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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21055, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629732

RESUMO

Food allergen and aeroallergen sensitization are common allergic diseases worldwide, with widely varying estimates of prevalence in children. Our study investigated the characteristics of ingestion and inhalation allergy among children from Sichuan province in Southwest China, so as to get public awareness of these disorders.A total of 1722 children between 0 and 14 years' old were enrolled in this study. They were outpatients in the West China Second University Hospital during June 2019 to September 2019. Serum specific IgE specific to 10 types of food allergen and 10 types of aeroallergen were estimated. Nutrition indicators were tested by electrochemical luminescence.59.70% children were allergic to at least 1 allergen, comprising 24.90% to aeroallergen and 38.81% to food allergen, respectively, whereas 36.28% children were allergic to both aeroallergen and food allergen. Milk was the most common food allergen, and egg came in second place. With regard to aeroallergen, house dust mite held the maximum proportion (65.02%), whereas dust mite followed behind. Inhalation allergy was more commonly seen in boys than girls. Bronchitis was the most common symptom of both allergies. In addition, the highest incidence age for children to be sensitive to food allergen and aeroallergen were 0∼2 years' old and 3∼5 years' old, respectively. It is worth mentioning that there was no significant difference in nutritional status between children with or without allergic diseases.Our findings reveal that milk, egg, house dust mite, and dust mite are the most common allergens among children in Sichuan province. Boys are more susceptible to aeroallergen than girls. Furthermore, the prevalence of ingestion and inhalation allergy varies from different age groups, and has no correlation with nutritional status. In brief, the analysis of the pattern of food allergen and aeroallergen sensitization is invaluable to effective diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Imunização/métodos , Adolescente , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Conscientização , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Bronquite/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inalação/imunologia , Masculino , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Estado Nutricional/imunologia , Prevalência , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia
2.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518627

RESUMO

The hormone leptin plays a critical role in energy homeostasis, although our overall understanding of acutely changing leptin levels still needs improvement. Several developments allow a fresh look at recent and early data on leptin action. This review highlights select recent publications that are relevant for understanding the role played by dynamic changes in circulating leptin levels. We further discuss the relevance for our current understanding of leptin signaling in central neuronal feeding and energy expenditure circuits and highlight cohesive and discrepant findings that need to be addressed in future studies to understand how leptin couples with physiological adaptations of food intake and energy expenditure.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Homeostase , Leptina/fisiologia , Humanos
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 152: 110925, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479297

RESUMO

The accumulation of plastic pollutants in marine environments has many adverse effects on wildlife. In particular, marine predators are often exposed to accidental plastic ingestion, that may negatively affect survival due to the concentration of debris in the digestive tract. Among the species most vulnerable to plastic ingestion, seabirds are of major interest for conservation because of their wide foraging areas, long generation time and extended lifespan. We analysed stomach contents of 90 seabird specimens from 12 different species collected in New Caledonia to assess the local prevalence of plastic ingestion. Overall, we found plastic debris in 14.4% of sampled individuals, exclusively in procellariids: Gould's Petrel (41.2%, highest incidence), Tahiti Petrel (33.3%) and Wedge-tailed Shearwater (7.7%). To our knowledge, this study is the first characterization of plastic ingestion in seabirds from New Caledonia and our results show an overall lower ingestion prevalence compared to other assessments in the tropical Pacific.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Aves , Ingestão de Alimentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nova Caledônia , Resíduos/análise
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 156: 111249, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510391

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to identify impacts of plastic ingestion by the ecologically important rocky shore crab Pachygrapsus transversus. We sampled individuals from August 2019 to January 2020 in a reef environment and determined their body condition and diet diversity. In order to test our hypothesis that plastic retention in the foregut is able to decrease the condition factor, we compared it between contaminated and non-contaminated individuals. A correlation test of number of ingested plastic fibres against trophic diversity was made to corroborate the hypothesis that plastic ingestion modifies the feeding patterns. Our results demonstrated that contaminated individuals had lower body condition. Also, we confirmed that debris ingestion can influence feeding patterns. These outcomes were probably linked to starvation and nutrient loss effects. We discussed that this crab is a potential sentinel specie for addressing impacts of solid pollution and a candidate for monitoring plastic contamination in reef environments.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Comportamento Alimentar , Plásticos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20849, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ingestion of a foreign body can cause different degrees of damage to esophagus, and several complications are potentially life-threatening if not properly handled. The aortic injury caused by a perforating esophageal foreign body is rare but lethal. The optimal management still remains controversial. The purpose of this report is to describe our experience in the management of the aortic injury caused by esophageal foreign body ingestion. METHODS: Between January 2015 and December 2015, we retrospectively enrolled cases of esophageal perforation involving the aorta by foreign body. The general parameters, esophageal foreign body, types of aortic injury, treatment, and outcome were analyzed. Additionally, we reviewed the literature of the management of esophageal perforation involving the aorta caused by foreign bodies. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, and the need for informed consent was waived (Quick review 2019, No. 609). RESULTS: Three cases of esophageal perforation involving the aorta by foreign body was selected in the study. Two male and 1 female patients (range, 51-58 years old) with the aorta involvement caused by a perforating foreign body in the esophagus in 3 forms were identified, including 1 patient with mycotic aortic pseudoaneurysm, 1 patient with aortoesophageal fistula and 1 patient with the aortic intramural hematoma. One patient died of the rupture of the pseudoaneurysm during the preparation of the surgery. The other 2 patients were cured with a multidisciplinary approach, which is an urgent thoracic endovascular aortic repair followed by mediastinal debridement/drainage or endoscopic retrieval. Two of 3 patients were survived until now. CONCLUSION: The management of the aortic injury caused by esophageal foreign body injury is challenging. Early diagnosis and multidisciplinary management is crucial.


Assuntos
Aorta/lesões , Corpos Estranhos/complicações , Falso Aneurisma/complicações , Angiografia/métodos , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/patologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fístula Esofágica/complicações , Perfuração Esofágica/complicações , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
6.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202356, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of "ultra-early" postoperative feeding (oral liquid diet offered in the post-anesthetic recovery room) in patients undergoing common general surgical procedures and to assess the volume of intravenous fluids, as well as the rate of complications and the length of hospital stay. METHODS: Prospective, observational study, which assessed the compliance with the "ultra-early" feeding, the reduction of preoperative fasting time, the perioperative venous hydration volume, the length of stay and the operative morbidity. RESULTS: 154 patients with a mean age of 46 ± 15 years were followed. "Ultra-early" feeding was performed in 144 cases (93.5%). Patients who did not receive the "ultra-early" feeding received a significantly greater volume of postoperative intravenous fluids (500mL versus 200mL, p = 0.018). The length of stay was 2.4 ± 2.79 days (conventional feeding) versus 1.45 ± 1.83 days ("ultra-early" feeding), with no statistical difference (p = 0.133). There was no difference in the percentage of general complications (p = 0.291), vomiting (p = 0.696) or surgical infection (p = 0.534). CONCLUSION: "Ultra-early" feeding had a high adherence by patients undergoing common general surgical procedures, and it was related to decreased infusion of postoperative fluids. Complication rates and the length of stay were similar between groups.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(8): 977-982, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We considered the effect of dysphagia rehabilitation and investigated parameters associated with the resumption of oral intake in the elderly patients receiving home nursing care who were not eating by mouth. METHODS: The participants were 116 patients aged ≥65 years (66 men and 50 women, mean age 79.7 ± 8.9 years) who were receiving home nursing care and not eating by mouth because of dysphagia. All patients underwent dysphagia rehabilitation for 6 months with the objective of resuming oral intake. After 6 months of dysphagia rehabilitation, the patients' eating status was assessed using the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) and the associations of the post-intervention FOIS score with age, history of pneumonia, duration of enteral nutrition, body mass index (BMI), alertness, physical function (ability to walk) and swallowing function at the initial examination. RESULTS: Functional Oral Intake Scale scores increased significantly after 6 months rather than those at the initial evaluation (P < .001). Eighty patients (69.0%) resumed oral intake (FOIS score ≥2), thirty patients (25.9%) of whom became capable of daily oral intake (FOIS score ≥3). Swallowing function was associated with the resumption of oral intake. In addition, physical function before dysphagia rehabilitation was an important factor to resume daily oral intake. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest that the resumption of oral intake by patients receiving enteral nutrition requires improvement in swallowing function. In addition, anyone who cannot walk may not recover daily oral intake.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Nutrição Enteral , Feminino , Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Nature ; 581(7807): 194-198, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404998

RESUMO

Daily changes in light and food availability are major time cues that influence circadian timing1. However, little is known about the circuits that integrate these time cues to drive a coherent circadian output1-3. Here we investigate whether retinal inputs modulate entrainment to nonphotic cues such as time-restricted feeding. Photic information is relayed to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-the central circadian pacemaker-and the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) through intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs)4. We show that adult mice that lack ipRGCs from the early postnatal stages have impaired entrainment to time-restricted feeding, whereas ablation of ipRGCs at later stages had no effect. Innervation of ipRGCs at early postnatal stages influences IGL neurons that express neuropeptide Y (NPY) (hereafter, IGLNPY neurons), guiding the assembly of a functional IGLNPY-SCN circuit. Moreover, silencing IGLNPY neurons in adult mice mimicked the deficits that were induced by ablation of ipRGCs in the early postnatal stages, and acute inhibition of IGLNPY terminals in the SCN decreased food-anticipatory activity. Thus, innervation of ipRGCs in the early postnatal period tunes the IGLNPY-SCN circuit to allow entrainment to time-restricted feeding.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Luz , Vias Neurais , Retina/fisiologia , Animais , Axônios/fisiologia , Axônios/efeitos da radiação , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos da radiação , Sinais (Psicologia) , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos da radiação , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Corpos Geniculados/citologia , Corpos Geniculados/fisiologia , Corpos Geniculados/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Camundongos , Vias Neurais/efeitos da radiação , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Retina/citologia , Retina/efeitos da radiação , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/efeitos da radiação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/citologia , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/fisiologia , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/efeitos da radiação , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126632, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443225

RESUMO

Flame retardants (FRs) from electronic waste (e-waste) are a widespread environmental concern. In our study, in vitro physiologically based extraction tests (PBETs) for FRs were conducted in three different areas where dust remained after processing of e-waste to identify the bioaccessible FRs and quantify their bioaccessibilities of gastrointestinal tract for human as well as to assess the exposure via ingestion of workers in e-waste processing workshops. All 36 FRs were measured and detected in indoor dusts. Among the FRs, the mean concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the floor dust and settled dust were highest, 65,000 ng/g, and 31,000 ng/g, respectively. In contrast, phosphorus-containing flame retardants (PFRs) presented the highest mean concentration in the workplace dust samples, 64,000 ng/g. However, the highest bioaccessible concentrations in workplace dust, floor dust, and settled dust were observed for PFRs: 5900, 1600, and 680 ng/g, respectively. This study revealed that the higher bioaccessibility of PFRs versus other compounds was related to the negative correlation between FR concentrations and log KOW (hydrophobicity) values. The fact that hazard indices calculated using measured bioaccessibilities were less than 1 suggested that the non-cancer risk to human health by the FRs exposure via dust ingestion might be low.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Ingestão de Alimentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Medição de Risco , Vietnã
10.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(6): 524-534, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445739

RESUMO

Insulin acts on the CNS to modulate behaviour and systemic metabolism. Disturbances in brain insulin action represent a possible link between metabolic and cognitive health. Current findings from human research suggest that boosting central insulin action in the brain modulates peripheral metabolism, enhancing whole-body insulin sensitivity and suppressing endogenous glucose production. Moreover, central insulin action curbs food intake by reducing the salience of highly palatable food cues and increasing cognitive control. Animal models show that the mesocorticolimbic circuitry is finely tuned in response to insulin, driven mainly by the dopamine system. These mechanisms are impaired in people with obesity, which might increase their risk of developing type 2 diabetes and associated diseases. Overall, current findings highlight the role of insulin action in the brain and its consequences on peripheral metabolism and cognition. Hence, improving central insulin action could represent a therapeutic option for people at an increased risk of developing metabolic and cognitive diseases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Insulina/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/sangue , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia
11.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114353, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443205

RESUMO

The presence of microplastics in aquatic ecosystems has recently received increased attention. Small plastic particles may resemble natural food items of larval fish and other aquatic organisms, and create strong selective pressures on the feeding traits in exposed populations. Here, we examined if larval ingestion of 90 µm polystyrene microspheres, in the presence of zooplankton (Artemia nauplii, mean length = 433 µm), shows adaptive variation in the European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus). A full-factorial experimental breeding design allowed us to estimate the relative contributions of male (sire) and female (dam) parents and full-sib family variance in early feeding traits, and also genetic (co)variation between these traits. We also monitored the magnitude of intake and elimination of microplastics from the alimentary tracts of the larvae. In general, larval whitefish ingested small numbers of microplastics (mean = 1.8, range = 0-26 particles per larva), but ingestion was marginally affected by the dam, and more strongly by the full-sib family variation. Microsphere ingestion showed no statistically significant additive genetic variation, and thus, no heritability. Moreover, microsphere ingestion rate covaried positively with the ingestion of Artemia, further suggesting that larvae cannot adaptively avoid microsphere ingestion. Together with the detected strong genetic correlation between food intake and microplastic intake, the results suggest that larval fish do not readily possess additive genetic variation that would help them to adapt to the increasing pollution by microplastics. The conflict between feeding on natural food and avoiding microplastics deserves further attention.


Assuntos
Salmonidae , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Larva , Masculino , Microplásticos , Plásticos
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 155: 111143, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469768

RESUMO

Pollution of marine environments is concerning for complex trophic systems. Two anthropogenic stresses associated with marine pollution are the introduction of marine plastic and their associated chemicals (e.g., trace elements) which, when ingested, may cause harm to wildlife. Here we explore the relationship between plastic ingestion and trace element burden in the breast muscle of Short-tailed Shearwaters (Ardenna tenuirostris). We found no relationship between the amount of plastic ingested and trace element concentration in the birds' tissues. Though the mass and number of plastic items ingested by birds during 1969-2017 did not change significantly, trace element concentrations of some elements (Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr and Cd), appeared to have increased in birds sampled in 2017 compared to limited data from prior studies. We encourage policy which considers the data gleaned from this sentinel species to monitor the anthropogenic alteration of the marine environment.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Oligoelementos , Animais , Aves , Ingestão de Alimentos , Monitoramento Ambiental
13.
Science ; 368(6492): 746-753, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409471

RESUMO

Malarial rhythmic fevers are the consequence of the synchronous bursting of red blood cells (RBCs) on completion of the malaria parasite asexual cell cycle. Here, we hypothesized that an intrinsic clock in the parasite Plasmodium chabaudi underlies the 24-hour-based rhythms of RBC bursting in mice. We show that parasite rhythms are flexible and lengthen to match the rhythms of hosts with long circadian periods. We also show that malaria rhythms persist even when host food intake is evenly spread across 24 hours, suggesting that host feeding cues are not required for synchrony. Moreover, we find that the parasite population remains synchronous and rhythmic even in an arrhythmic clock mutant host. Thus, we propose that parasite rhythms are generated by the parasite, possibly to anticipate its circadian environment.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Febre/fisiopatologia , Febre/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Malária/fisiopatologia , Malária/parasitologia , Plasmodium chabaudi/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas CLOCK/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Sinais (Psicologia) , Escuridão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Plasmodium chabaudi/genética , Transcrição Genética
14.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(11): 1520-1522, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427468

RESUMO

Accumulating data have now shown strong evidence that COVID-19 infection leads to the occurrence of neurological signs with different injury severity. Anosmia and agueusia are now well documented and included in the criteria list for diagnosis, and specialists have stressed that doctors screen COVID-19 patients for these two signs. The eventual brainstem dysregulation, due to the invasion of SARS CoV-2, as a cause of respiratory problems linked to COVID-19, has also been extensively discussed. All these findings lead to an implication of the central nervous system in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Here we provide additional elements that could explain other described signs like appetite loss, vomiting, and nausea. For this, we investigated the role of brainstem structures located in the medulla oblongata involved in food intake and vomiting control. We also discussed the possible pathways the virus uses to reach the brainstem, i.e., neurotropic and hematogenous (with its two variants) routes.


Assuntos
Anorexia/fisiopatologia , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Náusea/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Solitário/fisiopatologia , Vômito/fisiopatologia , Ageusia/etiologia , Anorexia/etiologia , Área Postrema/fisiopatologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Hipotálamo/fisiopatologia , Bulbo/fisiopatologia , Náusea/etiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Nervo Olfatório , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Nervo Vago , Vômito/etiologia
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(23): 29666-29671, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468371

RESUMO

Glyphosate is a systemic herbicide still used in many countries, though there are several known detrimental effects on animals. Previous studies concerning its effects on social insects are available, but they are primarily focused on honeybees; little is known about the interactions of this compound with ants. Here, we assessed whether different concentrations of glyphosate can be perceived by ant workers and to what extent. As a model species, we used the Mediterranean ant Crematogaster scutellaris, commonly found in agroecosystems. We performed 3000 individual tests of acceptance using ten different solutions of various concentrations of the herbicide. Half of the solutions contained added sucrose in order to test the possible masking effect of the sugar taste on glyphosate. We used comparable glyphosate concentrations to those previously used in other studies on social insects or suggested by the producer. We found that the acceptance of the solutions decreased as the concentration of the herbicide increased. However, a significant percentage of ants drank the solutions with concentrations up to dozens of times higher than those inducing toxic effects in bees. In light of these results, we urge further assessment of the effects of glyphosate on ants, particularly because the food ingested by workers is transferred to the brood and queens, posing a potential threat to the health of the entire colony. Surprisingly, we did not record any difference in acceptance between solutions with and without sugar; this point is discussed regarding drought stress.


Assuntos
Formigas , Herbicidas , Animais , Abelhas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Humanos
16.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367123

RESUMO

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of divergent genetic selection for residual feed intake (RFI) on nitrogen (N) metabolism and lysine utilization in growing pigs. Twenty-four gilts (body weight [BW] 66 ± 5 kg) were selected from generation nine of the low RFI (LRFI; n = 12) and high RFI (HRFI; n = 12) Iowa State University Yorkshire RFI selection lines. Six pigs from each genetic line were assigned to each of two levels of lysine intake: 70% and 100% of estimated requirements based on the potential of each genetic line for protein deposition (PD) and feed intake. For all diets, lysine was first limiting among amino acids. Using isotope tracer, N-balance, and nutrient digestibility evaluation approaches, whole-body N metabolism and the efficiency of lysine utilization were determined for each treatment group. No significant interaction effects of line and diet on dietary N or gross energy digestibility, PD, and the efficiency of lysine utilization for PD were observed. The line did not have a significant effect on PD and digestibility of dietary N and GE. An increase in lysine intake improved N retention in both lines (from 15.0 to 19.6 g/d, SE 1.44, in LRFI pigs; and from 16.9 to 19.8 g/d, SE 1.67, in HRFI pigs; P < 0.01). At the low lysine intakes and when lysine clearly limited PD, the efficiency of using available lysine intake (above maintenance requirements) for PD was 80% and 91% (SE 4.6) for the LRFI and HRFI pigs, respectively (P = 0.006). There were no significant effects of line or of the line by diet interaction on N flux, protein synthesis, and protein degradation. Lysine intake significantly increased (P < 0.05) N flux (from 119 to 150, SE 8.7 g/d), protein synthesis (from 99 to 117, SE 10.6 g of N/d), and protein degradation (from 85 to 100, SE 6.6 g of N/d). The protein synthesis-to-retention ratio tended to be higher in the LRFI line compared with the HRFI line (6.5 vs. 5.8 SE 0.62; P = 0.06), indicating a tendency for the lower efficiency of PD in this group. Collectively, these results indicate that genetic selection for low RFI is not associated with improvements in lysine utilization efficiency, protein turnover, and nutrient digestibility.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Lisina/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
17.
PLoS Biol ; 18(5): e3000721, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463838

RESUMO

Dietary nutrients provide macromolecules necessary for organism growth and development. In response to animal feeding, evolutionarily conserved growth signaling pathways are activated, leading to increased rates of cell proliferation and tissue growth. It remains unclear how different cell types within developing tissues coordinate growth in response to dietary nutrients and whether coordinated growth of different cell types is necessary for proper tissue function. Here, we report that Drosophila neural stem cells, known as neuroblasts, reactivate from developmental quiescence in a dietary-nutrient-dependent manner. Neuroblast reactivation in the brain requires nonautonomous activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) signaling from cortex glia and tracheal processes, both of which are closely associated with neuroblasts. Furthermore, PI3-kinase activation in neuroblasts is required nonautonomously for glial membrane expansion and robust neuroblast-glial contact. Finally, PI3-kinase is required cell autonomously for nutrient-dependent growth of neuroblasts, glia, and trachea. Of the 7 Drosophila insulin-like peptides (Dilps), we find that Dilp-2 is required for PI3-kinase activation and growth coordination between neuroblasts and glia in the brain. Dilp-2 induces brain cortex glia to initiate membrane growth and make first contact with quiescent neuroblasts. After contact, neuroblasts increase in size and reenter S-phase. Once reactivated from quiescence, neuroblasts promote growth of cortex glia, which, in turn, form a selective membrane barrier around neuroblasts and their newborn progeny. Our results highlight the importance of bidirectional growth signaling between neural stem cells and surrounding cell types in the brain in response to nutrition and demonstrate how coordinated growth among different cell types drives tissue morphogenesis and function.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco Neurais/fisiologia , Neuroglia/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila/enzimologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ativação Enzimática , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Morfogênese , Transdução de Sinais , Nicho de Células-Tronco
18.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(2): 211-220, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460236

RESUMO

Background: Data suggest that metabolic health status, incorporating components of metabolic syndrome (MetS), predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk better than BMI. This study explored the association of MetS and obesity with endothelial function, a prognostic risk factor for incident CVD. Methods: Forty-four participants were phenotyped according to BMI as non-obese vs obese (<30 or >30 kg/m2) and according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria of MetS: ≤2 criteria MetS (MetS-) vs ≥3 criteria MetS (MetS+); (1.)non-obese MetS- vs (2.) non-obese MetS+ and (3.) obese MetS- vs (4.) obese MetS+. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), body composition including liver fat (MRI and spectroscopy), dietary intake, intensities of habitual physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness were determined. Variables were analysed using a one-factor between-groups ANOVA and linear regression; mean (95% CI) are presented. Results: Individuals with MetS+ displayed lower FMD than those with MetS-. For non-obese individuals mean difference between MetS+ and MetS- was 4.1% ((1.0, 7.3); P = 0.004) and obese individuals had a mean difference between MetS+ and MetS- of 6.2% ((3.1, 9.2); P < 0.001). Although there was no association between BMI and FMD (P = 0.27), an increased number of MetS components was associated with a lower FMD (P = 0.005), and after adjustment for age and sex, 19.7% of the variance of FMD was explained by MetS, whereas only 1.1% was explained by BMI. Conclusions: In this study cohort, components of MetS, rather than obesity per se, contribute to reduced FMD, which suggests a reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide and thus increased risk of CVD.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Vasodilatação , Adiposidade , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Ingestão de Alimentos , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física , Fatores de Risco
19.
Chem Biol Interact ; 325: 109132, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol increases the risk of developing colon cancer (CRC), in part via tissue inflammation and impaired barrier integrity. Circadian dyssynchrony (CD) is an understudied but common lifestyle associated factor that increases the risk of multi-organ tissue injury and number of malignancies including CRC. Our prior studies showed that the shift in light-dark cycle exacerbates barrier dysfunction and colonic inflammation in the setting of alcohol treatment, and increases the risk of CRC. Here we studied the interaction of alcohol with an abnormal eating pattern on markers of CD and colonic barrier integrity. METHOD: Mice were subjected to day (rest-phase = wrong-time WT) or night-time (active-phase = right-time RT) access to food in combination with access to water or 15% alcohol for total duration of 10 weeks. The food and liquid intake was measured. The locomotor activity data was recorded throughout the study, using a beam-break system. Mice were euthanized at two time points (ZT2 and ZT14). Time variation in the expression of the molecular marker of circadian clock (per2 gene) was measured in the central (hypothalamus) and intestinal (colon) tissue. Colonic protein expression of barrier markers (Occludin and Claudin-1) was studied. RESULTS: No significant differences were present in the weight gain and alcohol intake among the groups over the study period. We observed an interaction of WT eating with alcohol on behavioral markers of circadian rhythm. Compared to the RT + Water treated animals ("reference group"), combination of WT eating and alcohol consumption (WT + Alcohol) significantly changed the per2 oscillatory pattern, that was different between the colon and hypothalamus, indicative of worsening circadian dyssynchrony. This was associated with an overall impaired expression of barrier integrity markers in the colon. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol induces circadian dyssynchrony which is worsened by abnormal food timing, associated with impaired barrier integrity in the colon. Future studies on the interaction of alcohol and food timing could provide further insights into alcohol associated CRC pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/patologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Colo/lesões , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(2): 361-373, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451030

RESUMO

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex remains one of the greatest challenges facing beef cattle producers, veterinarians, and feedlot managers. In receiving, stocker/backgrounding, and feedlot cattle, BRD has been associated with decreased dry matter intake and daily gain, resulting in economic losses during the feeding period. Inflammation associated with BRD has the potential to decrease carcass yield and quality. Newly received calves are at various risks to contract BRD. Proper nutrition for newly received calves is key to recovery from stress associated with weaning and transport. This article reviews nutrient impacts on BRD and BRD impacts on nutrient metabolism.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino/metabolismo , Animais , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/fisiopatologia , Bovinos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Nutrientes , Estado Nutricional
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