Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.827
Filtrar
1.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 94-102, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Oral health can affect quality of life in all course of life, which is a key factor of general health. Dental caries, periodontitis and oral cancer are of the highest burden of oral diseases. Rising prevalence of soft drinks and alcoholic beverages consumption due to easy access and socio-demographic altering has increased the concerns on oral health. In this review our purpose was to show effects of the most consumed beverages on oral health in people older than 15 years. METHODS: The review was based on papers published in last 10 years, searched with combined key words related to types of drinks and specific oral health problems. We included 4 older studies due to lack of newer studies on subjected topics. RESULTS: Sugar-free soft drinks are found less cariogenic and erosive than regular versions in limited number of studies. Alcohol consumption is shown as one of the risk factors of prevalence and severity of periodontitis and is proven to have synergistic effects along with tobacco on oral cancer risk. Consumption of soft drinks and alcoholic beverages was related with tooth loss whether dental caries or periodontal diseases. CONCLUSION: There is good evidence for association between soft drinks and oral health problems, but still no clear answer exists about strength of association between sugar-free soft drinks and dental caries. Also the knowledge about influence of alcohol is inadequate. Since consuming style affects erosive potential of drinks manufacturers should be required to add some recommendations on labels about drinking style.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Saúde Bucal , Bebidas , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
2.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(7): 502-509, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of sugared beverages on dental caries has been widely studied in dental literature. A major limitation of these studies was examining the beverages as a single source. To overcome this limitation, a few studies used cluster analysis to group people into similar beverage consumption patterns. These studies did not differentiate between sugared beverages and diet drinks. Therefore the aim of this study is to examine the effect of consuming diet drinks on dental caries among US children by using cluster analysis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the authors analyzed the dietary data of children aged 3 through 10 years, using 2 24-hour recall interviews in the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Cluster analysis has been used to overcome the limitations of examining the beverages as a single source. Clusters were identified based on the R2 statistic and the local peak of pseudo-F statistics. Survey procedure and sample weights were used to account for the complex National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sampling design. RESULTS: Six beverage consumption clusters were identified: high soda, high 100% juice, high juice drinks, high diet drinks, high milk, and high water. Regression analysis showed that the high soda cluster had a tendency to increase caries risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.1), while the high diet drinks cluster had neutral effect compared with the high water cluster (OR, 0.94, 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.8). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that diet drinks have no adverse effect on teeth among US children. Additional well-designed longitudinal studies should be conducted to establish the effect of diet drinks on caries when consumed during childhood. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Although this study did not show an association between caries and diet drinks, dental practitioners should be cautious about recommending these drinks, as they have been linked to systemic diseases. In addition, the American Academy of Pediatrics and National Academy of Medicine do not recommend that children consume these beverages.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Animais , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Bebidas , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Odontólogos , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Papel Profissional , Estados Unidos
3.
BMJ ; 369: m1311, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in categories of soft drink consumption in a cohort of Mexican adults, three years after the implementation of the sugar sweetened beverage tax. DESIGN: Open cohort longitudinal analysis. SETTING: Three waves of the Health Workers Cohort Study, Mexico, spanning 2004 to 2018. PARTICIPANTS: 1770 people aged 19 years or older with information on drinks consumption available in at least one of the three cohort waves. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Change in probability of belonging to one of four categories of soft drinks consumption (non, low, medium, high) after the tax was implemented. Heterogeneity of associations by income and education was also assessed. RESULTS: Before the implementation of the tax, more than 50% of the participants were medium and high consumers of soft drinks and less than 10% were in the non-consumer category. After the tax was implemented, 43% of the population was categorised as medium or high consumers and the prevalence of non-consumers increased to 14%. Three years after implementation of the tax on 1 January 2014, the probability of being a non-consumer of soft drinks increased by 4.7 (95% confidence interval 0.3 to 9.1) percentage points and that of being a low consumer increased by 8.3 (0.6 to 16.0) percentage points compared with the pre-tax period. Conversely, the probability of being in the medium and high levels of soft drinks consumption decreased by 6.8 (0.5 to 13.2) percentage points and 6.1 (0.4 to 11.9) percentage points, respectively. No significant heterogeneity of the tax across income levels was observed, but stronger effects of the tax were seen in participants with secondary school education or higher, compared with those with elementary school or less. CONCLUSIONS: The Mexican sugar sweetened beverage tax was associated with a reduction in the probability of consuming soft drinks in this cohort of employees from a healthcare provider. The results cannot be extrapolated to the Mexican population, but they suggest that three years after implementation, the tax had helped to increase the proportion of people who do not consume soft drinks while decreasing the proportion of high and medium consumers.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/economia , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 726: 138580, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315857

RESUMO

Investigating wide range of food products of direct human consumption for microplastics is critical to understand the routes of contamination and assess the risks in microplastics uptake by humans. However, microplastics knowledge for many beverage products excluding beers is still lacking. Here, common beverages (n = 57; 27 brands) such as soft drinks (n = 19), energy drinks (n = 8), cold tea (n = 4) and beer (n = 26) were targeted for microplastics occurrences in Mexico and their shape, size, surface morphology and polymer composition were analyzed. Microplastics were detected in 48 out of 57 samples tested. The results identified microplastics of various forms (fibers and fragments) and sizes (0.1-3 mm) of colors (blue, red, brown, black and green), in amounts ranging from not detected to 28 ± 5.29 particles/L. Micro-Raman spectroscopy identified particles as polyamide, poly(ester-amide), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and poly(ethylene-terephthalate) indicating microplastics contamination of synthetic textiles and packaging origin in the beverage products. Finally, this paper discusses that human excreta could act as a vehicle for the dispersion and accumulation of microplastics into terrestrial and aquatic environments. Combined, it is the first study to investigate microplastics contamination on soft drinks, energy drinks and cold tea and to document the material composition of microplastics from beverage products.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , México , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Chá
6.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324818

RESUMO

Various diets and food components have been implicated as one of the environmental factors associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients are often recommended nutritional guidelines to manage disease symptoms. However, the current food consumption pattern of US adults with IBD that are nationally representative is unclear. A secondary analysis of National Health Interview Survey 2015 was performed to characterize the estimated US adults with IBD and their food intake and consumption frequency using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Fries were consumed by a greater number of people with IBD. IBD population drank less 100% fruit juice and ate more cheese and cookies than non-IBD population. Intake of fries (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.14-2.25) and sports and energy drinks (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07-1.97) and more frequent drinking of regular soda were significantly associated with the likelihood of having been told one have IBD, while popcorn (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.548-0.971) and milk (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.497-0.998) were associated with smaller odds, adjusting for covariates. Foods typically labeled as junk food were positively associated with IBD. Nonetheless, of the assessed 26 foods, we found eating patterns between IBD and non-IBD population to be mostly analogous. It is unclear whether the results reflect potential change in food intake in IBD population long before the survey interview. Understanding the role of food intake in IBD risk/prevalence would benefit from identifying other environmental factors (i.e. food desert), food processing (i.e. frying), and potential bioactive food components that can induce intestinal inflammation that can increase the individual's susceptibility to IBD.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Energéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 42, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe students protected by laws and exposed to soft drinks sales and assess whether forbidding laws are associated with lower availability of these beverages. METHODS: We identified laws forbidding non-government administered cafeterias or sales of soft drinks in schools in the 27 Brazilian state capitals. Data on soft drinks sales were obtained from Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar 2015 (PeNSE - National Survey of School Health 2015), for a representative sample of 9th graders from public and private schools. Students were attributed with the status of their school regarding the law and sale of soft drinks. Co-variables were school status (public or private), school size, geographic regions, mother's educational level, score of goods and services. We performed multivariate analyses using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The total of 23 laws forbidding sales of soft drinks covered 63.0% of capitals, comprising 56.9% of students. Law coverage was higher among students from more developed regions (67.6%) and in public schools (60.6%), compared with those from less developed regions (38.0%) and private schools (45.8%). Soft drinks were available for 33.9% of students. Students attending public schools in less developed regions had the lowest availability of soft drinks, regardless of law coverage (14.8%; 12.0%); while students attending private schools in these regions had a high availability, regardless of law coverage (82.1%; 73.4%). Restrictive laws were associated with lower sales of soft drinks in more developed regions, and restrictions had a greater association with the availability of soft drinks in public schools (PR = 0.25; 95%CI = 0.15-0.41), compared with private schools (PR = 0.48; 95%CI = 0.35-0.66). CONCLUSION: Laws restricting soft drinks in schools were associated with fewer sales in more developed regions. Private schools were less compliant with the law than public schools. A broadly enforced national law could reduce the availability of soft drinks in schools.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Instituições Acadêmicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Brasil , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Setor Privado/legislação & jurisprudência , Setor Público/legislação & jurisprudência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(3): 322-328, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134030

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this in-vitro study was to investigate the effects of frequently consumed beverages on the color stability and microhardness of various restorative materials. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four samples were prepared in each group to examine the effect of different beverages on coloration and surface hardness of two direct composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek Z550); one indirect composite resin (Solidex); and one high viscosity glass ionomer cement (Equia Forte Fil). Samples were stored in four solutions (distilled water, black tea, coffee, and cola) at room temperature for 1 week (n = 6). The color values are taken at the beginning and the color and microhardness values taken at the end of 1 week were evaluated by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The highest color change was observed in the Equia Fil, while the least color change was observed in the Z550 group. The highest degree of color change was observed in coffee and cola groups. While the lowest values of hardness were observed in the Solidex group, the highest values of hardness were observed in the Z550 group. The highest levels of hardness change were detected in the coffee and cola groups. Conclusion: The color and hardness of restorative materials can be negatively affected by consumed beverages. Nanohybrid composite resins are resistant to external coloration and hardness change.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Café/efeitos adversos , Cor , Resinas Compostas/química , Dureza , Chá/efeitos adversos , Descoloração de Dente , Materiais Dentários , Restauração Dentária Temporária , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro , Testes de Dureza , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
Clin Ter ; 171(2): e142-e148, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141486

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plant-based diets are associated with a lower: (i) body mass index, (ii) rates of death from ischemic heart disease, (iii) serum cholesterol, (iv) incidence of high blood pressure, (v) type II diabetes mellitus and cancer, with an overall longer life expectancy. However, little data concerning the oral health in individuals on a plant-based diet are available. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the general and clinical oral health status in a cohort of adults who had been following a plant-based diet for a minimum of 24 months. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For this purpose, individuals were administered two questionnaires (a.Questionnaire investigating risk areas for oral diseases; b. Italian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile -14 (IOHIP-14)) by a dental hygienist and clinical examination of the oral cavity was carried out. RESULTS: Seventy-seven adult individuals were enrolled. On average, they followed a plant-based diet for the last four years, had four meals a day and brushed their teeth twice a day. Fruit was the most frequently consumed food at breakfast by 48 of the participants. Thirty-four responders did not drink beer or wine, 65 did not drink spirits, 57 avoided carbonated beverages and 62 (80.5%) did not consume any highly-sugared beverages. Different dental therapies in the previous three years were reported in 36 of the responders. Overall, answers "never and almost never" to the IOHIP-14 questionnaire were observed in 87% to 100% of the individuals. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that fresh fruit consumption at lunch had a protective effect against caries (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study showed that individuals on a plant-based diet have good overall oral health conditions. These features are in agreement with the behavior of these subjects towards an overall healthy life style.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Saúde Bucal , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110411, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151869

RESUMO

Accidental ingestion of Pb-contaminated soil particles by direct hand-to-mouth activity or by swallowing airborne dust particles is important pathway of human exposure to Pb. Appropriate evaluation of Pb risk to human is important in determining whether the soil needs remediation or not, however, there is paucity of data about the dietary influences on Pb bioaccessibility (Pb-BA) and transformation in humans. This study chose two typical foods, spinach and cola, representing vegetable and soft drink, respectively, and investigated their effects on Pb species in gastrointestinal tract using the physiologically based extraction test. Results showed that ingestion of spinach and cola decreased the Pb-BA by 52%-94% in the gastric phase and by 38%-95% in the intestinal phase, respectively. The reduction of Pb-BA by spinach was attributed to the precipitation of Pb with phosphorus in spinach and the sorption of Pb by the generated hydrolysate and un-hydrolysate from spinach in gastrointestinal tract. Cola decreased Pb-BA mainly via formation of insoluble Pb phosphates precipitates. Analysis of X-ray diffraction and MINTEQ modeling demonstrated that the dissolved Pb was transformed to precipitated or sorbed Pb with intake of cola or spinach. Our findings suggest that dietary habit greatly influence the speciation and subsequent Pb-BA in the gastrointestinal tract, which should be incorporated into human health risk assessment of Pb-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Chumbo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Spinacia oleracea/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Humanos , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Difração de Raios X
14.
PLoS Med ; 17(2): e1003025, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary sugar, especially in liquid form, increases risk of dental caries, adiposity, and type 2 diabetes. The United Kingdom Soft Drinks Industry Levy (SDIL) was announced in March 2016 and implemented in April 2018 and charges manufacturers and importers at £0.24 per litre for drinks with over 8 g sugar per 100 mL (high levy category), £0.18 per litre for drinks with 5 to 8 g sugar per 100 mL (low levy category), and no charge for drinks with less than 5 g sugar per 100 mL (no levy category). Fruit juices and milk-based drinks are exempt. We measured the impact of the SDIL on price, product size, number of soft drinks on the marketplace, and the proportion of drinks over the lower levy threshold of 5 g sugar per 100 mL. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed data on a total of 209,637 observations of soft drinks over 85 time points between September 2015 and February 2019, collected from the websites of the leading supermarkets in the UK. The data set was structured as a repeat cross-sectional study. We used controlled interrupted time series to assess the impact of the SDIL on changes in level and slope for the 4 outcome variables. Equivalent models were run for potentially levy-eligible drink categories ('intervention' drinks) and levy-exempt fruit juices and milk-based drinks ('control' drinks). Observed results were compared with counterfactual scenarios based on extrapolation of pre-SDIL trends. We found that in February 2019, the proportion of intervention drinks over the lower levy sugar threshold had fallen by 33.8 percentage points (95% CI: 33.3-34.4, p < 0.001). The price of intervention drinks in the high levy category had risen by £0.075 (£0.037-0.115, p < 0.001) per litre-a 31% pass through rate-whilst prices of intervention drinks in the low levy category and no levy category had fallen and risen by smaller amounts, respectively. Whilst the product size of branded high levy and low levy drinks barely changed after implementation of the SDIL (-7 mL [-23 to 11 mL] and 16 mL [6-27ml], respectively), there were large changes to product size of own-brand drinks with an increase of 172 mL (133-214 mL) for high levy drinks and a decrease of 141 mL (111-170 mL) for low levy drinks. The number of available drinks that were in the high levy category when the SDIL was announced was reduced by 3 (-6 to 12) by the implementation of the SDIL. Equivalent models for control drinks provided little evidence of impact of the SDIL. These results are not sales weighted, so do not give an account of how sugar consumption from drinks may have changed over the time period. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the SDIL incentivised many manufacturers to reduce sugar in soft drinks. Some of the cost of the levy to manufacturers and importers was passed on to consumers as higher prices but not always on targeted drinks. These changes could reduce population exposure to liquid sugars and associated health risks.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas Gaseificadas/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Tamanho da Porção , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/legislação & jurisprudência , Reino Unido
15.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110172, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090852

RESUMO

Packaging used for beverages, such as soft drinks, juices, and beers, is widely consumed worldwide. The manufacture of this packaging involves energy consumption, even when made with recycled material. The sum of all energies required to produce the packaging is considered the incorporated or embodied energy. In this work, the embodied energy used to manufacture six common types of beverage packaging was analyzed. For this purpose, the average percentage of material recycling in Brazil and the United States of America (USA) was considered since the energy incorporated is quite different when recycling is used. A calculation methodology was developed to estimate the embodied energy in each type of packaging in Brazil and the USA. For a more appropriate comparison, the embodied energy per volume was calculated. Comparing the embodied energy per volume, aluminum packaging, when mostly recycled, is the packaging that has the lowest embodied energy per liter of beverage. This study highlights the importance of recycling to produce packaging with less embodied energy and opens perspectives for environmentally more favorable attitudes regarding the choice of beverage packaging materials.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Embalagem de Produtos , Brasil , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Reciclagem , Estados Unidos
16.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(1): 65-70, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929209

RESUMO

Objective and Aim: The importance of fluoride in preventing dental diseases cannot be overemphasized. The aim of this study was to determine the fluoride content of commercial bottled water, sachet water and carbonated soft drinks available in Southeastern-Nigeria at the same time, eliciting their dental and public health implications. Method: Determination of fluoride level in water and carbonated drinks was carried out using Colorimetric-SPADNS (Trisodium 2-(4-sulfophenylazo)-1, 8-dihydroxynaphthalene-3, 6-disulfonate) method. This is a simple and rapid technique with high accuracy. 10 brands of bottled water, 10 brands of carbonated soft drinks and 20 brands of sachet water were studied. The experiment for each brand was carried out in duplicates and mean fluoride concentrations generated. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 17. Results: Fluoride contents in mg/L of bottled water brands ranged from 0.0173 ± 0.0019 mg/L to 0.1607 ± 0.0630 mg/L [mean: 0.0442 ± 0.0184 mg/L] and that of sachet water brands was from 0.0131 ± 0.0019 mg/L to 0.1754 ± 0.1344 mg/L. Mean fluoride content of carbonated soft drinks was 0.0228 ± 0.0064 mg/L with one of the brands having as low as 0.0066 ± 0.0028 mg/L fluoride. Conclusion: None of the drinks investigated contained level of fluoride up to standard admissible values suggesting sub-optimal intake. As the suitability of advice on fluoride use in preventing dental abnormalities depends on the individual's total fluoride intake from drinks and other sources, a further study is warranted to relate this total with the baseline decayed missing and filled teeth of the population.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Água Potável/química , Fluoretos/análise , Água/análise , Humanos , Nigéria , Saúde Pública
17.
Eur Arch Paediatr Dent ; 21(1): 109-117, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177478

RESUMO

AIMS: To provide information regarding the different types of soft drinks and critically reviewing their risk on the dental and general health of children and adolescents, as well as the cost associated with such drinks. METHODS: The literature was reviewed using electronic databases, Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, and was complemented by cross-referencing using published references list from reviewed articles. Search words; soft drinks, juices, carbonated drinks, sports and energy drinks, soft drink and dental diseases, soft drink and health, cost of soft drinks, soft drink advertising, sugar tax on soft drinks were used for this review. In total, 104 papers were reviewed by both authors; of these, 62 papers were found to have relevant information. RESULTS: The consumption of soft drinks was found to have increased dramatically over the past several decades. The greatest increase in soft drink consumption has been among children and adolescents. Some commercial soft drinks are high in sugar content and acidity. In addition, they supply energy only and are of little nutritional benefit and lack micro-nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Soft drink consumption can contribute to detrimental oral and general health. Efforts have been made by manufacturers and government agencies to reduce the potential harmful effects of sugar-containing soft drinks on teeth and general health. These include banning the sale of soft drinks in schools, restricting soft drinks advertising, modifying the composition of soft drinks and introducing tax on sugar-containing soft drinks. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of soft drinks with high sugar content and acidity can contribute to detrimental oral health and may also affect general health. Therefore, it is necessary to educate patients about the harmful effects of different types of soft drinks as it is not always easy for individuals to identify from drink labelling the ingredients which they contain.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Bucal
18.
Magn Reson Chem ; 58(2): 186-190, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663181

RESUMO

High sodium dietary intake has a positive association with an increase in blood pressure and can be correlated with risk factors of disease. Considering that the World Health Organization recommends a sodium intake lower than 2 g day-1 for adults, the hidden sodium content in processed foods is an important factor that compromises the assessment of a healthy diet. Accordingly, the present paper aimed to quantitate the sodium content of conventional soft drinks and their diet versions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a quantitative analytical technique (23 Na qNMR). The results show one free sodium signal (Na+ ) displayed as a singlet at 0 ppm in the 23 Na NMR spectrum, making its quantitation highly specific. This signal alone was used to directly determine the concentration of sodium in soft drinks. Flame photometry analysis was used to validate the method, and an excellent linearity was found in qNMR analysis (r = 0.9994) in comparison with flame photometry (r = 0.9958). In addition, a good correlation was found between sodium concentrations obtained by 23 Na NMR and flame photometry in the evaluated commercial soft drinks. Since the intensity of the resonance line is directly proportional to the number of nuclei (spins), the concentration of sodium in soft drinks can be determined via this straightforward method without the need for external calibration. The experimental acquisitions are fast (approximately 15 min), allowing the analysis of several samples in a short period of time. This is a novel alternative for sodium quantitation using an efficient NMR methodology.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Spec Care Dentist ; 40(1): 97-105, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the association between soft drink consumption, gastric reflux, dental erosion, and obesity among special care children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 350 special care children (male-131, female-219) mean age of 12.6 (± 2.6) years were included. Detection of dental erosion was performed according to the World Health Organization criteria. The medical evaluation assessed body mass index (BMI). With appropriate sample weighting, relationships between dental erosion prevalence and obesity were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of dental erosion was 36%. Mean BMI for entire study population was 24.7 (± 7.8). Regression analysis showed strong association between dental erosion prevalence and consumption of soft drinks (adjusted odds ratio = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.71-2.92, P < .05), bulimia (adjusted odds ratio = 2.27; 95% CI = 0.99-4.28, P < .001), and gastric reflux (adjusted odds ratio = 2.24; 95% CI = 0.82-4.1, P < .001). Bivariate analysis showed high prevalence of dental erosion among obese children compared to children with normal weight (P = .04). CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated a significant association between dental erosion prevalence and consumption of soft drinks and gastric reflux among special care children.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Erosão Dentária , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Prevalência
20.
Talanta ; 206: 120209, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514865

RESUMO

A novel approach for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the use of deep eutectic solvent as a disperser was presented for the first time. The procedure was automated based on an in-syringe flow system coupled with UV-Vis detection and demonstrated by the determination of chromium (VI) in beverages. This analytical task was used as a proof-of-concept example. The automated extraction procedure involved the aspiration of aqueous sample into a syringe pump with homogeneous mixture of extraction solvent (1-oсtanol) and deep eutectic solvent (tetrabutylammonium bromide - formic acid) containing color-forming reagent (1,5-diphenylcarbazide). This led to decomposition of deep eutectic solvent in aqueous phase resulting in dispersion of extraction solvent, oxidation of 1,5-diphenylcarbazide to 1,5- diphenylcarbazone in the presence of chromium (VI), and formation of colored chromium (III) complex with 1,5-diphenylcarbazone and its fast extraction. In this case composition of deep eutectic solvent played a key role for analyte extraction. Tetrabutylammonium bromide promoted mass transfer between aqueous phase and the extraction solvent droplets as a salting out agent, bromide ion acted as an ion-pare agent for analyte complex extraction, formic acid provided required pH value for analyte complex formation. Under the optimal conditions the limit of detection, calculated from a blank test based on 3s, was 0.2 µg L-1. The automated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using deep eutectic solvent as disperser can be considered as an available, efficient, rapid and environmentally friendly sample pretreatment approach.


Assuntos
Cromo/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , 1-Octanol/química , Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Água Potável/análise , Formiatos/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Líquida/instrumentação , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Malus/química , Prunus avium/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Solventes/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Seringas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA