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1.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 14: 51-56, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887944

RESUMO

In this work, the radiation environment on the Martian surface, as produced by galactic cosmic radiation incident on the atmosphere, is modeled using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code, High Energy Transport Code-Human Exploration and Development in Space (HETC-HEDS). This work is performed in participation of the 2016 Mars Space Radiation Modeling Workshop held in Boulder, CO, and is part of a larger collaborative effort to study the radiation environment on the surface of Mars. Calculated fluxes for neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, helions, alpha particles, and heavier ions up to Fe are compared with measurements taken by Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) instrument aboard the Mars Science Laboratory over a period of 2 months. The degree of agreement between measured and calculated surface flux values over the limited energy range of the measurements is found to vary significantly depending on the particle species or group. However, in many cases the fluxes predicted by HETC-HEDS fall well within the experimental uncertainty. The calculated results for alpha particles and the heavy ion groups Z = 3-5, Z = 6-8, Z = 9-13 and Z > 24 are in the best agreement, each with an average relative difference from measured data of less than 40%. Predictions for neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, Helium-3, and the heavy ion group Z = 14-24 have differences from the measurements, in some cases, greater than 50%. Future updates to the secondary light particle production methods in the nuclear model within HETC-HEDS are expected to improve light ion flux predictions.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Interações de Partículas Elementares , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Marte , Modelos Teóricos , Método de Monte Carlo , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Humanos , Doses de Radiação
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25353517

RESUMO

Some physical properties of hydrated biomolecules, e.g., the occurrence of a boson peak, have been recognized to resemble those of glassy states. The present work shows that quantum fluctuations play a fundamental role in describing the glassy state of biomolecules, particularly at lower hydration levels. There is a linear relationship between the quantumness and the slope of the temperature dependence of the boson peak frequency, which is used to classify the extent of quantum contributions to the glassy state of glasses in general. Lastly, we demonstrate that the boson peak two-band spectral structure that is observed in some cases can be directly linked to the anisotropy of the elastic properties of the material. The amino acid L-cysteine is studied in detail. The findings are compared with previously reported data for other macromolecules.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/química , Cisteína/química , Interações de Partículas Elementares , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Teoria Quântica , Simulação por Computador , Transição de Fase , Temperatura , Vibração
3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 111(11): 112001, 2013 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24074074

RESUMO

We search for bottomonium states in Υ(2S) → (bb)γ decays with an integrated luminosity of 24.7 fb(-1) recorded at the Υ(2S) resonance with the Belle detector at KEK, containing (157.8±3.6)×10(6) Υ(2S) events. The (bb) system is reconstructed in 26 exclusive hadronic final states composed of charged pions, kaons, protons, and K(S)(0) mesons. We find no evidence for the state recently observed around 9975 MeV (X(bb)) in an analysis based on a data sample of 9.3×10(6) Υ(2S) events collected with the CLEO III detector. We set a 90% confidence level upper limit on the branching fraction B[Υ(2S) → X(bb)γ] × ∑(i)B[X(bb) → h(i)] < 4.9×10(-6), summed over the exclusive hadronic final states employed in our analysis. This result is an order of magnitude smaller than the measurement reported with CLEO data. We also set an upper limit for the ηb(1S) state of B[Υ(2S) → ηb(1S)γ] × ∑(i)B[ηb(1S) → h(i)] < 3.7×10(-6).


Assuntos
Interações de Partículas Elementares , Modelos Teóricos , Física Nuclear/métodos , Método de Monte Carlo
4.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 87(3): 555-61, 2013 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24074929

RESUMO

The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.


Assuntos
Prótons , Fenômenos Astronômicos , Interações de Partículas Elementares , Partículas Elementares/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Prótons/classificação , Prótons/história
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23848610

RESUMO

Recent numerical results on classical dimers with weak aligning interactions have been theoretically justified via a Coulomb gas representation of the height random variable. Here, we propose a completely different representation, the interacting fermions picture, which avoids some difficulties of the Coulomb gas approach and provides a better account of the numerical findings. Besides, we observe that the Peierls argument explains the behavior of the system in the strong interaction case.


