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1.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 141-150, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483870

RESUMO

Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is a therapy model incorporating elements of Eastern philosophies and cognitive behavioural principles. Originally designed for people struggling with chronic suicidality and borderline personality disorder (BPD), it has been adapted to treat complex, multi-diagnostic presentations, such as those in forensic mental health settings. To date, there has been little evaluation when the primary diagnosis is of psychosis. To explore the effectiveness of DBT, with patients, with multiple comorbidities, including psychosis, in a forensic psychiatric inpatient setting. A descriptive outcome study with a cohort of offender-patients in one specialist forensic mental health unit. Before and after treatment change scores were compared on anger, aggression, hopefulness, coping abilities, emotional intelligence, insight and subjective symptom severity scales, as well as staff-rated risk, and length of stay. Nine men and five women residents in one Canadian secure hospital completed a standard DBT programme, and self-ratings, over about 1 year. Scale scores indicated significantly increased insight and acknowledgment of problems. Apparently increased anger and vengeance scores were clinically associated. Independent staff ratings indicated reductions in risk and most patients achieved early release. This study provides support for extension of the use of DBT to offender-patients with psychosis among the complex mix in their presentation. It suggests that a randomised controlled trial with cost-benefit analysis is warranted, as well as further work, to promote understanding of mechanisms of effectiveness.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Criminosos/psicologia , Terapia do Comportamento Dialético/métodos , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Violência/prevenção & controle , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Agressão , Ira , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Canadá , Inteligência Emocional , Emoções , Feminino , Esperança , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade , Transtornos Psicóticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(2): 166-173, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations between adhesive capsulitis (AC) and a specific psychological profile. METHODS: We assessed 72 patients with phase-II AC. In our study, 36 patients were affected by primary disease and 36 by secondary disease. The inclusion criteria were as follows: unilateral AC and pain in the shoulder for at least two months. The exclusion criteria were: psychiatric and neurological manifestations with a previous diagnosis and inability to comprehend the instruments. Outcomes were determined at 52 weeks. Shoulder pain severity was assessed with the Visual Analog Scale. We also measured the range of motion with a universal goniometer and the strength with the Medical Research Council. We assessed the personality traits of our patients with the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. RESULTS: Patients with primary AC needed more time to improve the symptomatology compared to the group with the secondary disease (p<0.01). Patients with primary AC complained of severe and lasting pain more frequently than patients with the secondary disease (p< 0.01). In patients with primary disease, the prevalence of perfectionism, low levels of novelty seeking, and high levels of harm avoidance were 88.2 and 86.2%, and 80.4, respectively, and below 20 percent in patients with secondary AC disease. CONCLUSION: We found a significant correlation between primary AC and particular personality traits, indicating an interaction between psychological and somatic factors.


Assuntos
Bursite/psicologia , Personalidade , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bursite/fisiopatologia , Bursite/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Inventário de Personalidade , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dor de Ombro/fisiopatologia , Dor de Ombro/psicologia , Dor de Ombro/reabilitação , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(17): e19812, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332624

RESUMO

The European Higher Education Area was implemented more than a decade ago with the aim of improving internationally the competitiveness of European university education putting the spotlight on skills and competence development (and not only on knowledge acquisition). This work intends to analyze the impact of competence-based teaching methodologies on university students, as well as to contribute to the study of the individual personality traits differences regarding this impact. For this, a descriptive, quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-randomised sample of university students. The sample was composed of a total of 499 students of the University of Huelva (350 from the Health Sciences degree, and 149 form other degrees), who completed a questionnaire on professional skills and teaching methods developed ad hoc for this research, as well as the brief version of the Spanish adaptation of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The results show that Health Sciences students feel more satisfied with the most participative and active methodologies, and they consider these better contribute to their future professional competence development. On the other hand, in relation to the big 5 personality traits studied, links have been found between competence development perception and personal preferences and the dimensions of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience. This last factor, openness to experience, appears when analyzing the main differences among both groups, being Health Sciences students more intellectually curious, showing more openness and diversity of interests, in addition to being more creative, innovative, and flexible.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/educação , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348331

