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1.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(8): 756-766, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663053

RESUMO

This study aims to establish the relationship between the consumption of certain foods and the presence of organochlorine pesticides in human milk. A total of 167 samples of breastmilk were collected. Sample analysis was carried out by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Pesticide concentrations (op'DDT, pp'DDT, pp'DDE, Σ-DDT, HCB, ß-HCH) were grouped by consumption level of fish, dairy products, meat, eggs, and seafood and then were compared to each other. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated between the concentration of pesticides (higher and/or lower than median) and the exposure variable (high consumption). The results indicated low median concentrations of HCB, ß - HCH, op'DDT and pp'DDT, whose fluctuations and trends between different frequencies of food consumption were not significant. pp'DDE and Σ - DDT values according to the increase in consumption of fish were significantly increased. Women with high fish consumption have a higher risk of high concentrations of pp'DDE and Σ-DDT (OR: high consumption: 5.6 (1.3-23.6). A protective effect was observed in the consumption of dairy products (ß-HCH and op'DDT), meat (HCB), and seafood (pp'DDT). These results suggest that it is possible that the consumption of fish, dairy products, meat, and seafood influences the presence of organochlorine pesticides in the studied population.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Leite Humano/química , Praguicidas/análise , Adulto , Laticínios , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno , Ovos/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Produtos Pesqueiros , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Carne/análise , México
2.
Food Chem ; 328: 127113, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474239

RESUMO

In view of the high polarity and ubiquitous occurrence of perchlorate, achieving an ultra-trace analysis has become a challenging task. The present study aimed to develop a simple and generic pretreatment protocol based on cold-induced liquid-liquid extraction to efficiently extract perchlorate from tea and dairy products and remarkably decrease potential matrix interferences and laborious cleanup. By optimizing the pretreatment conditions, the enrichment factor of perchlorate increased by 7.79 times under the compromise between the matrix effect and extraction recovery. The validated method presented satisfactory selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and matrix effect, providing recoveries of 78.2%-106.2% with RSDr ranging from 1.2% to 7.9% and RSDR less than 10.7% for tea and dairy products. This pretreatment protocol depended only on shaking, freezing, and centrifugation in one step, without additional equipment or tedious operations, which will be explored to a greater extent in complex biological or food matrices.


Assuntos
Laticínios/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Percloratos/análise , Chá/química , Centrifugação/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Análise de Alimentos/economia , Congelamento , Extração Líquido-Líquido/economia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Food Chem ; 326: 126986, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407998

RESUMO

In the present work, a barcode-DNA analysis method is described for the detection of plant oil adulteration in milk and dairy products. The method relies on the fact that plant DNA should not be present in readily detectable amounts in a dairy product unless it contains undeclared plant material. Thus, a universal plant barcode is chosen as the target to be amplified from dairy samples. Accordingly, barcode PCR-CE (PCR-capillary electrophoresis) assays are described, which do not require preliminary information on the species source of the adulterant oil type. Two PCR-CE assays, one operating on the plastid trnL (UAA) intron and the other targeting its inner P6 loop in nested format, were shown to detect corn, soybean, rapeseed and sunflower oils in clarified butter, milk and yogurt. Both barcodes are robustly amplified with extremely conserved primers. While the intron provides the species discrimination ability, the P6 loop provides superior detection sensitivity.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/análise , Laticínios/análise , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Leite/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plastídeos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Soja/genética , Iogurte/análise , Zea mays/genética
4.
Food Chem ; 326: 126988, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447162

RESUMO

In this study, a simple and quick ionic liquid- based ultrasonic-assisted microextraction (IL-UA-ME) procedure has been improved for extraction of melamine in dairy productsfollowed by UV-VIS spectrometry. For the analysis of stability and reactivity of melamine and its some metal complexes, quantum chemical parameters like frontier orbital energy-HOMO-LUMO energy gap, hardness and softness were calculated using computational chemistry tools. The results regarding to stability analysis made considering density functional theory showed that theoretical data obtained are compatible with experimentally obtained results, and Fe-melamine complex is more stable compared to others. Under optimum conditions, the linearity was in the range of 0.05-400 ng mL-1 with detection limit of 0.015 ng mL-1. Following the validation studies, recovery and relative standard deviation were obtained in range of 92.5-104.3% and 1.4-2.1%, respectively. The first research article in which experimental and theoretical studies are used together for the determination of melamine in dairy products.


