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1.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(12): 1696-1698, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452670

RESUMO

Although there is no reported genetic predisposition in contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the mortality rate varies among different ethnic groups. Here we determined potential correlation between COVID-19 and spice consumption. The data from 163 countries including total cases, total deaths, and total recovered were analyzed. It was observed that there is a clear interrelated prevalence between the total number of COVID-19 cases per million population tested and the gram of spice supply per capita per day. Nations with lower consumptions of spices per capita showed greater number of COVID-19 cases per million population. This is not surprising as herbs and spices are well-known to boost immunity. Although the precise molecular mechanisms associated with spices and immunity are not completely understood, our findings led us to hypothesize that spice consumption plays a role in our ability to fight COVID-19; however, intensive research is needed to determine the translational value of these findings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Especiarias/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Prevalência
2.
Molecules ; 25(9)2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365556

RESUMO

The cytokine storm is an abnormal production of inflammatory cytokines, due to the over-activation of the innate immune response. This mechanism has been recognized as a critical mediator of influenza-induced lung disease, and it could be pivotal for COVID-19 infections. Thus, an immunomodulatory approach targeting the over-production of cytokines could be proposed for viral aggressive pulmonary disease treatment. In this regard, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, a member of the PPAR transcription factor family, could represent a potential target. Beside the well-known regulatory role on lipid and glucose metabolism, PPAR-γ also represses the inflammatory process. Similarly, the PPAR-γ agonist thiazolidinediones (TZDs), like pioglitazone, are anti-inflammatory drugs with ameliorating effects on severe viral pneumonia. In addition to the pharmacological agonists, also nutritional ligands of PPAR-γ, like curcuma, lemongrass, and pomegranate, possess anti-inflammatory properties through PPAR-γ activation. Here, we review the main synthetic and nutritional PPAR-γ ligands, proposing a dual approach based on the strengthening of the immune system using pharmacological and dietary strategies as an attempt to prevent/treat cytokine storm in the case of coronavirus infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , PPAR gama/agonistas , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Humanos , Ligantes , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Especiarias/análise
3.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 8-9, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334064

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to high levels of psychological distress in the general public, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. Such distress is associated with alterations in immune function, including an elevated risk of viral respiratory tract infections. In this light, the possible effects of Ayurveda, a traditional system of medicine promoted by the Indian government as an "immune booster", are examined from the point of view of psychoneuroimmune mechanisms as well as the "meaning response" described by Moerman. It was found that many of the measures advocated in their guidelines could positively influence immunity either by direct effects on symptoms of depression or anxiety, or through their symbolic significance. Therefore, it is possible that such traditional practices could be beneficial both in terms of psychological quality of life, and in terms of moderating the risk of infection.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/imunologia , Medicina Ayurvédica , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Psiconeuroimunologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Coriandrum , Cuminum , Curcuma , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Alho , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Preparações de Plantas , Angústia Psicológica , Especiarias , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Chás de Ervas , Ioga
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 319: 108509, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945714

RESUMO

The role of plant-based foods in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance has been inadequately studied. In this investigation, resistant organisms from vegetables, fruits and spices imported into Canada were identified and characterized. A total of 143 products imported from primarily Asian and African countries were purchased from international markets in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Samples were selectively cultured for bacterial species where resistance is known to be emerging. The proportions of samples positive for each organism were as follows: E. coli (n = 13, 9.1%), Salmonella spp. (n = 2, 1.4%), ESBL producing Enterobacter spp. (n = 2, 1.4%) and K. pneumoniae (n = 2, 1.4%), S. aureus (n = 7, 4.9%) and Enterococcus spp. (n = 66, 46.2%). Antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by broth micro-dilution and agar-dilution. Based on the susceptibility of each organism, isolates were screened for resistance genes (ß-lactamases and plasmid mediated quinolones resistance determinants) by PCR. Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were identified from 6/143 (4.2%) and 2/143 (1.4%) of samples respectively. The qnrB, qnrS and aac(6')-Ib-cr plasmid mediated quinolone resistance determinants were identified in 2/143 (1.4%) of samples tested. None of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were resistant to meropenem or colistin. Similarly, all Enterococcus isolates remained susceptible to ampicillin, penicillin and vancomycin. Finding multi-drug resistant bacteria which are frequently isolated from human infections is concerning, although the contribution of the global food trade to the dissemination of resistance remains cryptic. These results suggest that imported plant-based foods may be an underappreciated source of clinically relevant resistant organisms. Further study is required to address these gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology of resistance, and the magnitude of the risk posed to human health by these organisms.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Comestíveis/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Canadá , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/genética , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Especiarias/microbiologia , Verduras/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética
5.
Food Chem ; 313: 126094, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923867

RESUMO

Element contents in different types of spices and aromatic herbs collected from Italy and Tunisia were evaluated. The aim was to evaluate: the possible differences and/or similarities among the analyzed samples; if it is possible related the samples to their geographical origins; the nutritional quality and the potential health risks. Potassium, Ca, Mg and Ni were low in laurel and rosemary; mint and thyme showed the highest Na and the lowest Se contents; arsenic and Cd levels were found highest in verbena which had also the lowest Hg content; lastly, black pepper had the highest Mn and the lowest Pb contents. Instead discrimination between Italian and Tunisian samples for each spices and aromatic herbs under analysis was achieved by PCA. Essential elements intake through samples was small. Levels of Pb in some samples exceed the maximum allowable level, but any safety risk for consumers is excluded.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas , Especiarias/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Rosmarinus/química , Rosmarinus/metabolismo , Sicília , Thymus (Planta)/química , Thymus (Planta)/metabolismo , Tunísia , Verbena/química , Verbena/metabolismo
6.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(4): 933-948, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927601

RESUMO

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were investigated as extracting solvent for headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME). The extraction efficiency of 10 DESs mainly composed of tetrabutylammonium bromide (N4444Br) and long-chain alcohols was evaluated for the extraction of terpenes from six spices (cinnamon, cumin, fennel, clove, thyme, and nutmeg). The DES composed of N4444Br and dodecanol at a molar ratio of 1:2 showed the highest extraction efficiency and was selected to conduct the extractions of terpenes in the rest of the study. HS-SDME was optimized by design of experiments. Only two parameters from the four studied showed a significant influence on the efficiency of the method: the extraction time and the extraction temperature. The optimal extraction conditions were determined by response surface methodology. All extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). More than 40 terpenes were extracted and identified in nutmeg, the richest extract in terpenes in this study. Quantitative analysis based on 29 standards was conducted for each extract. Good linearity was obtained for all standards (R2 > 0.99) in the interval of 1 to 500 µg/g. Limits of quantification ranged from 0.47 µg/g (borneol) to 86.40 µg/g (α-farnesene) with more than half of the values under 2 µg/g. HS-SDME is simple, rapid, and cheap compared with conventional extraction methods. The use of DESs makes this extraction method "greener" and it was shown that DESs can be suitable solvents for the extraction of bioactive compounds from plants.


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Especiarias/análise , Terpenos/análise , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Cuminum/química , Foeniculum/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Myristica/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes/química , Syzygium/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Thymus (Planta)/química
7.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(1): 87-92, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905174

RESUMO

This research is carried out in order to characterize the actual contamination by two ubiquitous environmental pollutants, plasticizers and Bisphenol A, in spices (black pepper, caraway and coriander) and aromatic herbs (fennel, laurel, mint, oregano, rosemary, thyme and verbena) from Algeria (n = 26), Tunisia (n = 65) and Italy (n = 53). Algerian samples seem to contain fewer residues than Italian and Tunisian samples. Among the Italian samples, only aromatic herbs, precisely mint, oregano, and laurel, were contaminated. In general, all Tunisian samples showed five plasticizers residues: the caraway, among the spices, and the rosemary, among the aromatic herbs, are found to contain more residues. Also, dietary intake of these contaminants by spices and aromatic herbs under analysis seems not to constitute a risk to the consumers.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Especiarias/análise , Argélia , Carum/química , Foeniculum/química , Humanos , Itália , Origanum/química , Piper nigrum/química , Rosmarinus/química , Especiarias/normas , Thymus (Planta)/química , Tunísia
8.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(1): 167-171, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957566

RESUMO

Spices and aromatic herbs can be contaminated with mycotoxins, since of their preharvest, postharvest, and storage conditions. In this study, 112 samples of different spices and aromatic herbs were evaluated for their mycotoxins content by HPLC-MS/MS in order to highlight their possible risk linked with human use. The results showed that mycotoxins were occasionally detected only in samples of coriander, laurel, mint, rosemary, and verbena. In both geographical origins a different contamination was detected. Among the investigated mycotoxins, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, T2 and HT2 were detected, whereas none of the samples contained AFB1 and FB1. The co-occurrence of two toxins were observed for some samples of rosemary and verbena. This study indicates that it is essential minimize the toxins in agriculture, industry, and food-product manufacturing for the consumer health protection.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Micotoxinas , Especiarias/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Itália , Micotoxinas/análise , Rosmarinus/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tunísia , Verbena/química
9.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(3): e4772, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813159

RESUMO

Black pepper (Piper nigrum; BP), known as the 'king of spices', imported from various countries is widely available in Saudi Arabian markets, as its demand as a food as well as a medicine for minor ailments is increasing in the country. However, there is a lack of appropriate information regarding these samples in terms of quality variation and standardization. We thus aimed to evaluate the quality and standardize the BP sample with respect to its physicochemical characters, active principle variation [i.e. piperine (PPN)], toxicity, and biological activity. The main focus is to validate whether any difference exists in the quality and quantity of active principle in these samples. For this purpose, physicochemical (chemical tests and ash values) and instrumental analyses [accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-diode array detector, infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and inductively coupled plasma-MS (ICP-MS)] and biological evaluation {in vitro antioxidant activity [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] and cytotoxicity assay} were performed. An extract yield (g) with %recovery of 2.26 ± 4.24 (11.3) was obtained for the Vietnamese sample, using a fast and rapid method of extraction (ASE). These values were 1.22 ± 2.64 (6.1) and 0.75 ± 1.69 (3.75) for the Pakistani and Indian samples. Physicochemical tests revealed the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds in all samples; however, in the Vietnamese sample a low amount of total, acid-insoluble, and high water-soluble ash value was noted. IR and NMR was applied to further standardize the samples. Results of ICP-MS analysis showed a high amount of macronutrients and micronutrients in the samples tested while UHPLC analysis revealed a high amount of PPN (ng/mL) in the Pakistani sample (1,362,614.09); these values were 1,051,848.04 and 768,512.81 for the Vietnamese and Indian samples, respectively. In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities revealed higher potential for the Vietnamese sample. The samples were properly standardized and effectively differentiated in terms of quality and biological activities using a fast and reliable method, however it certainly does not mean that a particular geographical region is more better or productive in terms of herbal products.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Piper nigrum , Especiarias , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Índia , Células MCF-7 , Metabolômica/métodos , Paquistão , Piper nigrum/química , Piper nigrum/classificação , Piper nigrum/toxicidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Especiarias/análise , Especiarias/classificação , Especiarias/normas , Especiarias/toxicidade , Vietnã
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 390-401, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820962

RESUMO

Infrared spectroscopy is often used as a simple, fast, and green method to screen for economically motivated adulteration in spices. However, conventional microscopy remains the reference method. In this research, the combination of microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in mapping mode, namely, micro-FTIR imaging, along with Principle Component Analysis were used to develop a non-targeted method for detecting a broad range of organic and mineral bulking agents that could potentially be used to adulterate black pepper. This method, based on the spatial distribution of black pepper chemical composition, has been thoroughly validated as a one-class, non-targeted classification method. Results are categorized as Typical or Atypical, where an Atypical result indicates a high probability of adulteration. For an Atypical outcome, a multitool investigational approach is then used for the detection and identification of the potential adulterant.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Piper nigrum/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/química , Especiarias/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 311: 125910, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784069

