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1.
Tex Med ; 116(8): 30-31, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866272

RESUMO

IN TEXAS, COVID-19 outbreaks have been especially pronounced in three types of facilities: nursing homes, jails or prisons, and meatpacking plants. The Amarillo area has plenty of all three. But it was the meatpacking plants that drew national attention to Amarillo's COVID-19 problems. The city, which straddles Potter and Randall counties, has numerous plants that employ 12,000 to 15,000 people. In early April, Amarillo's two hospitals began filling up with COVID-19 patients who worked at a plant in neighboring Moore County. Two weeks later, workers from a plant in Potter County flooded in.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Embalagem de Alimentos , Controle de Infecções , Produtos da Carne/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Texas/epidemiologia
2.
Food Chem ; 330: 126897, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569929

RESUMO

Because of the need to abolish the castration of piglets without anaesthesia/analgesia, the pig industry is searching for a mode of action for the valorisation of meat with boar taint, an off-odour in entire male pigs. Carcasses with boar taint were selected by means of sensory and chemical analysis, after which patties with different levels of tainted boar meat were produced, as well as cooked ham and Frankfurter sausages using different smoke condensates and cooking temperatures. For these products orthonasal and retronasal boar taint odour were assessed by a trained expert panel. The results offer guidance regarding dilution of tainted meat (with <400 µg/kg androstenone if skatole is low or <200 µg/kg androstenone in concurrence with ≥37 µg/kg skatole) and the potential application of smoke condensates (e.g., Rudinsmoke C for sausages and Smokez LFBN for ham) as promising boar taint masking strategies.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Androstenos/análise , Animais , Culinária , Odorantes/análise , Escatol/análise , Fumaça , Suínos
3.
Food Chem ; 329: 127185, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516709

RESUMO

Rabbit is a healthy meat, with low allergenicity and excellent nutritional properties. The global popularity of rabbit meat makes it a target for food fraud. We present a LC-QTOF-MS/MS approach for detecting and identifying rabbit-specific peptide-markers from thermally processed meat products to differentiate rabbit from other commonly-consumed animal species. We identified 49 heat-stable specific peptides. We selected the most stable markers for testing complex meat matrices by analysing pâtés-type products with a rabbit meat content ranging from 5% to 85%. Of the 49 heat-stable peptides detected in pure cooked rabbit meat, three were consistently detected in all investigated pâté samples i.e., SSVFVADPK, AFFGHYLYEVAR and PHSHPALTPEQK. Monitoring meat species other than rabbit in the examined pâtés using pork-, lamb- and chicken-specific peptides identified the presence of undeclared chicken in two samples. The results confirm that LC-QTOF-MS/MS is a suitable tool for multi-species detection in processed meat products, particularly for authentication purposes.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne/análise , Peptídeos/análise , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Culinária , Carne/análise , Coelhos , Ovinos , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Food Chem ; 330: 127268, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540519

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) are natural, volatile and aromatic liquids extracted from special plants. EOs are complex mixture of secondary metabolites (terpenes, phenolic compounds, alcohol). EOs possess a wide range of biological activities including antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory ones. Particularly, EOs exhibit pronounced antibacterial and food preservative properties that represent a real potential for the food industry. Numerous EOs have the potential to be used as a food preservative for meat and meat products, vegetables and fruits as well as for dairy products. The main obstacles for using EOs as food preservatives are their safety limits, marked organoleptic effects and possible contamination by chemical products such as pesticides. This review aims to provide an overview of current knowledge about EOs food preservative properties with special emphasis on their antibacterial activities and to support their uses as natural, eco-friendly, safe and easily biodegradable agents for food preservation.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Carne , Produtos da Carne , Metabolismo Secundário , Terpenos/análise , Verduras
5.
Food Chem ; 330: 127202, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531637

RESUMO

The effect of supercritical fluid extract of tomato pomace (TP) and essential oil of organic peppermint (PM) on pH, color, residual nitrite content, lipid oxidation (TBARS value) and total plate count (TPC) of cooked pork sausages produced with 50 mg/kg of sodium nitrite was investigated. Five batches were produced: T1: 100 mg/kg of sodium nitrite; T2: 50 mg of sodium nitrite; T3: 50 mg of sodium nitrite and 0.150 µL/g TP; T4: 50 mg of sodium nitrite, 0.075 µL/g TP and 0.075 µL/g PM; T5: 50 mg of sodium nitrite and 0.150 µL/g PM. The lowest residual nitrite content and TBARS value were observed in treatment T4. The inclusion of TP increased redness of cooked pork sausages. TPC was the lowest in treatment T5. The results of this study showed that the addition of TP and PM enhanced quality of cooked sausages produced with reduced level of sodium nitrite.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Mentha piperita/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Nitrito de Sódio/química , Animais , Cor , Culinária , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/química , Suínos
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 325: 108625, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361052

RESUMO

Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. The zoonotic HEV genotype 3 is mainly transmitted by consumption of raw and fermented meat products prepared from infected pigs or wild boars. Lowering of pH during fermentation is one of the microbiological hurdles considered to inhibit growth of certain pathogens. However, no data are currently available on pH stability of HEV. As a reliable and reproducible measurement of HEV infectivity in meat products is not established so far, the stability of the cell culture-adapted HEV genotype 3 strain 47832c was analyzed here in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at different pH values. Only a minimal decrease of infectivity (up to 0.6 log10 focus forming units) was found after treatment at pH 2 to 9 for 3 h at room temperature. At pH 10, a decrease of about 3 log10 was evident, whereas no remaining virus (>3.5 log10 decrease) was detected at pH 1. The conditions usually achieved during curing of raw sausages were simulated using D/L-lactic acid added to PBS resulting in pH 4.5 to 6.5. After incubation at 4 °C for 7 days at these conditions, no significant differences as compared to a standard PBS solution at pH 7.7 were evident. At room temperature, a 0.8 log10 decrease was found at pH 4.7 after 7 days incubation compared to pH 7.7, but less at the other pH values. In conclusion, only minimal inactivating effects were found at pH conditions commonly occurring during food processing. Therefore, remaining infectious virus might be present in fermented meat products if HEV-contaminated starting material was used. Additional effects of other factors like high salt concentrations and low aw values should be investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Produtos da Carne/virologia , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Sus scrofa , Suínos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233447, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442194

RESUMO

The food industry is currently shown the concern with low-fat products. This study aims to evaluate the properties of oat ß-glucan(OG)-marine collagen peptide (MCP) mixed gels induced by high pressure at different ratios, pressures, pH levels and the superiority of application in the sausage. The results indicated that the typical gel with high levels of hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness, as well as high water holding and oil adsorption capacities was formed using the OG/MCP ratio of 10:1 under 400 MPa at pH 6.0. The mixed gel replacing with 50% fat significantly increased the springiness and chewing(P<0.05), and sausages with 80% mixed gel were significantly juicier than that of the control sausage(P<0.05). Therefore, OG-MCP mixed gel could be used in the reformulation of low-fat meat products to enhance their safety and nutritional value.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Colágeno/química , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , beta-Glucanas/química , Animais , Cor , Culinária , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Manipulação de Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia , Géis , Humanos , Reologia , Sus scrofa , Paladar
9.
Food Chem ; 324: 126664, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380410

RESUMO

Authentication of meat products is critical in the food industry. Meat adulteration may lead to religious apprehensions, financial gain and food-toxicities such as meat allergies. Thus, empirical validation of the quality and constituents of meat is paramount. Various analytical methods often based on protein or DNA measurements are utilized to identify meat species. Protein-based methods, including electrophoretic and immunological techniques, are at times unsuitable for discriminating closely related species. Most of these methods have been replaced by more accurate and sensitive detection methods, such as DNA-based techniques. Emerging technologies like DNA barcoding and mass spectrometry are still in their infancy when it comes to their utilization in meat detection. Gold nanobiosensors have shown some promise in this regard. However, its applicability in small scale industries is distant. This article comprehensively reviews the recent developments in the field of analytical methods used for porcine identification.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Suínos , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Cromatografia/métodos , DNA/análise , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas , Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas/análise , Análise Espectral/métodos , Suínos/genética
10.
Food Chem ; 326: 127001, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416417

RESUMO

A new food packaging material was developed for beef jerky. The material consists of an esterified potato starch film with 3 different concentrations (2%, 4%, and 6%, w/w) of sea buckthorn pomace extract. The packaged beef jerky was kept in supermarket. The sea buckthorn pomace extract-esterified potato starch film (SPF) packaging significantly reduces the water loss, L*, a*, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) of beef jerky during storage (p < 0.05), demonstrating a protective effect to reduce the deterioration of the quality. However, a high content of sea buckthorn pomace extract in film (6%) also affects the smell of beef jerky. Moreover, SPF effectively inhibits the growth of common spoilage bacteria in beef jerky. These results demonstrated that SPF reduces the deterioration rate of the beef jerky and the decreases the spoilage by bacteria, which both gives SPE a high potential as a new packaging material.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Hippophae/química , Produtos da Carne , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/química , Animais , Bovinos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Nitrogênio/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Carne Vermelha , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
11.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(2): 238-241, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290939

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contamination levels of sodium nitrite in cooked meat from parts of China during 2012-2015. METHODS: The samples were detected in accordance with the national standardization method, and were determined by the GB 2760-2014. RESULTS: The average sodium nitrite in cooked meat was 9. 7 mg/kg with the content range from not detected to 85. 3 mg/kg, and its exceeding standard rate was 4. 8%(922/19360). The average sodium nitrite in visceral products was 16. 6 mg/kg, which was the highest in all kinds of cooked meat. The exceeding standard rate of farmers' market was significantly higher than that of other sampling links. The exceeding standard rate of bulk samples was 5. 8 times of the stereotyped packaging. The exceeding standard rate was downgrade year by year. The main problem was the bulk sauce-stewed meat product in the farm product market which the exceeding standard rate was 9. 5%(327/3461). CONCLUSION: A four-year successive observation shows that the quality of cooked meat with sodium nitrite is improved. But the problem is focused on the bulk. The risk of nitrite in cooked meat is lower.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne/análise , Nitrito de Sódio , China , Culinária , Carne/análise
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20180894, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294693

RESUMO

The paper deals with the possibility of processing category 2 animal byproducts with a ferment preparation. We chose collagen-rich cattle lips and ears as the category 2 byproducts for our study. The selected samples were processed in the following sequence: fixation, rinsing with running water, densifying the samples, slicing into sections, dying sections, and enclosing the sections under cover glass. The pathohistomorphologic changes found in the control samples significantly differ both before the processing and after the use of the ferment preparation Protepsin, which caused destructive metabolic and hydrolytic processes in the dense connective tissue of the ear and lip framework and led to softening of the muscle parenchyma of the organs.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Proteínas/química , Animais , Bovinos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Conservantes de Alimentos , Hidrólise
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20180557, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348408

RESUMO

In Brazil and in other countries of the world, studies have been conducted to identify Listeria monocytogenes in cattle meat that is preferably consumed undercooked and, when marketed without meeting strict phytosanitary requirements, may cause outbreaks of listeriosis. In the such, foodborne outbreaks, the methods used for the detection of the pathogen and the efficiency associated with them are crucial for the proper assessment. In this study, we used the techniques biochemical and molecular for identification of the L. monocytogenes isolated from 30 samples of the fresh beef, marketed in ten butchers' shop of the free-fair from a municipality from the Bahia, Brazil. The results obtained from biochemical tests (catalase, motility, ß-hemolysis and carbohydrate fermentation), as well as PCR analysis for the hly gene (hemolysin production is an important factor in the pathogenesis of listeriosis) revealed that 50% of butchers shops presented bovine meat contaminated with bacteria of the Listeria sp. and confirmed that 54.16% of the analyzed meat samples were positive for L. monocytogenes. This study highlights the importance of microbiological surveillance in free-fair to minimize the exposure of consumers to this foodborne pathogen.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/análise , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Proteínas Hemolisinas/análise , Listeria monocytogenes/genética
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 324: 108624, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302878

RESUMO

Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) confer resistance to antibiotics that are of critical importance to human medicine. There have only been a few reported cases of CPEs in the European food chain. We report the first detection of a carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli (ST 5869) in the Belgian food chain. Our aim was to characterize the origin of the carbapenem resistance in the E. coli isolate. The isolate was detected during the screening of 178 minced pork samples and was shown to contain the carbapenemase gene blaVIM-1 by PCR and Sanger sequencing. Whole genome short and long read sequencing (MiSeq and MinION) was performed to characterize the isolate. With a hybrid assembly we reconstructed a 190,205 bp IncA/C2 plasmid containing blaVIM-1 (S15FP06257_p), in addition to other critically important resistance genes. This plasmid showed only low similarity to plasmids containing blaVIM-1 previously reported in Germany. Moreover, no sequences existed in the NCBI nucleotide database that completely covered S15FP06257_p. Analysis of the blaVIM-1 gene cassette demonstrated that it likely originated from an integron of a Klebsiella plasmid reported previously in a clinical isolate in Europe, suggesting that the meat could have been contaminated by human handling in one of the steps of the food chain. This study shows the relevance of fully reconstructing plasmids to characterize their genetic content and to allow source attribution. This is especially important in view of the potential risk of antimicrobial resistance gene transmission through mobile elements as was reported here for the of public health concern blaVIM-1.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Genes Bacterianos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bélgica , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Integrons , beta-Lactamases/genética
15.
Food Chem ; 321: 126708, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251924

RESUMO

Detection of food adulteration is a challenge. However, the identification of adulterated meat in processed products is important for health and personal preference. Mitochondrial genomic DNA (mtDNA) is a good candidate for reliable identification of meat ingredients; however, the extraction of mtDNA from processed products is a bottleneck for development of detection strategies. Therefore, we constructed a rapid (~5 min) mtDNA extraction device. mtDNAs from different meat samples, such as pork (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus gallus), and beef (Bos taurus), were successfully detected in up to 0.1% adulterated animal species. We believe that the proposed strategy could be applied to detect animal species from processed meat products to reduce fraudulent practices.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/isolamento & purificação , Produtos da Carne , Mitocôndrias/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Sus scrofa/genética , Suínos
16.
Toxicon ; 181: 1-5, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304673

RESUMO

This study investigated the health risks associated with aflatoxins (AFs) in processed meat products (PMP) sold in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The occurrence and levels of AFs were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD), whereas the cancer risk attributed to the consumption of meat products containing AFs was estimated by means of margin of exposure (MOE) on a scale of 100-600, representing high and low exposure, respectively. The results indicated that 37.5% of the samples were contaminated, with concentrations ranging from 0.30 to 52.93 µg/kg, at an average of 6.4 ± 12.58 µg/kg. The percentage contamination levels with total AFs higher than the permissible Saudi limit of 20 µg/kg were 4% of samples analysed and 10% of contaminated samples. AFB1 and AFG1 were the most prevalent toxins, followed by AFB2; AFG2 was not detected in any sample. The MOE was found to be 175 and 311 for total AFs in processed beef meat and poultry meat products, respectively. These results showed that the daily intake of AF-contaminated PMP may constitute a public health concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the health risk associated with PMP contaminated with AFs.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos da Carne , Carne
17.
Food Chem ; 321: 126689, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259732

RESUMO

Peptides and free amino acids are naturally generated in dry-cured ham as a consequence of proteolysis phenomenon exerted by muscle peptidases. The generation of bioactive peptides in different types of dry-cured ham produced in Spain, Italy and China is reviewed in this manuscript. Major muscle proteins are extensively hydrolysed firstly by endogenous endo-peptidases followed by the successive action of exo-peptidases, mainly, tri- and di-peptidylpeptidases, aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases. Such proteolysis is very intense and consists of the generation of large amounts of free amino acids and a good number of peptides with different sequences and lengths, some of them exerting relevant bioactivities like angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity, antioxidant activity, di-peptidylpeptidase IV inhibitory activity among other and in vivo antihypertensive, hypoglycemic or anti-inflammatory activity. This manuscript reviews the recent findings showing that dry-cured ham constitutes a good source of natural bioactive peptides that have potential benefit for human health.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Hidrólise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Proteólise , Suínos
18.
Food Chem ; 321: 126723, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276143

RESUMO

A precise and unambiguous quantitative strategy for six biogenic amines in dry fermented mutton sausage with liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry was developed to investigate the inhibitory effects of star anise, amomum tsao-ko, clove, cassia, fennel, bay leaf, and nutmeg on the accumulation of biogenic amines. Compared the data-dependent MS2 fragmentation (dd-MS2), variable data-independent acquisition (vDIA), and multiplex data-independent acquisition (mDIA), and the mDIA acquisition mode was selected for further analysis. The LODs and LOQs were 0.9-1.5 µg kg-1 and 2.9-5.0 µg kg-1. The maximum inhibition of spice on tryptamine, putrescine, spermidine, 2-phenylethylamine, tyrosamine, and histamine were 21.8%, 19.3%, 27.5%, 24.6%, 18.7% and 24.4%, which revealed that the accumulation of BAs was significantly inhibited by spice extracts, while cassia and fennel extracts showed the best effect. Thus, the established method can provide a better reference for dry fermented mutton sausage quality, safety and trade analysis.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Produtos da Carne , Especiarias , Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Cassia/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Foeniculum , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Histamina/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Especiarias/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
19.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1240-1247, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198774

RESUMO

Mold growth on sausage casing during processing is an important problem in fermented sausages. In this work, sausages were dipped into 1% chitosan (C), 1% thyme essential oil in 1% chitosan (CT), 1% rosemary essential oil in 1% chitosan (CR), 20% potassium sorbate (PS) as chemical antifungal, and 1% acetic acid solution (AA) as chitosan solver, or distilled water (DW) as control after fermentation (at day 4). The changes in microbiological (total viable count, lactic acid bacteria [LAB], Micrococcaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and mold and yeast counts) and physicochemical attributes of the sausages during 12 days of processing were monitored. As expected, LAB were the most dominant microbiota in fermented sausages and the dipping process did not have any negative effect. Additionally, the treatment with C, CT, and CR suppressed the growth of spoilage microorganisms, which resulted in a significant reduction (P < 0.01) of about 1.4 to 1.6 log CFU/g in Enterobacteriaceae counts at day 12. The C, CT, and CR similarly suppressed the growth of fungi in the interior of the sausages, and the antifungal treatment significantly reduced (P < 0.01) the load of fungi on the casing. Throughout the study, approximately log counts of 3 and 4 in lower molds and yeasts in the casings treated with PS and CR were found, respectively, as compared to DW. Finally, the microbial quality of the end product was notably improved. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Processing conditions such as high humidity and O2 in the ripening chamber result in undesirable fungal growth on the casings of the sausages. Fermented sausages are usually treated with weak acids such as sorbic or benzoic acids or their salts to inhibit mold growth during the drying process. However, increasing consumer demand to reduce the use of chemicals encourages the applications of natural antifungals.


Assuntos
Quitosana/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Fermentação , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos da Carne/análise , Óleos Voláteis
20.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1256-1264, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222052

RESUMO

The processing of traditional poultry- and pork-based semidried fermented smoked sausages needs to be modernized to improve product quality and further extend its shelf life. The aim of the present study was to apply different combinations of high pressure (300 to 600 MPa) and time (154 to 1,800 s) on the sausages using an experimental design based on response surface methodology. The chemical, microbial, and sensory characteristics of sausages treated with high-pressure processing (HPP) were investigated. HPP application to semidried fermented sausages resulted in color changes, which could be dependent on the ingredients, formulation, and smoking conditions used. Nevertheless, none of the HPP treatments applied resulted in detectable changes in sensory properties, as tested in a triangle test and confirmed by the analysis of focus groups assessment. Significant differences were detected for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts from 344 MPa and 1,530 s onward, with a marked decrease for the combination of 600 MPa and 960 s (P < 0.05). Coagulase-negative staphylococci showed higher tolerance to the increase in pressure than LAB. HPP induced a microbial reduction on Enterobacteriaceae, molds, and yeasts, minimizing the production of the main biogenic amines. However, the polyamines (spermine and spermidine) increased since their metabolic use by microorganisms did not occur. Given the reduction of the main spoilage microbial indicators with no detectable sensory changes observed with the binomial condition of 600 MPa and 960 s, this was chosen as the optimal combination to be further applied. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results from sensory analysis revealed that any of the HPP treatments applied resulted in detectable changes in sensory properties, as tested in a triangle test and confirmed by the analysis of the focus groups speeches.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/química , Pressão Hidrostática , Produtos da Carne/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Aves Domésticas , Suínos
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