Assuntos
Laticínios/análise , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Triazinas/análise , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Limite de Detecção , Teoria Quântica , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Sonicação , Temperatura , Triazinas/química , Triazinas/isolamento & purificação
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 515-519, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431274

RESUMO

Adequate dietary intake is critically important for child growth and development. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of undernutrition and its association with infant and child feeding index (ICFI). This cross-sectional study was conducted among children (younger than5 years) and their mothers from Lhaviyani Atoll, Maldives. The data were obtained by interviewing the children's mothers via pretested questionnaires. Infant and child feeding index scores were calculated from the dietary information. Weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ), length/height-for-age z-scores (LAZ/HAZ), and weight-for-length/height z-scores were calculated from anthropometric data taken according to the WHO criterion. Linear regression tests were used to find the association of nutritional status with ICFI scores. A total of 800 children and their mothers participated in this study. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 24.6%, 32.4%, and 16.3%, respectively. The mean ICFI scores (13.0) of children aged 6-8 months were better than those of children in other age-groups. In food groups, the intake of fish was higher among the respondents, whereas the consumption of vegetables and fruits was lower. Infant and child feeding index scores were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with WAZ and LAZ/HAZ after adjustment for confounders. Overall, the findings showed that Maldivian children consumed the limited number of food items that resulted in an inadequate intake of nutrients which further resulted in the high prevalence of malnutrition.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Alimentação Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios , Carboidratos da Dieta , Ovos , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Ilhas do Oceano Índico/epidemiologia , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Carne , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis , Alimentos Marinhos , Verduras
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2036, 2020 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341389

RESUMO

The introduction of farming had far-reaching impacts on health, social structure and demography. Although the spread of domesticated plants and animals has been extensively tracked, it is unclear how these nascent economies developed within different environmental and cultural settings. Using molecular and isotopic analysis of lipids from pottery, here we investigate the foods prepared by the earliest farming communities of the European Atlantic seaboard. Surprisingly, we find an absence of aquatic foods, including in ceramics from coastal sites, except in the Western Baltic where this tradition continued from indigenous ceramic using hunter-gatherer-fishers. The frequency of dairy products in pottery increased as farming was progressively introduced along a northerly latitudinal gradient. This finding implies that early farming communities needed time to adapt their economic practices before expanding into more northerly areas. Latitudinal differences in the scale of dairy production might also have influenced the evolution of adult lactase persistence across Europe.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Laticínios/análise , Indústria de Laticínios/história , Criação de Animais Domésticos/história , Animais , Arqueologia , Isótopos de Carbono , Cerâmica , Europa (Continente) , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Geografia , História Antiga , Humanos , Lipídeos/química
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 3994-4001, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113767

RESUMO

This study was conducted to reveal the prevalence, molecular characterization, and antibiotic susceptibility of Bacillus cereus isolated from dairy products including powdered infant formula, raw milk, pasteurized milk, ultra-high-temperature milk, and cheese. Five hundred samples collected from 5 provinces in China were analyzed in overall experiments. Multilocus sequence typing, distribution of toxin genes, and antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates were analyzed. Fifty-four B. cereus strains were detected; of these, 13 isolates (26%) were from raw milk, 12 isolates (12%) from pasteurized milk, 10 isolates (10%) from cheese, 12 isolates (8%) from ultra-high-temperature milk, and 7 isolates (7%) from powdered infant formula. These isolates were divided into 24 sequence types (ST); among them, ST24, ST26, ST82, ST142, ST377, ST857, and ST1046 were the main dominant ST. The results of detection of toxin genes (hblA, hblC, hblD, nheA, nheB, nheC, cytK, entFM, bceT, hlyII, and cesB) showed that 94.4% isolates carried nheABC genes, whereas only 11.1% of the isolates contained the hblACD gene cluster. In addition, detection rates of cytK, bceT, entFM, hlyII, and cesB genes were 75.9, 77.8, 85.2, 53.7, and 11.1%, respectively. The antibiotic susceptibility test indicated that most of B. cereus isolates were resistant to ampicillin, penicillin, cefepime, cephalothin, and oxacillin, and were susceptible to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, imipenem, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, kanamycin, and cefotetan. Therefore, this study revealed the prevalence and characteristics of B. cereus isolated from dairy products in China, indicating the potential risk and contributing to the effective prevention and control of this pathogen.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus cereus/fisiologia , Laticínios/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus cereus/genética , China , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Leite/química , Leite/microbiologia , Prevalência
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4068-4077, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197843

RESUMO

The enterococci are ubiquitous bacteria able to colonize the human and animal gastrointestinal tracts and fresh and fermented food products. Their highly plastic genome allows Enterococcus spp. to gain resistance to multiple antibiotics, making infections with these organisms difficult to treat. Food-borne enterococci could be carriers of antibiotic resistance determinants. The goal of this work was to study the characteristics of Enterococcus spp. in fermented milk products from Poland and their antibiotic resistance gene profiles. A total of 189 strains were isolated from 182 dairy products out of 320 samples tested. The predominant species were Enterococcus faecium (53.4%) and Enterococcus faecalis (34.4%). Isolates were resistant to streptomycin (29.1%), erythromycin (14.3%), tetracycline (11.6%), rifampicin (8.7%), and tigecycline (8.1%). We also detected 2 vancomycin-resistant and 3 linezolid-resistant strains; however, no vanA or vanB genes were identified. A total of 57 high-level aminoglycoside resistance strains (30.2%) were identified, most of which have the ant(6')-Ia gene, followed by the aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia and aph(3″)-IIIa genes. Resistance to tetracycline was most often conferred by tetM and tetL genes. Macrolide resistance was most frequently encoded by ermB and ermA genes. Conjugative mobile genetic element (transposon Tn916-Tn1545) was identified in 15.3% of the strains, including 96.3% of strains harboring the tetM gene. This study found that enterococci are widely present in retail ready-to-eat dairy products in Poland. Many isolated strains are antibiotic resistant and carry transferable resistance genes, which represent a potential source of transmission of multidrug-resistant bacteria to humans.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Laticínios/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Genótipo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polônia
9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(5): 804-809, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A higher dairy product intake has been associated to higher blood concentrations of 15:0 (pentadecanoic acid), 17:0 (margaric acid), and 14:0 (myristic acid). This study investigates whether a diet high in dairy products influences cholesteryl ester fatty acid concentrations of these specific fatty acids (FA). METHODS AND RESULTS: In a randomized multiple cross-over study, 13 men and 17 women aged 22 ± 4 years with a BMI of 21.6 ± 2.2 kg/m2 received 3 isocaloric intervention diets (dairy, meat or grain) in random order. For this post-hoc analysis, FA in plasma cholesteryl esters were measured using gas chromatography. We performed a linear mixed model per centered log-ratio transformed FA, adjusting for period, and the interaction between diet and period. Consumed total fat intake per controlled intervention diet was 31.0 ± 0.9 en%/day (dairy), 31.5 ± 0.6 en%/day (meat), and 28.4 ± 1.2 en%/day (grain), respectively. The dairy diet led to higher relative concentrations of 15:0 when compared to diets high in meat and grain, (ß; 0.27, 95%CI: 0.18,0.37; p = 1.2 × 10-5, and ß: 0.15; 95%CI: 0.06,0.24; p = 1.2 × 10-2, respectively). The dairy diet also led to higher 14:0 when compared to the meat diet (ß: 0.34; 95%CI: 0.21,0.46; p = 6.0 × 10-5), but not when compared to the grain diet. 17:0 did not differ between diets. CONCLUSION: The plasma cholesteryl ester fraction after a diet high in dairy was characterized by higher 15:0 levels. Concentrations of 14:0 were only higher when comparing the FA profile after a diet high in dairy when compared to a diet high in meat. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01314040.


Assuntos
Ésteres do Colesterol/sangue , Laticínios , Dieta , Grão Comestível , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar , Carne , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Miristatos/sangue , Países Baixos , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
12.
N Z Med J ; 133(1509): 65-72, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027640

RESUMO

Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease in New Zealand. Concurrently, obesity and related chronic metabolic diseases are the most challenging public health problems of modern times. There is considerable evidence that a common dietary behaviour-high frequency consumption of sugar- and starch-containing foods-is the principal aetiological factor for both dental caries, and presentation of children and young people with increased adiposity or obesity. Conversely, consumption of full-fat dairy products by children and young people is associated with reduced risks of dental caries and obesity. Government-endorsed dietary guidelines for young people correctly provide recommendations to decrease intake of high-sugar foods. However, recommendations are provided to increase the frequency of consumption of sugar- and starch-containing foods as children age, and to choose low-fat dairy produce. We contend that this advice directly contradicts evidence of the dietary causes of both dental caries and obesity. This advice also does not reflect evidence regarding observed associations between the consumption of full-fat dairy produce and reduced dental caries and obesity. We present evidence to support our contention that important elements of New Zealand's dietary guidelines have been established without due consideration of the entirety of the evidence, including that which is updated, recent or evolutionarily. Given the epidemics of dental caries and metabolic disease are ongoing public health challenges in New Zealand and share common dietary causes, guidelines for healthy eating should limit refined sugar- and starch-containing foods and encourage intake of full-fat dairy items.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Carboidratos da Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Política Nutricional , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Amido
13.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2186-2193, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043954

RESUMO

Eight facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from raw milk and two other dairy products. Results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates are placed in a distinct lineage within the family Propionibacteriaceae with Propioniciclava sinopodophylli and Propioniciclava tarda as the closest relatives (94.6 and 93.5 % similarity, respectively). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, alanine and glutamic acid and was of the A1γ type (meso-DAP-direct). The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0 and the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidyglycerol and three unidentified glycolipids. The quinone system contained predominantly menaquinone MK-9(H4). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain VG341T was 67.7 mol%. The whole-cell sugar pattern contained ribose, rhamnose, arabinose and galactose. On the basis of phenotypic and genetic data, eight strains (VG341T, WS4684, WS4769, WS 4882, WS4883, WS4901, WS4902 and WS4904) are proposed to be classified as members of a novel species in a new genus of the family Propionibacteriaceae, for which the name Brevilactibacter flavus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VG341T (=WS4900T=DSM 100885T=LMG 29089T) and seven additional strains are WS4684, WS4769, WS4882, WS4883, WS4901, WS4902 and WS4904. Furthermore, we propose the reclassification of P. sinopodophylli as Brevilactibacter sinopodophylli comb. nov.


Assuntos
Laticínios/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Filogenia , Propionibacteriaceae/classificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Alemanha , Glicolipídeos/química , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Propionibacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
14.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e21, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019625

RESUMO

Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is widely present in dairy products around the world. It has been isolated from unpasteurised milk and cheese and can survive for extended periods of time under typical storage conditions for these products. Although consumption of contaminated dairy products has been suggested as a potential route for transmission, it remains controversial. Given the high prevalence of C. burnetii in dairy products, we sought to examine the feasibility of transmitting the major sequence types (ST16, ST8 and ST20) of C. burnetii circulating in the United States. We delivered three strains of C. burnetii, comprising each sequence type, directly into the stomachs of immunocompetent BALB/c mice via oral gavage (OG) and assessed them for clinical symptoms, serological response and bacterial dissemination. We found that mice receiving C. burnetii by OG had notable splenomegaly only after infection with ST16. A robust immune response and persistence in the stomach and mesenteric lymph nodes were observed in mice receiving ST16 and ST20 by OG, and dissemination of C. burnetii to peripheral tissues was observed in all OG infected mice. These findings support the oral route as a mode of transmission for C. burnetii.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Laticínios/microbiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Ingestão de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Febre Q/transmissão , Animais , Coxiella burnetii/classificação , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Genótipo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estados Unidos
15.
J Nutr ; 150(5): 1272-1283, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of dairy in health can be elucidated by investigating circulating metabolites associated with intake. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify metabolites associated with quantity and type of dairy intake in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation (Gen3) cohorts. METHODS: Dairy intake (total dairy, milk, cheese, yogurt, and cream/butter) was analyzed in relation to targeted (Offspring, n = 2205, 55.1 ± 9.8 y, 52% female, 217 signals; Gen3, n = 866, 40.5 ± 8.8 y, 54.9% female, 79 signals) and nontargeted metabolites (Gen3, ∼7031 signals) in a 2-step analysis including orthogonal projections to latent structures with discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) in discovery subsets to identify metabolites distinguishing between high and low intake; and linear regression in confirmation subsets to assess putative associations, subsequently tested in the total samples. Previously reported associations were also investigated. RESULTS: OPLS-DA in the Offspring targeted discovery subset resulted in a variable importance in projection (VIP) >1 of 65, 60, 58, 66, and 60 metabolites for total dairy, milk, cream/butter, cheese, and yogurt, respectively, of which 5, 3, 1, 6, and 4 metabolites, respectively, remained after confirmation. In the Gen3 targeted discovery subset, OPLS-DA resulted in a VIP >1 of 17, 15, 13, 7, and 6 metabolites for total dairy, milk, cream/butter, cheese, and yogurt, respectively. In the Gen3 nontargeted discovery subset, OPLS-DA resulted in a VIP >2 of 203, 503, 78, 186, and 206 metabolites, respectively. Combining targeted and nontargeted results in Gen3, significant associations of 7 (6 unannotated), 2, 12 (11 unannotated), 0, and 61 (all unannotated) metabolites, respectively, remained. Candidate identities of unannotated signals included fatty acids and food flavorings. Results supported relations previously reported for C14:0 sphingomyelin, and marginal associations for deoxycholates. CONCLUSIONS: Dairy in 2 American adult cohorts associated with numerous circulating metabolites. Reports about diet-metabolite relations and confirmation of previous findings might be limited by specificity of dietary intake and breadth of measured metabolites.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Dieta , Metabolômica , Aminoácidos/sangue , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas/sangue , Manteiga , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Queijo , Estudos de Coortes , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite , Iogurte
16.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110049, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090806

RESUMO

A compliant tool (CalcPEFDairy) to determine the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) of Dairy products has been developed following the Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules (PEFCR) v.6.3 guidance and the 2018 approved PEFCR for Dairy products. CalcPEFDairy is a new tool that simplifies and reduces the work for LCA practitioners when implementing the PEFCR for Dairy products. On contrary to traditional LCA software, CalcPEFDairy includes all the emission models needed to calculate farm and crop cultivation direct emissions and it also implements the specific calculation formulas stated in the PEFCR such as the Circular Footprint and Data Quality Requirement formulas. Moreover, the PEF compliant datasets provided by the Life Cycle Data Network are incorporated in the tool as source of secondary data. To demonstrate the accuracy of the tool a traditional dairy farm in Catalonia (Northwest of Spain) was assessed and the results compared with the European representative PEF compliant datasets for the production of raw milk, cheese and yoghurt. In addition to the environmental profile, CalcPEFDairy has determined the case study's environmental single score (ESS) for the production of raw milk (1.0 × 10-4) cheese (9.7 × 10-6) and yoghurt (1.4 × 10-5); these ESS results are within the range of the ESS obtained from the analysed EF-datasets. The data sets' average ESS for raw milk is 9.9 × 10-5 ± 1.1 × 10-5, while for cheese and yoghurt are 1.5 × 10-5 ± 3.1 × 10-6 and 1.9 × 10-5 ± 3.4 × 10-6 respectively. A 78% of the raw milk production ESS is attributed to the dairy farm activities while, the raw milk production stage affects in a 87.4% and 80.1% to the ESS for cheese and yoghurt respectively.


Assuntos
Queijo , Indústria de Laticínios , Animais , Pegada de Carbono , Laticínios , Leite , Espanha
17.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 14, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize complementary feeding and to analyze the influence of individual and contextual factors on dietary practices of low birth weight infants. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,370 low birth weight infants aged 6 to 12 months included in the Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey in Brazilian Municipalities (2008), which covered the 26 state capitals, the Federal District and 37 municipalities. Dietary practices were assessed using two indicators: I) dietary diversity, characterized by the consumption of five food groups: meat, beans, vegetables, fruit and milk; II) consumption of ultra-processed foods, characterized by the ingestion of at least one of the following foods on the day prior to the survey: soda, or processed juice, or cookie, cracker and crisps. The covariates of interest were the socioeconomic characteristics of infants, mothers and health services. The contextual factor was the "municipal prevalence of child undernutrition." The individualized effect of the study factors on outcomes was assessed by multilevel Poisson regression. RESULTS: Approximately 59% of infants consumed ultra-processed foods, while 29% had diverse feeding. Mothers living in municipalities with child undernutrition prevalence below 10%, with higher education and working outside the home were more likely to offer dietary diversity. Consumption of ultra-processed foods was higher among infants living in municipalities with child undernutrition prevalence below 10%, whose mothers were younger and multiparous. CONCLUSIONS: The low prevalence of diverse feeding combined with the high prevalence of ultra-processed food consumption characterizes the low quality of feeding of low birth weight Brazilian infants. Individual and contextual factors impact the feeding quality of this population, suggesting the need for effective strategies to increase the consumption of fresh and minimally processed foods and decrease the consumption of ultra-processed foods by this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Infantis/classificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228803, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum vitamin D insufficiency is a public health issue, especially among older women. Sun exposure is fundamental in the production of vitamin D, but older women have less optimal sun exposure. Therefore, factors such as body composition and diet become more essential in sustaining sufficient serum levels of vitamin D. The objective of the current study is to determine factors contributing towards serum vitamin D insufficiency among 214 older women. METHODS: The respondents had their body weight, height, waist circumference and body fat percentage measured, as well as interviewed for their socio-demographic characteristics, sun exposure and dietary intake. Fasting blood samples were obtained from the respondents to measure their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration. RESULTS: There were 82.7% (95% CI: 77.6%, 87.8%) of the respondents that had serum vitamin D insufficiency (< 50 nmol/L) with an average of 37.4 ± 14.3nmol/L. In stepwise multiple linear regression, high percentage of body fat (ß = -0.211, p <0.01) and low consumption of milk and dairy products (ß = 0.135, p <0.05) were the main contributors towards insufficient serum vitamin D levels, but not socio-demographic characteristics, other anthropometric indices, sun exposure and diet quality. CONCLUSION: Older women with high body fat percentage and low dairy product consumption were more likely to have serum vitamin D insufficiency. Older women should ensure their body fat percentage is within a healthy range and consume more milk and dairy products in preventing serum vitamin D insufficiency.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Laticínios , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Malásia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Vitamina D/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
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