RESUMO

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) can come in different forms, presenting problems for diagnostic classification. Here, we examined personality traits in a large sample of patients (N = 265) diagnosed with SAD in comparison to healthy controls (N = 164) by use of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). In addition, we identified subtypes of SAD based on cluster analysis of the NEO-PI-R Big Five personality dimensions. Significant group differences in personality traits between patients and controls were noted on all Big Five dimensions except agreeableness. Group differences were further noted on most lower-order facets of NEO-PI-R, and nearly all KSP variables. A logistic regression analysis showed, however, that only neuroticism and extraversion remained significant independent predictors of patient/control group when controlling for the effects of the other Big Five dimensions. Also, only neuroticism and extraversion yielded large effect sizes when SAD patients were compared to Swedish normative data for the NEO-PI-R. A two-step cluster analysis resulted in three separate clusters labelled Prototypical (33%), Introvert-Conscientious (29%), and Instable-Open (38%) SAD. Individuals in the Prototypical cluster deviated most on the Big Five dimensions and they were at the most severe end in profile analyses of social anxiety, self-rated fear during public speaking, trait anxiety, and anxiety-related KSP variables. While additional studies are needed to determine if personality subtypes in SAD differ in etiological and treatment-related factors, the present results demonstrate considerable personality heterogeneity in socially anxious individuals, further underscoring that SAD is a multidimensional disorder.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Fobia Social/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Fobia Social/classificação , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229470, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251476

RESUMO

The present study used exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) to examine the theorized dimension structure of the brief version of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BR) at the scale-level (i.e., 11 lower-order primary factors loading on four higher-order factors) and item-level (sets of 12 items loading on 11 lower-order primary factors). A total of 214 adults from the community addressed the MPQ-BR and the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)/Behavioral Approach System (BAS) scales. The findings revealed poor fit and poorly defined factors at the item-level alongside adequate fit and well-defined factors at the scale-level. The higher-order factors in the latter model were supported for external validity in terms of demonstrating the expected theoretical and empirical correlations with the scales of the BIS/BAS scales. Result related implications for professional application, as well as potential revisions of the MPQ-BF are illustrated.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/genética , Personalidade/genética , Psicometria , Adulto , Agressão/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Personalidade/fisiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/patologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/fisiopatologia , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Testes de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229695, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302314

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire. A sample of undergraduate students (N = 539) was measured on defensive pessimism using the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire (DPQ), optimism and pessimism using the Life Orientation Test (LOT), positive and negative affect using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and anxiety using the trait subscale of the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory. A Spanish version of the DPQ (DPQ-SV) is presented. Exploratory and Robust Confirmatory Factor Analysis had a bi-dimensional structure (Reflectivity and Negative Expectation). Omega coefficient showed a high internal consistency and the temporal stability was high in each dimension. Both DPQ-SV subscales (Negative Expectation and Reflectivity) showed adequate convergence with LOT-optimism and LOT-pessimism. Reflectivity showed adequate criterion validity with trait-anxiety and negative affect, but inadequate criterion validity with positive affect. Negative Expectation showed excellent criterion validity with trait-anxiety and negative affect and good criterion validity with positive affect. Finally, mediation analysis showed that Negative Expectation had a significant indirect mediating effect between trait-anxiety and negative affect. Reflectivity had a significant indirect mediating effect between trait-anxiety and negative and positive affect. Analysis of the psychometric properties of the DPQ-SV subscale scores showed that it is a two factor adequate measurement tool for its use in this type of samples.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Pessimismo/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/patologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 23, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical specialty is a critical choice in a physician's life because it determines their professional future and medical practice. While some are motivated to choose a specific specialty based on the monetary gain it can provide, others are inspired by seeing the work performed by a physician or by a patient's recovery. It is common to stereotype doctors' personalities by their specialty. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey study in which we administered the 100-item HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised to 292 medical students between September 2018 and March 2019. We evaluated six different domains of personality traits. We also included questions about their medical specialty of choice, their least preferred specialty, and the motivation behind these choices. The participants included 175 women (59.9%) and 117 men (40.1%). RESULTS: When the participants were asked about their preferred type of medical specialty, 52.4% indicated a preference for surgical specialties (surgical group) vs 47.6% who preferred clinical specialties (clinical group). We found that the surgical group showed significantly higher scores for Extraversion and Organization domains, while the clinical group showed significantly higher scores on the Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, and Agreeableness domains. We identified critical differences within the overall group of medical students by their medical specialty preference. CONCLUSIONS: Some classical stereotypes were confirmed by our results, such as surgical specialists tending to be more extroverted and organized, whereas clinical specialists were prone to being more introverted, anxious, and more emotionally attached to their patients.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Personalidade , Especialização , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Inventário de Personalidade , Estereotipagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228969, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053673

