite promising findings, there is an urgent need for studies addressing PDs in older adults, especially studies investigating epidemiological aspects and treatment options. Furthermore, new areas of interest arise such as PDs in other settings, and behavioral counseling.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Psicoterapia , Idoso , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Determinação da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Prevalência
8.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023291

RESUMO

In the field of psychopathy, there is an ongoing debate about the core traits that define the disorder, and that therefore must be present to some extent in all psychopaths. The main controversy of this debate concerns criminal behaviour, as some researchers consider it a defining trait, while others disagree. Using a representative sample of 204 Spanish convicted inmates incarcerated at the Pereiro de Aguiar Penitentiary in Ourense, Spain, we tested two competing models, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), which includes criminal behaviour items, versus the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP), which does not. We used two different PCL-R models, one that includes criminal items and another that does not. PCL-R factors, facets, and testlets from both models and CAPP dimensions were correlated and compared. Two different PCL-R cut-off scores, 25 or more and 30 or more, were used for the analysis. Overall, a strong correlation was found between PCL-R and CAPP scores in the whole sample, but as scores increased and inmates became more psychopathic, the correlations weakened. All these data indicate that psychopathy, understood to mean having high scores on the PCL-R and CAPP, is a multidimensional entity, and inmates can develop the disorder and then receive the diagnosis through different dimensions. The CAPP domains showed better correlations when compared with the PCL-R factors from both models, showing that an instrument for the assessment of psychopathy without a criminal dimension is valuable for clinical assessment and research purposes.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Psicopatologia/métodos , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Lista de Checagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Espanha
9.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 55(1): 97-107, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005369

RESUMO

The release of a quality study by the Institute of Medicine in 2001 challenged health care providers to deliver safe, quality care. Research has focused on 2 primary categories of nursing characteristics: demographic data and emotional intelligence and personality traits. The research has shown a correlation between nursing characteristics and quality care and patient outcomes. Factors not considered in this article include hospital teaching status, type of unit, unit skill mix, hospital safety culture, and total nursing hours per patient day. These factors may contribute to quality of care and patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Clínica , Cuidados de Enfermagem/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Determinação da Personalidade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227799, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Perceived rejection plays an important role for mental health and social integration. This study investigated the impact of rejection intensity and rejection sensitivity on social approach behavior. METHOD: 121 female participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions differing in the degree of induced rejection (inclusion, medium rejection, severe rejection). Thereafter they were asked to interact with an unknown person during a touch-based cooperative task. RESULTS: Participants high in rejection sensitivity sought significantly less physical contact than participants low in rejection sensitivity. Individuals in the medium rejection condition touched their partners more often than those in the included condition, while no difference between included and severely rejected participants could be observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the intensity of rejection matters with regard to coping. While participants in the medium intensity rejection condition aimed to 'repair' their social self by seeking increased contact with others, severely rejected participants did not adapt their behavior compared to included participants. Implications for therapy are discussed.


Assuntos
Rejeição em Psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Determinação da Personalidade , Comportamento Social , Distância Social , Adulto Jovem
11.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 104(1): 110-114, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine whether self-reported illness perceptions in newly diagnosed patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and ocular hypertension (OHT) are more negative compared with peers who have lived with their diagnosis for more than 2 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 58 newly diagnosed patients with POAG and OHT recruited at their first clinic visit. Electronic patient records were used to identify similar patients (n=58, related by age and severity of visual field loss) who had their diagnosis for >2 years. All participants completed the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ), EQ5D general health measure and Type D Personality Scale (DS14). RESULTS: Average BIPQ scores were similar for people newly diagnosed with POAG and POAG diagnosed >2 years and were no different to newly diagnosed OHT and OHT diagnosed >2 years POAG (p=0.46). An analysis correcting for personality type (DS14) and general health (EQ5D) indicated newly diagnosed patients with POAG to have marginally better illness perceptions on individual BIPQ items quantifying impact on life in general, experience of symptoms and 'understanding' of their condition (all p<0.01). In contrast, patients with POAG with a diagnosis >2 years understood better their condition to be long-term (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Some illness perceptions differed between newly diagnosed people and patients living with their diagnosis for >2 years. Illness perception for people with manifest glaucoma and at risk of glaucoma (OHT) were similar; the latter might benefit from an intervention at diagnosis that highlights the better prognosis for OHT compared with POAG.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comportamento de Doença , Hipertensão Ocular/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação da Personalidade , Psicometria , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779100

