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1.
J Environ Manage ; 269: 110738, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560983

RESUMO

Livestock production in the United States has been transformed over the past several decades, largely as a result of widespread development of industrial-scale mass production facilities, termed Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs). These facilities generate massive amounts of animal waste that can concentrate in small areas. Animal wastes from AFOs have led to high levels of nutrients and other pollutants in nearby surface waters, as well as groundwater. The environmental problems associated with these disposal practices have led to federal and state modifications to the rules and regulations governing waste practices. We summarize the federal guidelines for AFO nutrient management, focusing on swine, and compare the regulations of four AFO-rich states in different regions of the USA. Furthermore, we discuss inconsistencies among regulations and regulatory gaps, and identify issues with waste nutrient management practices that lead to environmental degradation in watersheds hosting AFOs. Finally, we address these shortcomings and the need to implement policy updates that would alleviate some of these environmental and human concerns.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Humanos , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Suínos , Estados Unidos
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(25): 31918-31932, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506408

RESUMO

In this study, Nile tilapia fingerlings with average body weight (8.6 ± 0.06 g) were exposed to zinc (Zn) toxicity and tested its amelioration with miswak (Salvadora persica L.) (SP) supplemented diet. Five fish groups were fed on diets with SP at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively) diet without Zn exposure, while another five groups were exposed to Zn at 7 mg/L and co-supplemented with SP at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 % (T6, T7, T8, T9, and T10, respectively). After 12 weeks, fish-fed 1.0% SP diet (T4) achieved the highest growth and feed performances, while the lowest one was in Zn-exposed fish (T6) (P < 0.05). T6 and T7 groups showed the most inferior carcass protein and ash contents, while T4 and T5 showed the highest lipid content (P < 0.05). The level of Zn residue increased in fish exposed to Zn (P < 0.05). Fish exposed to Zn and fed SP showed high blood urea, catalase, ALT, AST, and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), while the malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased (P < 0.05). Interestingly, miswak resulted in elevated catalase and T-SOD and reduced MDA in fish without Zn exposure (P < 0.05). Zn exposure causes abnormal histopathological characteristics in gills, hepatopancreas, posterior kidney, and musculature tissues of tilapia, while fish-fed SP showed regular, healthy, and protected histopathological characters. The results suggested that SP can induce the antioxidant responses that prepare Nile tilapia for a further suppressive oxidative condition (i.e., Zn exposure).


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Salvadoraceae , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Zinco
3.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 56(4): 346-357, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508164

RESUMO

Considering the increasing pet owner's concern about the food their pets are consuming, in this study we investigated the origin of the main ingredients in wet and dry foods produced in Brazil using stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen. We concluded that chicken and pork seem to be the dominant ingredients in most of the samples, with larger proportions in wet cat food. Even in pet foods showing 'beef' as the main ingredient on the label, we found a low proportion of bovine products in both wet and dry cat foods. Comparing the contribution of plant-derived products (C3 and C4 plants) and animal-derived products (chicken-pork, bovine and fish), approximately 21 % of cat foods had more than 30 % of ingredients with plant origin in their composition. The high amount of plant-derived products in cat foods found here raises the question whether this should be mentioned on package labels.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Plantas/química , Animais , Brasil , Gatos , Bovinos , Galinhas , Peixes
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 734: 139263, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475721

RESUMO

Garden bird feeding constitutes a massive provision of food that can support bird communities, but there is a growing concern it might favour the establishment of exotic species that could be detrimental to others. How bird species compete with novel species for this anthropogenic food resources needs to be assessed. Here, we investigated competition in wintering bird communities at garden birdfeeders. We evaluated whether - and how much - bird access to resources is hampered by the presence of putative superior competing species, among which the Rose-ringed parakeet, the most abundant introduced species across Europe. Using the nation-wide citizen science scheme BirdLab, in which volunteers record in real-time bird attendance on a pair of birdfeeders during 5-minute sessions, we tested whether i) cumulative bird presence time and richness at birdfeeders, and ii) species probability of presence at birdfeeders, were influenced by three large species (the Eurasian magpie, the Eurasian collared-dove, and the Rose-ringed parakeet). Additionally, we assessed whether the Rose-ringed parakeet occupied resources significantly more than others. Presence of the Rose-ringed parakeet or the Eurasian collared-dove similarly reduced community cumulative presence time at birdfeeders, but only the dove reduced community richness. Each of the three large species influenced the presence of at least one of the six smaller species that could be separately modelled, but effects varied in strength and direction. The Rose-ringed parakeet and the Eurasian collared-dove were among the three species monopolising birdfeeders the longest, substantially more than the Eurasian magpie. Our findings confirm the competitive abilities of the large species studied, but do not suggest that garden bird feeding may alarmingly favour introduced species with detrimental effects on native species. Given the variability of large species' effects on small passerines, direct and indirect interactions among all species must be examined to fully understand the ecological net effects at stake.


Assuntos
Jardins , Espécies Introduzidas , Ração Animal , Animais , Columbidae , Europa (Continente) , Jardinagem , Estações do Ano
5.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(1): 61-75, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479013

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease that develops and progresses in the arterial wall in response to a variety of stimuli. Among various other stimuli, hyperlipidemia is an extremely important factor that is correlated with the development of atherosclerosis. Lemon and citrus fruits contain various bioactive flavonoids, such as eriocitrin, that prevent obesity and related metabolic diseases. Therefore we concentrated on eriocitrin, a potent flavonoid with numerous therapeutic properties, particularly its beneficial lipid-lowering action in rats subjected to high fat diet. The anti-atherosclerotic efficacy of eriocitrin was assessed in rats administered a diet rich in fat. Wistar rats were divided into five groups consisting of six animals in all groups. Group I served the control, Group II was fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and the third and fourth groups were fed an HFD supplemented with varying doses of eriocitrin, and the last group was administered simvastatin for the last 30 days. Body weight, organ weight, lipid and lipoprotein parameters, cardiac and inflammatory markers, and histological examination were evaluated in animals induced with an HFD. Eriocitrin displayed a significant anti-atherosclerotic action by lowering the body weight, organ weight, reduction in lipid content, cardiac and inflammatory markers, myocardial changes confirmed by histopathology, malondialdehyde and increased antioxidant enzyme activities, nitric oxide, as well as 6-keto-PGF1α and high-density lipoprotein levels in rats fed an HFD. The findings of the experiment suggest that the anti-atherosclerotic action of eriocitrin was due to its modulatory activity in lipid metabolism. Considering the overall results of the study it can be validated that a use of flavonoid eriocitrin might be beneficial in altering HFD-induced alterations in atherosclerotic rats.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Flavanonas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Dieta , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Flavanonas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
6.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(1): 89-99, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479015

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and inflammation are regarded as prime reasons for the progression and development of diabetic retinopathy. Currently, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) and NLRP3 inflammasome pathways are under increasing focus in research on oxidative stress and inflammation-related diseases. On the other hand, tilianin (TN) has received much attention because of its various pharmacological properties. Based on results of these studies, this investigation was performed to inspect the therapeutic efficiency of TN on the retina in diabetic rats. Rats were arbitrarily assigned to three groups: control group, diabetic group, and diabetic plus TN (20 mg/ kg body weight for 42 days, orally) group. TN supplementation in diabetic rats, their food intake, fasting blood glucose status, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were drastically reduced, and there was a marked augmentation in serum insulin status. TN treatment of diabetic rats increased mRNA expression of Nrf2 and its target gene, HO-1, and noticeably decreased the malondialdehyde status. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidases (GPX) were increased relative to diabetic rats. Furthermore, administering TN to the diabetic rats resulted in decreased expression of TXNIP, NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), caspase-1, and IL-1ß proteins and decreased distribution of TXNIP, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 proteins in retinas. In addition, TN treatment ameliorated morphological and morphometric changes in the retinas of diabetic rats. Together, all of these findings provide clear evidence that TN treatment of diabetic rats attenuated diabetic retinal changes through its hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in diabetic retinas occur at least in part through the modulation of Nrf2/TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome pathways, which may have remedial benefits in the healing of diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Retina/patologia
7.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105483, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408005

RESUMO

The potential environmental impacts of chemical exposures on wildlife are of growing concern. Freshwater ecosystems are vulnerable to chemical effects and wildlife populations, including fish, can be exposed to concentrations known to cause adverse effects at the individual level. Wild fish populations are also often subjected to numerous other stressors simultaneously which in temperate climates often include sustained periods of food limitation. The potential interactive effects of chemical exposures and food limitation on fish populations are however difficult to establish in the field. Mechanistic modelling approaches can be employed to help predict how the physiological effects of chemicals and food limitation on individuals may translate to population-level effects. Here an energy budget-individual-based model was developed and the control (no chemical) model was validated for the three-spined stickleback. Findings from two endocrine active chemical (EAC) case studies, (ethinyloestradiol and trenbolone) were then used to investigate how effects on individual fecundity translated into predicted population-level effects for environmentally relevant exposures. The cumulative effects of chemical exposure and food limitation were included in these analyses. Results show that effects of each EAC on the population were dependent on energy availability, and effects on population abundance were exacerbated by food limitation. Findings suggest that chemical effects and density dependent food competition interact to determine population responses to chemical exposures. Our study illustrates how mechanistic modelling approaches might usefully be applied to account for specific chemical effects, energy budgets and density-dependent competition, to provide a more integrated evaluation of population outcomes in chemical risk assessments.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Modelos Biológicos , Smegmamorpha/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecossistema , Água Doce/química , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Smegmamorpha/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105494, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422488

RESUMO

Little is known about the impacts of dietary exposure to inorganic mercury (Hg) for a long duration on the health indicators, growth, and disease resistance in Oreochromis niloticus. Accordingly, the current study was designed to assess the effects of Hg contaminated diets on blood biochemistry, growth, chemical composition, Hg bioaccumulation in the tissues, histopathology of liver and head kidneys, and disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila of O. niloticus. Also, the efficiency of citronella oil, geranium oil (GO), curcumin (CUR), Bacillus toyonensis (BT), and Bacillus subtilis (BS) as dietary supplements on reversing the negative impacts of Hg were assessed. A total of 240 tilapia fingerlings were assigned to eight dietary treatments fed on the basal diet (G1), G1 diet contaminated with 50 ppm Hg (G2), whereas the other groups fed the G2 diet and enriched with 400 mg CO (G3), 400 mg GO (G4), 200 mg CUR (G5), 7 × 107 cells BT (G6), 7 × 107 cells BS (G7), and 7 × 107 BT + BS/ kg diet (G8) for 16 weeks. The obtained results showed that fish fed on the G2 diet had significantly impaired growth performance indicators, blood parameters, and resistance to bacterial infection compared with fish in the control group. Additionally, distinct pathological perturbations in liver and head kidneys were observed. In contrast, fish groups G3 to G8 had a significant enhancement in the growth performance, Hg bioaccumulation in fish tissues, blood biochemistry, and resistance against A. hydrophila infection compared with fish in the G2 group. Maximum improvement was recorded in G5, G6, and G8. Conclusively, from both health and an economic point of view, these results suggested that several benefits might be gained by adding these additives, especially CUR, BT, and BT + BS, on growth enhancement and ameliorating Hg negative impacts in O. niloticus.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bioacumulação , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Aeromonas hydrophila/patogenicidade , Animais , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Rim Cefálico/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim Cefálico/metabolismo , Rim Cefálico/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(23): 29000-29008, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424752

RESUMO

Heat stress is a major concern in broiler's production, which can damage liver of broilers. This study investigated the protective effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on heat stress-induced hepatic injury in broilers. A total of 144 day-old male chicks were allocated into three treatment groups. Broilers raised under normal ambient temperature were fed a basal diet (control group), and broilers under heat stress (32-33 °C for 8 h daily) were given the basal diet supplemented without MOS (heat stress group) or with 1 g/kg MOS (MOS group) for 42 days. Compared with the control group, heat stress reduced liver weight, whereas increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in the serum. It also reduced glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in the serum and liver, GSH content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the liver, but increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the serum and liver. Dietary MOS decreased serum ALT activity in heat-stressed broilers. MOS inclusion also decreased serum MDA content, but elevated hepatic GSH-Px and SOD activities, with MDA content and GSH-Px activity still being different from the control group, and SOD activity being similar to the control group. Heat stress increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the serum and liver, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in the liver, and mRNA abundances of HSP70, TLR4, MyD88, TNF-α, and IL-1ß in the liver of broilers. Serum TNF-α content and mRNA abundances of hepatic TLR4 and TNF-α in MOS group were lower than the heat stress group, whereas these indexes were still higher than the control group. Our results indicated that dietary MOS ameliorated hepatic damage in heat-stressed broilers through alleviation of oxidative stress and inflammation.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Mananas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Fígado , Masculino , Oligossacarídeos , Estresse Oxidativo
10.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 139: 81-86, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351238

RESUMO

New Zealand fur seals Arctocephalus forsteri are the most abundant of the 4 otariid (eared seal) species distributed across Australasia. Analyses of stomach contents, scats and regurgitates suggest a diet dominated by bony fish and squid, with cartilaginous species (e.g. sharks and rays) either absent or underrepresented because of a lack of preservable hard parts. Here we report on a subadult specimen from south-eastern Australia, which was found ashore emaciated and with numerous puncture wounds across its lips, cheeks, throat and the inside of its oral cavity. Fish spines embedded in the carcass revealed that these injuries were inflicted by chimaeras and myliobatiform rays (stingrays and relatives), which matches reports on the diet of A. forsteri from New Zealand, but not South Australia. Shaking and tearing of prey at the surface may help to avoid ingestion of the venomous spines, perhaps contributing to their absence from scats and regurgitates. Nevertheless, the number and severity of the facial stab wounds, some of which led to local necrosis, likely affected the animal's ability to feed, and may account for its death. Despite their detrimental effects, fish spine-related injuries are difficult to spot, and may be a common, albeit cryptic, type of trauma. We therefore recommend that stranded seals be systematically examined for this potentially life-threatening pathology.


Assuntos
Otárias , Ração Animal , Animais , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Nova Zelândia , Austrália do Sul
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369517

RESUMO

A risk assessment was conducted to assess the risk of ASFV entry into Japan through pork products illegally brought in by air passengers from China and fed to pigs in Japan. Scenario tree modelling was used with the following entry and exposure pathway considered to be the most likely route of ASF entry: an ASFV infected pork product is illegally brought into Japan by air travellers from China; this pork product is then used in a restaurant where scrap waste is recycled for animal feed and subsequently fed to pigs without being heat-treated. Input parameter values were based on surveys conducted by the authors, scientific data gathered from the literature and official data published by government agencies. The annual probability of ASFV entry into Japan via this pathway was predicted to be 0.20 (90% prediction interval: 0.00-0.90). The wide prediction interval was mainly caused by the uncertainty regarding the dose response relation of ASFV, followed by the probability of an ASF infected pig dying on affected farms, the loading of ASFV in an infected pig and the probability of an illegally imported pork product being heat-treated in China and used in restaurants. The results of scenario analysis revealed that the annual probability of ASFV entry into Japan will increase with an increase in the number of ASF affected farms in China. The probability of ASFV entry will increase substantially even if only a small proportion of Ecofeed is not heat-treated during the production process. The probability will decrease if an increased proportion of farms that feed swill apply heat-treatment before feeding swill to their pigs. These findings indicate that stringent application of heat-treatment of Ecofeed and swill is key to protecting the Japanese pig industry from the introduction of ASFV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana/transmissão , Viagem Aérea , Carne de Porco/virologia , Suínos , Ração Animal/virologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , China , Temperatura Alta , Japão , Probabilidade , Restaurantes , Medição de Risco
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232880, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401761

RESUMO

The southern king crab (SKC) Lithodes santolla is an important commercial species in southern South America. Fishing pressure has caused the deterioration of its stocks. Currently, culture techniques are being developed for producing SKC juveniles to enhance the natural population and to recover the fishing stock. Therefore, it is necessary to know about physiology, energetic and nutritional requirements for SKC maintenance in hatchery. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the biochemical and physiological changes in the midgut gland, muscle and hemolymph of juveniles, pre-adults and adults of wild SKC. The energetic reserves, digestive enzymes activity, amino acid profile and energy were quantified in twelve juveniles, ten pre-adult, and ten adult crabs. Juveniles showed high glycogen and low lipids in the midgut gland, and low proteins and low lactate in muscle. In the hemolymph, juveniles had high lipids. Pre-adults had high glycogen and lipids in the midgut gland, and both high protein and lactate in muscle. In the hemolymph, pre-adults had high lipids. Adults had low glycogen and high lipids in midgut gland, and both high proteins and high lactate in muscle. In hemolymph, adults had high glucose and lactate. Juveniles and pre-adults had high proteinase activity, whereas adults had high lipase activity. Major essential amino acids of SKC were arginine, methionine, and tryptophan, and the non-essential amino acids were glycine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid. On another hand, SKC had similar energy in the midgut gland and muscle, regardless of the ontogenetic stage. Moreover, we demonstrated that the biochemical energy calculation underestimates the actual measured values by a calorimeter. Thus, our results help to understand the physiological changes, energetic and nutritional requirements of L. santolla, and this study is a baseline for research on diet formulation for maintaining this species under culture conditions.


Assuntos
Anomuros/fisiologia , Aquicultura/métodos , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Optogenética/métodos , Aminoácidos/análise , Ração Animal , Animais , Anomuros/citologia , Anomuros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Hemolinfa , Masculino , Músculos/química
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362232

RESUMO

The study presents responses of D. magna newborns exposed during 96 h to polyethylene microplastics (MP) of size 40-48 µm in the concentrations of 20; 40; 80; 160 and 320 mg/L. The experimental design consisted of two exposure scenarios: the first group was fed at the beginning and after 48 h (3x10-5 cells/mL of Raphidocelis subcaptata and fermented solution) and the second group was not fed as an additional stressor. The mobility of the organisms was not significantly affected in the presence of microplastics for both exposure groups. Nevertheless, the qualitative analysis showed that neonates promptly ingested microplastics in the first 24 h of the test, independently of the treatment. Polyethylene microplastics did not influence the molting process, however, significant differences were observed between the number of molts of the exposure without feed and with feed in 24 h (p = 0.0007), 48 h (p = 2.4 x 10-10), 72 h (p = 3.6 x 10-10) and 96 h (p = 0.003). The final body length of D. magna also showed that the food administration model in the tests contributes to the differentiation in responses.


Assuntos
Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Polietileno/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Ração Animal , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Daphnia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Microplásticos/análise , Muda/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietileno/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232496, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392254

RESUMO

Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae have been marketed as an excellent choice for providing calcium to reptiles without the need of dusting or gut loading. However, previous studies have indicated that they have limited calcium digestibility and are deficient in fat soluble vitamins (A, D3, and E). In this feeding and digestibility trial, 24 adult male leopard geckos were fed one of three diets for 4 months: 1) whole, vitamin A gut loaded larvae; 2) needle pierced, vitamin A gut loaded larvae; or 3) whole, non-gut loaded larvae. Fecal output from the geckos was collected daily and apparent digestibility was calculated for dry matter, protein, fat, and minerals. There were no differences in digestibility coefficients among groups. Most nutrients were well digested by the leopard geckos when compared to previous studies, with the exception of calcium (digestibility co-efficient 43%), as the calcium-rich exoskeleton usually remained intact after passage through the GI tract. Biochemistry profiles revealed possible deficits occurring over time for calcium, sodium, and total protein. In regards to vitamin A digestibility, plasma and liver vitamin A concentrations were significantly higher in the supplemented groups (plasma- gut loaded groups: 33.38 ± 7.11 ng/ml, control group: 25.8 ± 6.72 ng/ml, t = 1.906, p = 0.04; liver- gut loaded groups: 28.67 ± 18.90 µg/g, control group: 14.13 ± 7.41 µg/g, t = 1.951, p = 0.03). While leopard geckos are able to digest most of the nutrients provided by BSF larvae, including those that have been gut loaded, more research needs to be performed to assess whether or not they provide adequate calcium in their non-supplemented form.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Lagartos/fisiologia , Simuliidae , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/farmacocinética , Dieta , Digestão , Larva/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Simuliidae/química , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/farmacocinética
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232418, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421690

RESUMO

Improving the digestive efficiency of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus) could reduce organic waste, increase the use of alternative feed not used for human consumption and reduce the impact of feed in production costs. By selecting chicken lines divergently for their digestive efficiency, we showed previously that digestive efficiency is under genetic control and that the two resulting divergent lines, D+ (high digestive efficiency or "digestibility +") and D- (low digestive efficiency or "digestibility -"), also differ for the abundance of specific bacteria in their caeca. Here we perform a more extensive census of the bacteria present in the digestive microbiota of 60 chickens selected for their low apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn-) or high (AMEn+) digestive efficiency in a [D+ x D-] F8 progeny of 200 individuals. We sequenced the 16S rRNA genes of the ileal, jejunal and caecal microbiotas, and compared the compositions and predicted functions of microbiotas from the different intestinal segments for 20 AMEn+ and 19 AMEn- birds. The intestinal segment of origin was the main factor structuring the samples. The caecal microbiota was the most impacted by the differences in digestive efficiency, with 41 bacterial species with abundances differing between highly and poorly efficient birds. Furthermore, we predicted that the caecal microbiota of efficient birds might be enriched in genes contributing to the degradation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) from non-starch polysaccharides. These results confirm the impact of the genetic selection led on digestibility on the caecal microbiota taxonomic composition. They open the way toward the identification of specific, causal genes of the host controlling variations in the abundances of bacterial taxons.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Biodiversidade , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Digestão/genética , Digestão/fisiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Seleção Genética
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233077, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442185

RESUMO

The molecular bases of aphid virulence to aphid crop plant resistance genes are poorly understood. The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, (Kurdjumov), and the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), are global pest of cereal crops. Each species damages barley, oat, rye and wheat, but S. graminum includes fescue, maize, rice and sorghum in its host range. This study was conducted to compare and contrast the transcriptomes of S. graminum biotype I and D. noxia biotype 1 when each ingested phloem from leaves of varieties of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L., containing no aphid resistance (Dn0), resistance to D. noxia biotype 1 (Dn4), or resistance to both D. noxia biotype 1 and S. graminum biotype I (Dn7, wheat genotype 94M370). Gene ontology enrichments, k-means analysis and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that 94M370 plants containing the Dn7 D. noxia resistance gene from rye had stronger effects on the global transcriptional profiles of S. graminum and D. noxia relative to those fed Dn4 plants. S. graminum responds to ingestion of phloem sap from 94M370 plants by expression of unigenes coding for proteins involved in DNA and RNA repair, and delayed tissue and structural development. In contrast, D. noxia displays a completely different transcriptome after ingesting phloem sap from Dn4 or 94M370 plants, consisting of unigenes involved primarily in detoxification, nutrient acquisition and structural development. These variations in transcriptional responses of D. noxia and S. graminum suggest that the underlying evolutionary mechanism(s) of virulence in these aphids are likely species specific, even in cases of cross resistance.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Hordeum/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Ração Animal , Animais , Afídeos/classificação , Afídeos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Herbivoria , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1926): 20200184, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372688

RESUMO

As the most diverse vertebrate group and a major component of a growing global aquaculture industry, teleosts continue to attract significant scientific attention. The growth in global aquaculture, driven by declines in wild stocks, has provided additional empirical demand, and thus opportunities, to explore teleost diversity. Among key developments is the recent growth in microbiome exploration, facilitated by advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies. Here, we consider studies on teleost gut microbiomes in the context of sustainable aquaculture, which we have discussed in four themes: diet, immunity, artificial selection and closed-loop systems. We demonstrate the influence aquaculture has had on gut microbiome research, while also providing a road map for the main deterministic forces that influence the gut microbiome, with topical applications to aquaculture. Functional significance is considered within an aquaculture context with reference to impacts on nutrition and immunity. Finally, we identify key knowledge gaps, both methodological and conceptual, and propose promising applications of gut microbiome manipulation to aquaculture, and future priorities in microbiome research. These include insect-based feeds, vaccination, mechanism of pro- and prebiotics, artificial selection on the hologenome, in-water bacteriophages in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), physiochemical properties of water and dysbiosis as a biomarker.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Peixes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal , Animais , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
18.
Toxicon ; 182: 34-53, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423889

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are low-molecular weight compounds produced mainly by fungi, with Fusarium and Aspergillus origin. Secondary, metabolites, are mostly found on plants. However, the contamination of the feed and forage has been also reported. Because of their pharmacological activity, mycotoxins can be used as chemical warfare agents, drugs or growth promotants. Additionally, mycotoxins are found as one of the most dangerous genotoxic factors which cause the damage of DNA and lead to disease development. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxins as both, an invisible danger of forage and as food additives. Special emphasis shall be given on mycotoxins with proven cancerogenic activity; including aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. Factors such as species, mechanisms/modes of action, metabolism, and defense mechanisms were taken into account. The main concern was focused on zearalenone characterization, because of its estrogenic activity, caused by structural similarity to estrogens, naturally occurring in cells. By binding to estrogenic receptors, toxins are, accumulated in organisms and long-term exposure may cause the disturbances, especially in the reproductive system. The next part of this paper contains the description of main strategies of toxins determination. Finally, in the review, several potential methods for the dioxins neutralization were discussed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Contaminação de Alimentos , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Aflatoxinas , Animais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fumonisinas , Fusarium , Micotoxinas/análise , Ocratoxinas , Tricotecenos , Zearalenona
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232278, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352997

RESUMO

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is mainly grown for oil extraction and the remaining oil-free seed referred as peanut meal (PM) leaves with high protein content which can be a possible substitute for fishmeal in aqua-diets. This study evaluates the suitability of three types of processed peanut seeds, namely untreated PM (UPM), fermented PM (FPM), and germinated PM (GPM) from peanut seeds to replace fishmeal in barramundi (Lates calcarifer) diets cultured under a commercial production environment. Nine formulated diets having 3 inclusion levels from the 3 different peanuts (15%, 30% and 60% fishmeal replacement) were evaluated against a control without PM. The performance of various types and levels of PMs was assessed by examining the growth, gut and liver condition and survival of fish after eight weeks of feeding the test diets. The immunological responses of juvenile barramundi were assessed by exposing the fish to the hypoxic conditions for 4 hours. The results showed that fermentation and germination significantly (P<0.05) reduced the tannins and alkaloid contents in the PMs. The fish fed 15% GPM diet grew faster and had higher survival than fish fed control diet, while fish fed diet including 60% GPM showed a significant reduction in growth and survival, and an increase in food conversion rate (FCR). FPM and UPM at any inclusion levels did not alter the growth, survival and FCR. Histology analysis revealed that fish fed 60% GPM and UPM showed higher amount of lipid droplets in liver, myodigeneration in fish muscle and a decrease number of acidic mucins in distal gut compare to all other test diets. Stress caused by reduced dissolved oxygen did not change the sodium, potassium, chlorides and alanine aminotransferase concentrations of plasma of fish fed any diet. However, the stress did increase plasma cortisol significantly (P<0.05) in fish fed 60% GPM, 30% and 60% UPM diets. These results suggest that the PMs can partly replace the fishmeal in juvenile barramundi diet and the processing further improves the PMs quality by reducing its antinutritional factors which in turn can increase either its inclusion level in the barramundi diets or improved growth and health status of the species.


Assuntos
Arachis/metabolismo , Fermentação/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Perciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Dieta , Fígado/metabolismo , Refeições
20.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367123

RESUMO

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of divergent genetic selection for residual feed intake (RFI) on nitrogen (N) metabolism and lysine utilization in growing pigs. Twenty-four gilts (body weight [BW] 66 ± 5 kg) were selected from generation nine of the low RFI (LRFI; n = 12) and high RFI (HRFI; n = 12) Iowa State University Yorkshire RFI selection lines. Six pigs from each genetic line were assigned to each of two levels of lysine intake: 70% and 100% of estimated requirements based on the potential of each genetic line for protein deposition (PD) and feed intake. For all diets, lysine was first limiting among amino acids. Using isotope tracer, N-balance, and nutrient digestibility evaluation approaches, whole-body N metabolism and the efficiency of lysine utilization were determined for each treatment group. No significant interaction effects of line and diet on dietary N or gross energy digestibility, PD, and the efficiency of lysine utilization for PD were observed. The line did not have a significant effect on PD and digestibility of dietary N and GE. An increase in lysine intake improved N retention in both lines (from 15.0 to 19.6 g/d, SE 1.44, in LRFI pigs; and from 16.9 to 19.8 g/d, SE 1.67, in HRFI pigs; P < 0.01). At the low lysine intakes and when lysine clearly limited PD, the efficiency of using available lysine intake (above maintenance requirements) for PD was 80% and 91% (SE 4.6) for the LRFI and HRFI pigs, respectively (P = 0.006). There were no significant effects of line or of the line by diet interaction on N flux, protein synthesis, and protein degradation. Lysine intake significantly increased (P < 0.05) N flux (from 119 to 150, SE 8.7 g/d), protein synthesis (from 99 to 117, SE 10.6 g of N/d), and protein degradation (from 85 to 100, SE 6.6 g of N/d). The protein synthesis-to-retention ratio tended to be higher in the LRFI line compared with the HRFI line (6.5 vs. 5.8 SE 0.62; P = 0.06), indicating a tendency for the lower efficiency of PD in this group. Collectively, these results indicate that genetic selection for low RFI is not associated with improvements in lysine utilization efficiency, protein turnover, and nutrient digestibility.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Lisina/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
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