Assuntos
Dimerização , Interações de Partículas Elementares , Partículas Elementares , Gases/química , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Eletricidade Estática , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador
6.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 25(27): 275602, 2013 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23765419

RESUMO

We present a derivation of the effective action for the relative phase of driven, aperture-coupled reservoirs of weakly-interacting condensed bosons from a (3 + 1)D microscopic model with local U(1) gauge symmetry. We show that inclusion of local chemical potential and driving velocity fields as a gauge field allows derivation of the hydrodynamic equations of motion for the driven macroscopic phase differences across simple aperture arrays. For a single aperture, the current-phase equation for driven flow contains sinusoidal, linear and current-bias contributions. We compute the renormalization group (RG) beta function of the periodic potential in the effective action for small tunneling amplitudes and use this to analyze the temperature dependence of the low-energy current-phase relation, with application to the transition from linear to sinusoidal current-phase behavior observed in experiments by Hoskinson et al (2006 Nature Phys. 2 23-6) for liquid (4)He driven through nanoaperture arrays. Extension of the microscopic theory to a two-aperture array shows that interference between the microscopic tunneling contributions for individual apertures leads to an effective coupling between apertures which amplifies the Josephson oscillations in the array. The resulting multiaperture current-phase equations are found to be equivalent to a set of equations for coupled pendula, with microscopically derived couplings.


Assuntos
Interações de Partículas Elementares , Hidrodinâmica , Análise em Microsséries , Modelos Teóricos , Teoria Quântica , Transição de Fase , Temperatura
7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(8): 081801, 2013 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23473129

RESUMO

Results are presented from a search for the pair production of third-generation scalar and vector leptoquarks, as well as for top squarks in R-parity-violating supersymmetric models. In either scenario, the new, heavy particle decays into a τ lepton and a b quark. The search is based on a data sample of pp collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV, which is collected by the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.8 fb(-1). The number of observed events is found to be in agreement with the standard model prediction, and exclusion limits on mass parameters are obtained at the 95% confidence level. Vector leptoquarks with masses below 760 GeV are excluded and, if the branching fraction of the scalar leptoquark decay to a τ lepton and a b quark is assumed to be unity, third-generation scalar leptoquarks with masses below 525 GeV are ruled out. Top squarks with masses below 453 GeV are excluded for a typical benchmark scenario, and limits on the coupling between the top squark, τ lepton, and b quark, λ(333)(') are obtained. These results are the most stringent for these scenarios to date.


Assuntos
Interações de Partículas Elementares , Partículas Elementares , Modelos Teóricos , Física Nuclear/métodos
8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(8): 081802, 2013 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23473130

RESUMO

The polarizations of the Υ(1S), Υ(2S), and Υ(3S) mesons are measured in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV, using a data sample of Υ(nS) → µ +µ- decays collected by the CMS experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 fb(-1). The dimuon decay angular distributions are analyzed in three different polarization frames. The polarization parameters λ[symbol see text], λ(φ), and λ([symbol see text]φ), as well as the frame-invariant quantity λ, are presented as a function of the Υ(nS) transverse momentum between 10 and 50 GeV, in the rapidity ranges |y|<0.6 and 0.6<|y|<1.2. No evidence of large transverse or longitudinal polarizations is seen in the explored kinematic region.


Assuntos
Interações de Partículas Elementares , Mésons , Modelos Teóricos , Física Nuclear/métodos , Prótons
9.
Physiology (Bethesda) ; 28(1): 28-38, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23280355

RESUMO

Ionic solutions are dominated by interactions because they must be electrically neutral, but classical theory assumes no interactions. Biological solutions are rather like seawater, concentrated enough so that the diameter of ions also produces important interactions. In my view, the theory of complex fluids is needed to deal with the interacting reality of biological solutions.


Assuntos
Interações de Partículas Elementares , Íons , Soluções , Animais , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Concentração Osmolar
10.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 25(1): 014002, 2013 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23221007

RESUMO

We investigate the local density of states of the one-dimensional half-filled spinless fermion model with nearest-neighbour hopping t > 0 and interaction V in its Luttinger liquid phase -2t < V ≤ 2t. The bulk density of states and the local density of states in open chains are calculated over the full band width ∼4t with an energy resolution ≤0.08t using the dynamical density-matrix renormalization group (DDMRG) method. We also perform DDMRG simulations with a resolution of 0.01t around the Fermi energy to reveal the power-law behaviour D(ϵ) ∼ |ϵ - ϵ(F)|(α) predicted by the Luttinger liquid theory for bulk and boundary density of states. The exponents α are determined using a finite-size scaling analysis of DDMRG data for lattices with up to 3200 sites. The results agree with the exact exponents given by the Luttinger liquid theory combined with the Bethe Ansatz solution. The crossover from boundary to bulk density of states is analysed. We have found that boundary effects can be seen in the local density of states at all energies, even far away from the chain edges.


Assuntos
Interações de Partículas Elementares , Partículas Elementares , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Teoria Quântica , Simulação por Computador
11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(19): 192301, 2012 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23215375

RESUMO

Expansion dynamics at the yoctosecond time scale affect the evolution of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) created in heavy ion collisions. We show how these dynamics are accessible through Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) intensity interferometry of direct photons emitted from the interior of the QGP. A detector placed close to the beam axis is particularly sensitive to early polar momentum anisotropies of the QGP. Observing a modification of the HBT signal at the proposed FoCal detector of the LHC ALICE experiment would allow us to measure the isotropization time of the plasma and could provide first experimental evidence for photon double pulses at the yoctosecond time scale.


Assuntos
Íons Pesados , Modelos Teóricos , Gases em Plasma , Interações de Partículas Elementares , Física Nuclear/métodos , Fótons , Teoria Quântica
12.
Health Phys ; 103(5): 540-6, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23032883

RESUMO

In this paper, the basic physics by which energetic charged particles deposit energy in matter is reviewed. Energetic charged particles are used for radiotherapy and are encountered in spaceflight, where they pose a health risk to astronauts. They interact with matter through nuclear and electromagnetic forces. Deposition of energy occurs mostly along the trajectory of the incoming particle, but depending on the type of incident particle and its energy, there is some nonzero probability for energy deposition relatively far from the nominal trajectory, either due to long-ranged knock-on electrons (sometimes called delta rays) or from the products of nuclear fragmentation, including neutrons. In the therapy setting, dose localization is of paramount importance, and the deposition of energy outside nominal treatment volumes complicates planning and increases the risk of secondary cancers as well as noncancer effects in normal tissue. Statistical effects are also important and will be discussed. In contrast to radiation therapy patients, astronauts in space receive comparatively small whole-body radiation doses from energetic charged particles and associated secondary radiation. A unique aspect of space radiation exposures is the high-energy heavy-ion component of the dose. This is not present in terrestrial exposures except in carbon-ion radiotherapy. Designers of space missions must limit exposures to keep risk within acceptable limits. These limits are, at present, defined for low-Earth orbit, but not for deep-space missions outside the geomagnetosphere. Most of the uncertainty in risk assessment for such missions comes from the lack of understanding of the biological effectiveness of the heavy-ion component, with a smaller component due to uncertainties in transport physics and dosimetry. These same uncertainties are also critical in the therapy setting.


Assuntos
Interações de Partículas Elementares , Partículas Elementares/uso terapêutico , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Radioterapia , Transporte Biológico , Humanos , Doses de Radiação
13.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 85(6 Pt 1): 061119, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23005063

RESUMO

It has been recently shown numerically that the transition from integrability to chaos in quantum systems and the corresponding spectral fluctuations are characterized by 1/f^{α} noise with 1≤α≤2. The system of interacting trapped bosons is inhomogeneous and complex. The presence of an external harmonic trap makes it more interesting as, in the atomic trap, the bosons occupy partly degenerate single-particle states. Earlier theoretical and experimental results show that at zero temperature the low-lying levels are of a collective nature and high-lying excitations are of a single-particle nature. We observe that for few bosons, the P(s) distribution shows the Shnirelman peak, which exhibits a large number of quasidegenerate states. For a large number of bosons the low-lying levels are strongly affected by the interatomic interaction, and the corresponding level fluctuation shows a transition to a Wigner distribution with an increase in particle number. It does not follow Gaussian orthogonal ensemble random matrix predictions. For high-lying levels we observe the uncorrelated Poisson distribution. Thus it may be a very realistic system to prove that 1/f^{α} noise is ubiquitous in nature.


Assuntos
Interações de Partículas Elementares , Partículas Elementares , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Simulação por Computador
15.
Pharm Res ; 28(8): 1973-83, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21491149

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To understand the apparent inconsistency between the dilute and high concentration viscosity behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA). METHOD: Zeta potential and molecular charge on BSA were determined from Electrophoretic mobility measurements. Second virial coefficient (B(22)) and interaction parameter (k(D)) obtained from static and dynamic light scattering, respectively, quantified intermolecular interactions. Rheology studies characterized viscoelasticity at high concentration. The dipole moment was calculated using Takashima's approximation for proton fluctuations over charged residues. RESULTS: The effective isoelectric point of BSA was pH 4.95. In dilute solutions (≤ 40 mg/ml), the viscosity was minimal at the pI; at high concentrations, pH 5.0 solutions were most viscous. B(22) and k(D) showed intermolecular attractions at pH 5.0; repulsions dominated at other pHs. The attractive interactions led to a high storage modulus (G') at pH 5.0. CONCLUSION: In dilute solutions, the electroviscous effect due to net charge governs the viscosity behavior; at high concentrations, the solution viscosity cannot be justified based on a single parameter. The net interplay of all intermolecular forces dictates viscosity behavior, wherein intermolecular attraction leads to a higher solution viscosity.


Assuntos
Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Soluções/química , Animais , Bovinos , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética/métodos , Interações de Partículas Elementares , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Luz , Prótons , Reologia/métodos , Espalhamento de Radiação , Soroalbumina Bovina/análise , Viscosidade
16.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 69(8): 1125-7, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21145242

RESUMO

The ratio of the electromagnetic proton elastic form factors, G(p)(E)/G(p)(M), has been measured at Jefferson Lab up to Q(2) approximately 9(GeV/c)(2), by using the CEBAF 6GeV electron beam, and revealing an unexpected and challenging physical behaviour. The 2014 scheduled 12GeV upgrade will allow the measurement of G(p)(E)/G(p)(M) up to Q(2) approximately 15(GeV/c)(2), by taking advantage of the new large-acceptance forward spectrometer Super BigBite (SBS) in Hall A. Measurements of neutron form factors in the region around 10(GeV/c)(2), where quark confinement plays an important role, are expected to show the behaviour already observed in the proton case.


Assuntos
Partículas Elementares , Prótons , Monitoramento de Radiação/instrumentação , Análise Espectral/instrumentação , Elétrons , Interações de Partículas Elementares , Desenho de Equipamento , Nêutrons
17.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 69(8): 1118-20, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21131207

RESUMO

The "standard" Hall A apparatus at Jefferson Lab (TOF and aerogel threshold Cherenkov detectors) does not provide complete identification for proton, kaon and pion. To this aim, a proximity focusing C(6)F(14)/CsI RICH (Ring Image CHerenkov) detector has been designed, built, tested and operated to separate kaons from pions with a pion contamination of a few percent up to 2.4GeV/c. Two quite different experimental investigations have benefitted of the RICH identification: on one side, the high-resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy series of experiments on carbon, beryllium and oxygen, devoted to the study of the lambda-nucleon potential. On the other side, the measurements of the single spin asymmetries of pion and kaon on a transversely polarized (3)He target are of utmost interest in understanding QCD dynamics in the nucleon. We present the technical features of such a RICH detector and comment on the presently achieved performance in hadron identification.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Partículas Elementares , Mésons , Prótons , Berílio/química , Carbono/química , Interações de Partículas Elementares , Desenho de Equipamento , Método de Monte Carlo , Física Nuclear , Oxigênio/química , Análise Espectral
18.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 69(8): 1134-7, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21146416

RESUMO

The widely used Monte Carlo simulation code FLUKA has been utilized to prototype a solid target for the production of (89)Zr by irradiation of a metallic (89)Y target foil in a 16.5MeV proton biomedical cyclotron, through the reaction (89)Y(p, n)(89)Zr. Simulations were performed with and without an Al energy degrader. In the setup of the geometry of the target, state of the art support tools, like SimpleGeo, were used for accurate, detailed modeling. The results permitted a quick assessment of all possible radionuclidic contaminants and confirmed that the use of an energy degrader avoids production of the most important impurity, (88)Zr. The estimated value for the activity produced in one hour of irradiation at 20µA is 384 ± 42MBq; this is encouraging, indicating possible production of clinically significant amounts of activity with the relatively simple target setup adopted. Initial experimental tests gave results in excellent agreement with simulations, confirming the usefulness and accuracy of FLUKA as a tool for the design and optimization of targets for the production of PET radionuclides.


Assuntos
Método de Monte Carlo , Isótopos de Ítrio/química , Zircônio/análise , Ciclotrons , Interações de Partículas Elementares , Prótons , Radiação , Radioisótopos/análise , Radioisótopos/química , Zircônio/química
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 107(47): 20219-22, 2010 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21059945

RESUMO

Imaging and controlling reactions in molecules and materials at the level of electrons is a grand challenge in science, relevant to our understanding of charge transfer processes in chemistry, physics, and biology, as well as material dynamics. Direct access to the dynamic electron density as electrons are shared or transferred between atoms in a chemical bond would greatly improve our understanding of molecular bonding and structure. Using reaction microscope techniques, we show that we can capture how the entire valence shell electron density in a molecule rearranges, from molecular-like to atomic-like, as a bond breaks. An intense ultrashort laser pulse is used to ionize a bromine molecule at different times during dissociation, and we measure the total ionization signal and the angular distribution of the ionization yield. Using this technique, we can observe density changes over a surprisingly long time and distance, allowing us to see that the electrons do not localize onto the individual Br atoms until the fragments are far apart (∼5.5 Å), in a region where the potential energy curves for the dissociation are nearly degenerate. Our observations agree well with calculations of the strong-field ionization rates of the bromine molecule.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Interações de Partículas Elementares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica/métodos , Bromo , Cinética , Lasers
20.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 76(5): 1563-70, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20097484

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To measure the neutron dose equivalent per therapeutic proton dose (H/D) in a passive scattering proton therapy system and study its dependence on the proton energy, aperture-to-isocenter distance, spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) width, and field size. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed four experiments of varying proton energies, aperture-to-isocenter distances, SOBP widths, and field sizes. Etched track detectors were used to measure the neutron dose equivalent at both an in-field (isocenter, beyond the protons' range) and out-of-field (30 cm lateral to the isocenter) location in air. RESULTS: For a nonmodulated beam with all the protons stopping in the aperture and an aperture-to-isocenter distance of 30 cm, the H/D values measured at the isocenter were approximately 0.3 mSv/Gy for all snouts with a 100-MeV beam. The H/D values increased to 10.7, 14.5, and 15.1 mSv/Gy, respectively, for small, medium, and large snouts when the beam energy increased to 250 MeV. At the out-of-field location, H/D values increased from 0.1 to 2.7, 3.0, and 3.2 mSv/Gy, respectively, for small, medium, and large snouts. When the aperture-to-isocenter distance was changed from 10 to 40 cm, the H/D value at the isocenter dropped 70%. The H/D value doubled for the modulated beam relative to the nonmodulated beam. Open apertures reduced the neutrons produced in the nozzle, but increased those produced in the phantom. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that changes in the four factors studied affect the H/D value in predictable ways which permits an estimate of a patient's neutron exposure.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Nêutrons , Prótons , Eficiência Biológica Relativa , Espalhamento de Radiação , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Calibragem , Interações de Partículas Elementares , Humanos , Masculino , Nêutrons/uso terapêutico , Imagens de Fantasmas , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons , Radiometria/métodos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/radioterapia , Tecnologia Radiológica/instrumentação
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