RESUMO

The Psychoanalytic Core Competency Q-Sort (PCC Q-Sort) is a newly developed empirical research tool that allows for the description and illustration of the ways psychodynamically-oriented psychotherapists work. It provides a simple, straightforward rating procedure utilizing a well-established q-sort method. The present pilot study describes the psychoanalytic core competency items and discusses the development procedure of the instrument as well as statistical analysis of ratings from psychoanalytic sessions, including inter-rater reliability as well as preliminary findings on possible construct validity. Additionally, a factor analysis was performed. Values were assessed by applying the PCC Q-Sort to 30 audio recordings of psychoanalytic sessions. The results of the present study indicate that the PCC Q-Sort is a reliable process research instrument that allows for a detailed investigation of psychotherapy processes in psychodynamic psychotherapies and change processes.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Determinação da Personalidade/normas , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/métodos , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/normas , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Q-Sort , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 379, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behaviour can be defined as the internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of whole living organisms (individuals or groups) to internal and/or external stimuli, excluding responses more easily understood as developmental changes. Unlike personality traits, that are thought to be biologically consistent, behaviour, through the application of cognition and reasoning is open to change across time and circumstance, although most humans will display preferred ways of behaving. The objective of this study was to: i) identify the behaviour styles of physiotherapy students and investigate if there is a relationship (predictive or otherwise) between students' unique behaviour patterns and their clinical placement grades and; ii) examine if this relationship differs when student's in a Master's level program as well as student's in a Bachelor's level program are explored separately. METHODS: This cross-sectional study with 132 (F = 78, M = 54) physiotherapy students was conducted across two Australian university settings. Measures included Everything DiSC Workplace profile, Assessment of Physiotherapy Practice (APP). RESULTS: Physiotherapy students (n = 133) profiled the following ways: Dominance (D) style n = 20 (15%), Influence (i) style n = 33 (25%), Steadiness (S) style n = 36 (27%) and Conscientiousness (C) n = 44 (33%). Students with the individual DiSC styles of i and Conscientiousness / Steadiness (CS) were in the lowest APP quartile for clinical grades and the D style was in the highest quartile. Binary logistic regressions revealed students with an i DiSC style had 3.96 times higher odds, and students with a CS DiSC style had 4.34 times higher odds, of failing a clinical placement. When explored independently, the same trend remained for Master's level students. Bachelor's level students with DiSC styles of S and C had failed placements, however these styles were not significantly associated with failure (DiSC S Style: Exp(B) 1.667, p = 0.713 (CI: 0.109 to 25.433), DiSC C Style: Exp(B) 11.00, p = 0.097 (CI: 0.646 to 187.166)). CONCLUSION: Physiotherapy students with DiSC styles i and CS appear to be more likely to fail physiotherapy clinical placements. Further research with larger undergraduate samples is required to establish if relations differ for undergraduate versus postgraduate students.