RESUMO

Changes in sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds (VC) of red pepper flakes (RPF), traditional (TRI), and industrial (INI) isot peppers were evaluated during one year storage at the room condition. The changes in the flavor components were significantly affected by the production methods and storage time. Glucose content decreased gradually along storage and reduced by about 21.23, 47.22 and 56.65% for TRI, INI and RPF, respectively. However, fructose decreased significantly only in RPF (11.29%). Citric and succinic acids exhibited slight changes, but malic acid showed an increasing trend, especially in RPF (4-fold). Most of the VC in all samples decreased or disappeared after storage. The major quantitative losses in these compounds were found in TRI during the first 3 months as 81.76%. The storage was found to be caused deterioration flavor properties in red pepper spices and revealed the importance of appropriate storage conditions.


Assuntos
Ácidos/análise , Capsicum/química , Especiarias/análise , Açúcares/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Capsicum/classificação , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Verduras/química
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 316: 108440, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733520

RESUMO

Salmonella is the causative agent of many outbreaks related to spice consumption. However, because of the antimicrobial properties of various spices which hinders recovery and detection, Salmonella detection in spices remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to optimize an enrichment broth for Salmonella growth in different spices and tea, in order to maintain an adequate pH and decrease the antimicrobial effects of spices during Salmonella enrichment and subsequent detection. Salmonella contaminated spice and tea dried samples were prepared and the detection of Salmonella was assessed using the developed broth and automated DNA extraction and RT-PCR. Double strength Buffered Peptone Water (BPW) was used to maintain pH, and L-cysteine and DL-serine were added to the broth to reduce the effects of antimicrobial compounds in spices. The modified enrichment broth allowed the growth of Salmonella from each spice sample. Sample to broth ratios varied from 1:9 (garlic powder, chili peppers and tea), to 1:20 (cinnamon). The pH value of each enrichment varied but remained above 4.8. The addition of L-cysteine (30 mmol/L) allowed Salmonella recovery and growth in garlic and onion samples and the addition of DL-serine (11.23 mmol/L) allowed the recovery and growth in cinnamon. The results indicated that Salmonella detection was achieved in <24 h in the modified (BPW + L-cysteine and DL-serine) enrichment broth followed by detection by RT-PCR. This protocol could allow for a more rapid, robust, and sensitive enrichment method for Salmonella in spices.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Especiarias/microbiologia , Chá/microbiologia , Capsicum/microbiologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/microbiologia , Meios de Cultura/química , Alimentos em Conserva/microbiologia , Alho/microbiologia , Cebolas/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(4): 567-574, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317865

RESUMO

The antibacterial activity of Pimpinella anisum L., Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Cuminum cyminum L. essential oils (EOs) against some common pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 14990, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 1915, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 10005, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231) and their biofilms was studied. The EOs inhibitory effects were evaluated by both Agar Well Diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination. The most active EOs, cinnamon and cloves, were also tested on 18, 24, 48, 72 hours mature biofilms. Cinnamon and cloves exhibited the best results showing a significant activity against all the tested bacteria. Concerning biofilm, results suggest that Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil may be a useful approach to impair the biofilm produced by the tested Gram-negative bacteria. [Formula: see text].


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Especiarias , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Cuminum/química , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Syzygium/química
14.
Biotechnol Adv ; 38: 107343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716389

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) cause the largest mortality worldwide, and much attention has been focused to unravel the mechanisms and optimize the treatment regimens. Curcumin is an important bioactive component of turmeric that has been widely applied as traditional medicine to prevent and treat various diseases in some countries. Recent studies have demonstrated its potent activities in modulating multiple signaling pathways associated with cellular growth, proliferation, survival, inflammation and oxidative stress. The cardiovascular protective properties of curcumin in CVDs have been fully illustrated in numerous studies. In this review, we first briefly introduce the medicinal history of curcumin. Secondly, we systematically analyze the preclinical studies of curcumin in CVDs such as cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, drug-induced cardiotoxicity, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysm, stroke and diabetic cardiovascular complications. The potential molecular targets of curcumin are also summarized. Thirdly, the clinical trials of curcumin in CVDs are overviewed and discussed. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic utility of derivatives of curcumin, and highlight existing problems of curcumin as an effective drug lead in treating CVDs.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Curcumina , Curcuma , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Especiarias
15.
Food Chem ; 309: 125793, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699557

RESUMO

Saffron is a highly adulterated spice due to its limited production and high costs. Non-saffron plant material is coloured with synthetic dyes to produce counterfeit saffron. Continuous monitoring of the synthetic dyes used in counterfeit saffron is essential because some dyes are not safe for human consumption. In the present study, 104 commercial saffron samples from 16 countries were screened, and 20 samples were found to contain dyes. Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) analysis showed adulteration with magenta- and pink- coloured dyes (18 and 2 samples, respectively), which did not correspond to any of the dyes reported earlier. Mass spectrometry analysis identified the magenta-coloured dye as magenta III or new fuchsin and the pink-coloured dye as rhodamine B. Magenta III is regarded as possibly carcinogenic, and rhodamine B was reported to cause local sarcomas. Both of these synthetic dyes are reported as adulterants in saffron for the first time.


Assuntos
Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Corantes/análise , Rodaminas/análise , Corantes de Rosanilina/análise , Especiarias/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Crocus/química , Crocus/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
16.
Food Chem ; 302: 125326, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416003

RESUMO

Ruminant meat is considered an excellent source of proteins, dietary fatty acids and essential minerals. Grilling is a popular cooking method; however, the high temperatures employ could modify the grilled meat quality and safety. In this study, the effects of novel beer-based marinades infused with herbs and spices on the quality, safety, and sensory perception of grilled beef and moose meat is examined. Unmarinated meat showed high content of volatile lipid oxidation and Maillard reaction products compared to the marinated samples, which contained higher number and abundance of terpenes and sulfur based compounds. Strong relationships between Maillard products and heterocyclic amines formation, as well as between volatile terpenes and the lipophilic antioxidant activity, were observed in the grilled meats. The findings suggest the unfiltered beer-based marinades were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and Maillard reaction compounds formation, while improving the nutritional quality, safety and sensory preference of grilled ruminant meats.


Assuntos
Cerveja , Culinária/métodos , Carne , Ruminantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminas/análise , Aminas/química , Animais , Bovinos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Compostos Heterocíclicos/análise , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Reação de Maillard , Carne/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Carne Vermelha , Especiarias , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 591-602, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859496

RESUMO

An ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of 36 phenolic compounds in paprika. The proposed method showed good method performance with limits of quantitation between 0.03 and 50 µg/L for 16 compounds and between 50 µg/L and 1 mg/L for 12 compounds. Good linearity (R2 > 0.995), run-to-run and day-to-day precisions (%RSD values < 12.3 and < 19.2%, respectively), and trueness (relative errors < 15.0%) were obtained. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of 111 paprika samples from different production regions: Spain (La Vera PDO and Murcia PDO) and Czech Republic, each one including different flavor varieties (sweet, bittersweet, and spicy). Phenolic profiles and concentration levels showed to be good chemical descriptors to achieve paprika classification and authentication according to the production region by principal component analysis and partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis. In addition, perfect classification among flavor varieties for Murcia PDO and Czech Republic samples was also obtained.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , República Tcheca , Análise de Componente Principal , Espanha , Especiarias/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 20(9): 1071-1076, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797832

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the color stability of nanohybrid direct resin-based composites and indirect resin-based composites to Indian spices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty samples of the nanohybrid resin-based composite (G-aenial) and the indirect resin-based composite (Adoro) were prepared using an acrylic template of dimension 8 mm × 3 mm. All the samples were polished with the Sof-Lex polishing kit. They were randomly divided into five groups and immersed in solutions of turmeric powder, tamarind extract, paprika powder, and saffron extract. Artificial saliva was used as the control group. Color values (L*a*b*) were measured by a reflectance spectrophotometer using the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* system before and after 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, and 1 month of immersion. Color differences ∆E*ab were statistically analyzed by the two-way repeated measures ANOVA and the post hoc Tukey test using IBM SPSS v19.0. RESULTS: The results exhibited statistical significance between all five solutions and two groups at each time point considered (p < 0.05). From the mean, it is evident that in both indirect and direct composite groups, turmeric solution is having the highest mean when compared to other four solutions. CONCLUSION: Indirect resin-based composites (Adoro) show less stainability when compared to direct resin-based composites (G-aenial). In both groups, turmeric showed maximum discoloration. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Both the direct and indirect composites have a tendency to get stained with Indian spices. Indirect composites stain lesser to Indian spices when compared to direct composites. Thus, indirect composites are recommended for esthetic restorations.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas , Especiarias , Cor , Materiais Dentários , Estética Dentária , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731614

RESUMO

In recent years, great interest has been focused on using natural antioxidants in food products, due to studies indicating possible adverse effects that may be related to the consumption of synthetic antioxidants. A variety of plant materials are known to be natural sources of antioxidants, such as herbs, spices, seeds, fruits and vegetables. The interest in these natural components is not only due to their biological value, but also to their economic impact, as most of them may be extracted from food by-products and under-exploited plant species. This article provides an overview of current knowledge on natural antioxidants: their sources, extraction methods and stabilization processes. In addition, recent studies on their applications in the food industry are also addressed; namely, as preservatives in different food products and in active films for packaging purposes and edible coatings.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Conservação de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Sementes/química , Especiarias , Verduras/química
20.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703341

RESUMO

Culinary herbs and spices are widely used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of diabetes and its complications, and there are several scientific studies in the literature supporting the use of these medicinal plants. However, there is often a lack of knowledge on the bioactive compounds of these herbs and spices and their mechanisms of action. The aim of this study was to use inverse virtual screening to provide insights into the bioactive compounds of common herbs and spices, and their potential molecular mechanisms of action in the treatment of diabetes. In this study, a library of over 2300 compounds derived from 30 common herbs and spices were screened in silico with the DIA-DB web server against 18 known diabetes drug targets. Over 900 compounds from the herbs and spices library were observed to have potential anti-diabetic activity and liquorice, hops, fennel, rosemary, and fenugreek were observed to be particularly enriched with potential anti-diabetic compounds. A large percentage of the compounds were observed to be potential polypharmacological agents regulating three or more anti-diabetic drug targets and included compounds such as achillin B from yarrow, asparasaponin I from fenugreek, bisdemethoxycurcumin from turmeric, carlinoside from lemongrass, cinnamtannin B1 from cinnamon, crocin from saffron and glabridin from liquorice. The major targets identified for the herbs and spices compounds were dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), intestinal maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM), liver receptor homolog-1 (NR5A2), pancreatic alpha-amylase (AM2A), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA), protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 9 (PTPN9), and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) with over 250 compounds observed to be potential inhibitors of these particular protein targets. Only bay leaves, liquorice and thyme were found to contain compounds that could potentially regulate all 18 protein targets followed by black pepper, cumin, dill, hops and marjoram with 17 protein targets. In most cases more than one compound within a given plant could potentially regulate a particular protein target. It was observed that through this multi-compound-multi target regulation of these specific protein targets that the major anti-diabetic effects of reduced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia of the herbs and spices could be explained. The results of this study, taken together with the known scientific literature, indicated that the anti-diabetic potential of common culinary herbs and spices was the result of the collective action of more than one bioactive compound regulating and restoring several dysregulated and interconnected diabetic biological processes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Hipoglicemiantes , Plantas Medicinais/química , Especiarias , Diabetes Mellitus/enzimologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico
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