RESUMO

There is emerging consensus that Grit's two facets-perseverance of effort and consistency of interest-are best understood as facets of the Big Five dimension of Conscientiousness. However, an in-depth investigation on whether Grit's facet offer any added value over more established facets of Conscientiousness is absent from the literature. In the present study, we investigated whether Grit's facets are empirically distinguishable from three facets of Conscientiousness as conceived in the well-validated Big-Five Inventory 2 (BFI-2), namely, Organization, Responsibility, Productiveness. Moreover, we investigated whether Grit's facets show different (and possibly stronger) associations than the facets of Conscientiousness with a broad set of external criteria (age, educational attainment, monthly income, life satisfaction, mental and physical health, fluid and crystallized intelligence); as well as whether the criterion correlations of Grit's facets are incremental over Conscientiousness. Findings from two latent-variable models in a large and diverse sample (N = 1,244) indicated that the facets of Grit showed moderate to strong relationships related to each other and to the three Conscientiousness facets of the BFI-2 (.41 ≤ r ≤ .94). Grit-Perseverance was almost indistinguishable from the Productiveness facet of Conscientiousness, whereas Grit-Consistency appeared to capture something unique beyond the Conscientiousness facets. The relationships with external criteria of Grit's facets were similar in direction and size to those of the Conscientiousness facets. The results give further purchase to the view that Grit's facets can be subsumed under the Conscientiousness domain.


Assuntos
Satisfação Pessoal , Personalidade/fisiologia , Valores Sociais , Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Adulto , Eficiência , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Inventário de Personalidade , Comportamento Social , Responsabilidade Social
9.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 208(2): 161-164, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977828

RESUMO

Research is scarce regarding the mechanisms by which pathological narcissism--consisting of narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability--is linked with depression. The present study examined whether impaired emotional processing would mediate relations between pathological narcissism domains and depressive symptoms in a sample of 99 psychiatric outpatients. A significant indirect effect was found for narcissistic vulnerability on depressive symptoms, through unprocessed emotion as a mediator. Findings suggest that narcissistic vulnerability contributes to persistent and intrusive negative feelings, which in turn contribute to depressive symptom severity.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Emoções , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/complicações , Inventário de Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948125

RESUMO

Presently, a growing popularity of electronic cigarettes may be observed. Used as a means of obtaining nicotine they allow to substitute traditional cigarettes. The origins of substance use disorders are conditioned by dopaminergic signaling which influences motivational processes being elementary factors conditioning the process of learning and exhibiting goal-directed behaviors. The study concentrated on analysis of three polymorphisms located in the dopamine receptor 2 (DRD2) gene-rs1076560, rs1799732 and rs1079597 using the PCR method, personality traits determined with the Big Five Questionnaire, and anxiety measured with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. The study was conducted on a group of 394 volunteers, consisting e-cigarette users (n = 144) and controls (n = 250). Compared to the controls the case group subjects achieved significantly higher scores in regard to the STAI state and the trait scale, as well as the NEO-FFI Neuroticism and Openness scale. Likewise, in the case of the STAI state for DRD2 rs1076560 significant differences were found. Furthermore, while comparing the groups (e-cigarette users vs. controls) we noticed interactions for the NEO FFI Neuroticism and DRD2 rs1076560. The same was observed in the case of interactions significance while comparing groups (e-cigarette users vs. controls) for the STAI trait/scale and DRD2 rs1799732. Findings from this study demonstrate that psychological factors and genetic determinants should be analyzed simultaneously and comprehensively while considering groups of addicted patients. Since the use, and rapid increase in popularity, of electronic cigarettes has implications for public health, e-cigarette users should be studied holistically, especially younger groups of addicted and experimenting users.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Personalidade , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Vaping/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroticismo , Nicotina , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vaping/genética , Adulto Jovem
11.
Psychol Assess ; 32(1): 40-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204821

RESUMO

The International Classification of Disease (11th ed.; ICD-11) personality disorder (PD) proposal characterizes personality psychopathology using an overall impairment severity dimension as well as dysfunctional personality style on the basis of five trait domain qualifiers: Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Dissociality, Disinhibition, and Anankastia. Recent research has indicated that trait facet scales from the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) can be used to index these five broad domains with promising construct validity. Our goal in the current study was to validate the PID-5 algorithms for the five ICD-11 trait domains with some minor adjustments based on the updated ICD-11 text. To this end, we used 343 psychiatric outpatients from a large Canadian metropolitan area, who had completed the PID-5, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders-Personality Questionnaire, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form, and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. The factor structure of the ICD-11 domains was upheld, as expected, and associations with external measures of five-factor model and Personality Psychopathology Five personality traits as well as PD symptom counts adhered to a conceptually expected pattern. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Personalidade , Adulto , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Psychol Assess ; 32(1): 18-28, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328932

RESUMO

The predominant maladaptive trait models are now provided by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Section III, assessed by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012), and the International Classification of Diseases-11th Revision (ICD-11; assessed by the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD; Oltmanns & Widiger, 2018). However, 2 historical precedents are the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ; Livesley & Jackson, 2009) and the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1993). The current study administered the DAPP-BQ, SNAP, PiCD, and PID-5 to a sample of 323 persons with a history of mental health treatment. The results provided support for the historical precedence of the DAPP-BQ and SNAP, although also suggest that additional traits should perhaps be included in current models. The results also bear on additional ongoing issues, including (but not limited to) the bipolarity of maladaptive personality structure, the conceptualization of identity problems as a trait, and the discriminant validity of maladaptive trait models and their assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Personalidade , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicometria
13.
Psychol Assess ; 32(1): 50-59, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328934

RESUMO

The International Classification of Diseases-11th Edition (ICD-11) Classification of Personality Disorders provides the option of coding 5 trait domain qualifiers that contribute to the individual expression of personality dysfunction (i.e., Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Dissociality, Disinhibition, and Anankastia). Previous investigations of these trait domains are based on self-reported data, and so is much of the research literature from which the ICD-11 trait model has evolved. However, the ICD-11 itself involves judgments made by clinicians about their patients. Thus, it is important to examine whether the trait domains identified in self-report studies can also be obtained from clinician-reported data. A sample of 238 mental health patients were characterized by clinicians using an informant-report form of the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD-IRF). As expected, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) indicated that clinician-reported ICD-11 trait domains could be captured by both 4- and 5-factor structures, of which the 5-factor solution seemed less conceptually sound relative to the 4-factor solution. The 4-factor model captured the unipolar domains of Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Dissociality, along with a bipolar domain of Disinhibition versus Anankastia, whereas the 5-factor model furthermore captured features of Disinhibition and Anankastia as 2 separate factors. The hierarchical structure from 1 to 5 factors partially resembled previously reported trait structures and models of psychopathology. These findings overall support the multimethod robustness of ICD-11 trait domain qualifiers and the potential for their valid ratings by mental health clinicians. The PiCD-IRF is provided in the online supplementary material - for clinical or research purposes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicometria , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychol Assess ; 32(1): 72-84, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580095

RESUMO

The ICD-11 model of personality disorder consists of a level of severity, 5 trait domains, and a borderline pattern qualifier. Level of severity is assessed by the Standardized Assessment of Severity of Personality Disorder (SASPD; Olajide et al., 2018), the trait model by the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD; Oltmanns & Widiger, 2018), and the borderline pattern qualifier by the Borderline Pattern Specifier inventory (BPS; Oltmanns & Widiger, 2019). The DSM-5 Section III Alternative Model of Personality Disorder includes a level of personality functioning and the five-domain trait model. These two components are assessed by the Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS; Morey, 2017) and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012). Components of each model have been related to one another, but no study has yet considered all of the components for both models within one study. The current study considers the convergent, discriminant, and structural validity of the relationship of the LPFS and PID-5 with the SASPD, PiCD, and BPS. Also included were multiple measures of borderline personality disorder to determine if the BPS obtains incremental validity in accounting for borderline personality disorder variance above and beyond the trait models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Psychol Assess ; 32(1): 8-17, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556679

RESUMO

The 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), recently approved by the World Health Organization, contains a new diagnostic approach for personality disorders. This approach partly involves the consideration of 5 dimensional trait domain qualifiers-Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Dissocial, Disinhibition, and Anankastia. Oltmanns and Widiger (2018) recently developed a self-report measure, the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD), to assess the 5 domains; however, further examination of the psychometric properties of the PiCD is warranted due to its limited research base. The present study aimed to further examine the reliability, structural and concurrent validity, and method variance of the PiCD in an ethnically diverse undergraduate sample (N = 518), who were also administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form. First, results suggested that the PiCD domain scales exhibited adequate internal consistency reliability via coefficient categorical omega (range = .77-.87). Next, exploratory structural equation modeling results suggested support for a 4-factor solution, with the 4th factor thought to represent a bipolar continuum of Anankastia to Disinhibition severity. Random-intercept factor analysis results suggested a small amount of variance in items (4.88%) attributable to idiosyncratic scale usage. Lastly, relations between PiCD domains and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form scales (Personality Psychopathology-5 and Higher Order scales) provided support for the validity of the Negative Affectivity, Detachment, and Dissocial domains, though relatively less support for the Disinhibition and Anankastia domains. Further examination of other psychometric properties and the nomological network of the PiCD is recommended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychol Assess ; 32(1): 29-39, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414851

RESUMO

To assess the psychometric properties of the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD, where ICD-11 is the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision), a sample of Italian community-dwelling adult participants (N = 1,122) was administered the PiCD, the Five-Factor Model Rating Form, the Big Five Inventory, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Short Form (where DSM-5 is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition), and the Measure of Disordered Personality Functioning. Our findings supported the unidimensionality hypothesis for the PiCD Negative Affectivity, Detachment, and Dissocial scale items, whereas adequate fit indices were observed for the bifactor model of the PiCD Disinhibition and Anankastic item joint polychoric correlation matrix. The PiCD scales showed adequate internal consistency, test-retest reliability (n = 262), and meaningful relationships with five-factor model domains and their maladaptive variants. A four-factor model of the joint correlation matrix of the PiCD, Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Short Form, and the five-factor model composite score was provided with adequate fit. All PiCD scales were significantly associated with the impairment in personality functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychol Assess ; 32(1): 60-71, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414852

RESUMO

The International Classification of Diseases-11th edition (ICD-11) includes a dimensional model of personality disorder assessing five domains of maladaptive personality. To avoid unnecessary complexity, the ICD-11 model includes assessment of personality traits only at the domain level. A measure exists to assess the domains of the ICD-11 model (the Personality Inventory for ICD-11), yet a more rich and useful assessment of personality is provided at the facet level. We used items from the scales assessing the five-factor model of personality disorder to develop the Five-Factor Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (FFiCD), a new 121-item, 20-facet, self-report measure of the ICD-11 maladaptive personality domains at the facet level. Further, the FFiCD includes 47 short scales organized beneath the facets-at the "nuance" level. Items were selected and evaluated empirically across two independent data collections, and the resulting scales were further validated in a third data collection. Correlational and factor analytic results comparing the scales of the FFiCD to the five-factor model, Personality Inventory for ICD-11, and Personality Inventory for DSM-5 supported the validity of the theoretical structure of the FFiCD and the ICD-11 model. The FFiCD may be a useful instrument for clinicians and researchers interested in a more specific assessment of maladaptive personality according to the dimensional ICD-11 personality disorder model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Personalidade , Adulto , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato
18.
Qual Life Res ; 29(1): 57-67, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506914

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined whether three types of personality (i.e. resilient, undercontrolled and overcontrolled) based on the Big Five personality taxonomy could be replicated among people living with HIV (PLWH). We also aimed to establish significant sociodemographic and clinical covariates of profile membership and verify whether these profiles are related to the subjective well-being (SWB) of participants. METHODS: 770 PLWH participated in this study. The Big Five personality traits were evaluated with the NEO-FFI questionnaire. SWB was operationalised by satisfaction with life (Satisfaction with Life Scale) and positive and negative affects (PANAS-X). Moreover, sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected. RESULTS: Latent profile analysis was used to identify personality types among participants. Instead of the three profiles most frequently reported in the literature, we identified a four-profile model (the resilient, undercontrolled, overcontrolled and the average profile type) as the best fit to the data. These profiles did not differ with regard to sociodemographic and clinical covariates. However, significant differences in SWB across profiles were noted, i.e. the highest SWB was observed among members of the resilient profile, and overcontrollers and undercontrollers were almost equally regarded as second best in SWB level, whereas the average profile consists of PLWH with the worst SWB. CONCLUSION: Identifying personality types in clinical settings enables more comprehensive understanding of interrelations between personality and health. Regarding PLWH, the typological approach may shed new light on ambiguous results devoted to the role of personality in well-being of these patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 119(3): 735-742, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Previous studies showed the association between substance use disorders (SUDs) and borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Substance abusers may have emotional, somatic and interpersonal distresses. This study aimed to investigate the associations between substance, personality and psychosocial distresses. METHODS: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study recruited 39 individuals with heroin use disorder (HUD), 111 with methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) and 101 as the control group in a rural area of Taiwan. The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and Opiate Treatment Index were used to assess the association between personality and psychosocial conditions. Deviations of the three personality dimensions of TPQ (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence) could reflect eight personality patterns. RESULTS: We found SUD was associated with high novelty seeking and harm avoidance traits and explosive (borderline) personality pattern, whereas HUD was also linked with sensitive (narcissistic) pattern. Subjects with HUD tended to have more deviant personality traits than subjects with MUD. For subjects with SUDs, all three personality dimensions and sensitive (narcissistic) personality patterns were associated with emotional and somatic distresses, and those with explosive (borderline) and sensitive (narcissistic) patterns had poor social functioning. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate substance abusers with high novelty seeking and harm avoidance, corresponding to explosive (borderline) or sensitive (narcissistic) patterns, to have a higher tendency to suffer from somatic and psychosocial distresses.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Personalidade , Estresse Psicológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Heroína , Humanos , Masculino , Metanfetamina , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
20.
J Psychol ; 154(1): 1-14, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343957

RESUMO

Leader emergence was regressed on five factor model (FFM; NEO Five-Factor Inventory) traits and four additional traits (achievement, dominance, aggression, and Machiavellianism) in a sample of 280 undergraduates (229 women (82%), 51 men; M age = 19.7 (SD = 1.4). The Jackson Personality Research Form (Jackson, Personality research form manual (3rd ed.). Port Huron, MI: Sigma Assessment Systems, Inc.) measured achievement, dominance, and aggression. Christie and Geis' (Studies in machiavellianism. San Diego: Academic Press) Mach IV scale measured Machiavellianism. In an independent groups analysis, six of the nine traits showed significant differences, indicating that leaders are less neurotic and Machiavellian, and more extroverted, open, agreeable, and dominant. However, in a logistic regression analysis, which controlled for shared variance among traits, only extraversion, openness, and dominance predicted leader emergence. Previous studies that did not use regression models showed significant differences for a large number of traits. Results from the present study indicate the importance of accounting for shared variance when analyzing personality traits in order to develop parsimonious models.


Assuntos
Liderança , Personalidade , Estudantes/psicologia , Logro , Agressão/psicologia , Extroversão Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Maquiavelismo , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
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