Assuntos
Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Determinação da Personalidade , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/educação , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Austrália , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Currículo , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 370, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between perfectionism and depression in the medical profession can ultimately influence physicians' performance negatively. In medical students, especially maladaptive perfectionism is connected with distress and lower academic performance. The expression of perfectionism and symptoms of depression at the time of medical school application is not known. Therefore, we explored perfectionism and symptoms of depression in participants of multiple mini-interviews for medical school admission and investigated possible differences between applicants who were eventually admitted or rejected. METHODS: After the multiple mini-interviews admission procedure at Hamburg Medical School in August 2018, 146 applicants filled out a questionnaire including sociodemographic data and the following validated instruments: Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale by Hewitt and Flett (MPS-H), Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale by Frost (MPS-F), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), and a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10). The two groups of admitted and rejected applicants were compared and the correlation between symptoms of depression and perfectionism further explored. RESULTS: The admitted applicants were significantly more extrovert and had lower depression scores compared to the rejected applicants. In both groups, the composite scales of Adaptive Perfectionism (r = .21, p = .011) and Maladaptive Perfectionism (r = .43, p < .001) as well as their components correlated significantly with the PHQ-9 results. Maladaptive Perfectionism accounted for about 18% of variance in the PHQ-9 score. CONCLUSIONS: Rejected medical school applicants who participated in a multiple mini-interviews admission procedure showed higher levels of depression symptoms than admitted applicants. The degree of depressive symptoms can be partly explained by Maladaptive Perfectionism scores. Since coping in medical school and in postgraduate medical education require robust mental health, perfectionism questionnaires could be an additional tool in medical school selection processes.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Critérios de Admissão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Perfeccionismo , Determinação da Personalidade , Faculdades de Medicina
15.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 207(10): 820-825, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503178

RESUMO

With a controversial history, passive-aggressive personality disorder (PAPD) was eventually removed from the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders. Despite its demise from diagnostic nomenclature, clinicians continue to regard it as a clinically relevant construct, and some researchers argue for its resurrection. Toward this end, it is important to empirically demonstrate the relevance of the passive-aggressive personality construct, including demonstrating its association with impaired functioning. Consistent with contemporary emphasis on interpersonal functioning in personality pathology, the current study aims to explore interpersonal problems that are associated with PAPD in a large clinical sample. Before beginning treatment, 240 patients completed assessments of personality psychopathology and interpersonal functioning. Results showed that higher levels of PAPD were significantly associated with greater level of interpersonal distress, especially regarding interpersonal problems of a vindictive nature. The findings are consistent with clinical descriptions of the core conflictual relational issues of patients with PAPD and lend some support to further considering PAPD as a valid diagnostic construct.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Transtorno da Personalidade Passivo-Agressiva/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Passivo-Agressiva/terapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Autorrelato , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno da Personalidade Passivo-Agressiva/diagnóstico , Determinação da Personalidade/normas , Autorrelato/normas
16.
Georgian Med News ; (292-293): 57-65, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560664

RESUMO

Research objective - justification of efficiency of the comprehensive program with use of projective techniques in prevention auto-destructive behavior of students. Psychodiagnostic testing of individual and psychological features of the personality and an emotional condition of students before holding preventive actions are conducted. 40 students of medical college at the age of 17-20 with signs of disadaptation participated in a research. In work psychodiagnostic tests "the Questionnaire of EPQ", HADS, the questionnaire "SAN", "Hans Schmischek's Questionnaire", M. Zuckerman's technique "A scale of search of thrills" are used. Criterion of efficiency of preventive actions with use of projective techniques was increase in number of examinees with normal indicators of an emotional state due to decrease in number of examinees with manifestations of uneasiness and depressiveness. The last in turn influence indicators of health, activity and mood of students.


Assuntos
Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Personalidade , Técnicas Projetivas , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adolescente , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
Br J Math Stat Psychol ; 72(3): 538-559, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385610

RESUMO

Personality constructs, attitudes and other non-cognitive variables are often measured using rating or Likert-type scales, which does not come without problems. Especially in low-stakes assessments, respondents may produce biased responses due to response styles (RS) that reduce the validity and comparability of the measurement. Detecting and correcting RS is not always straightforward because not all respondents show RS and the ones who do may not do so to the same extent or in the same direction. The present study proposes the combination of a multidimensional IRTree model with a mixture distribution item response theory model and illustrates the application of the approach using data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). This joint approach allows for the differentiation between different latent classes of respondents who show different RS behaviours and respondents who show RS versus respondents who give (largely) unbiased responses. We illustrate the application of the approach by examining extreme RS and show how the resulting latent classes can be further examined using external variables and process data from computer-based assessments to develop a better understanding of response behaviour and RS.


Assuntos
Viés , Autorrelato , Atitude , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Determinação da Personalidade , Psicometria
18.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(6): 309-316, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304872

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to describe personality traits in psychiatric patients and to investigate whether these traits are stable over 13 years. Methods: A total of 95 individuals who were patients at a psychiatric outpatients' clinic in 2003 completed the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP). Scores from 2003 were compared with SSP scores from 2016. Based on the current score on the comprehensive psychopathological rating scale - self rating for affective disorders (CPRS-S-A), the participants were divided into two groups representing 'good' and 'poor' current mental states, to investigate the effect of current mental state on reports of personality traits. Results: Out of 13 personality traits, 11 showed a significant change in mean T-score over the study interval. The group with lower CPRS-S-A scores showed a significant change in T-score for 10 traits, whereas in the group with higher CPRS-S-A scores only 3 traits showed a significant change. Conclusions: The findings support the theory that personality is changeable over the course of life, also in psychiatric patients. We do not know if persisting psychiatric symptoms halter change or if deviant personality traits cause psychiatric symptoms to continue.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Determinação da Personalidade , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Suécia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
19.
Personal Disord ; 10(5): 456-467, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259602

RESUMO

A proposed feature of personality pathology involves disturbances in identity, of which a lack of insight is one such manifestation. From recommendations in the literature, one potential approach to assess and quantify such impairment and link it to personality pathology, would be to obtain self-reports and informant reports and subsequently index the degree personality pathology severity exacerbates self-other discrepancies. The current study examines the degree to which self-reports and informant reports of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), Section III trait scores are discrepant (i.e., mean-level discrepancies and correlational accuracy), as well as whether general personality pathology severity moderates these characteristics. Target participants (N = 208) in an elevated-risk community sample completed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), and knowledgeable informants rated targets using the informant version of the PID-5. General personality pathology severity was assessed via an aggregate of five-factor model personality disorder prototype scores derived from self-report, informant-report, and interview ratings. Mean-level discrepancies and correlational accuracy (and their moderation by general personality pathology) for PID-5 domains, facets, and personality disorder scores were subsequently examined. Results suggested that targets tended to mostly rate themselves only slightly lower than informants across all PID-5 scores (median dz = .21), and correlational accuracy across all PID-5 scores was moderate (median r = .34). Importantly, however, mean-level discrepancies increased as general personality pathology severity scores increased. Implications and future directions for the multimethod assessment of dimensional personality pathology are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Determinação da Personalidade/normas , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Autorrelato/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos
20.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(6): 540-551, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169382

RESUMO

An extensive empirical and theoretical literature has characterized anticipatory/expectancy processes as integral to motivation, including motivation to consume alcohol. To examine whether these processes could be probed on a moment to moment basis as they activate to motivate near term drinking, we sampled future-oriented expectancy verbal associates (i.e., self-generated words) using an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) paradigm every 3 hr on 3 days of the week (2 days of likely drinking and 1 of low drinking likelihood). Expectancy associates were chosen because cognitive psychologists consider verbal items collected in this manner a part-way approach to measurement of automatic/implicit processes. Consistent with predictions, more positively valenced alcohol expectancies activated within a few hours preceding increased alcohol consumption, and this activation could be statistically distinguished from the influence of a wide array of other variables known to predict consumption, including autocorrelation. As previously observed, more positively valenced alcohol expectancies were activated in alcohol-related environments. These findings provide further evidence that anticipatory information processing is engaged for the direction of future behavior, and that probing expectancies in real-time can be useful for predicting near-term alcohol consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Cultura , Motivação , Adolescente , Adulto , Antecipação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação da Personalidade , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social , Testes de Associação de Palavras , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA