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1.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(4): 276-279, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268630

RESUMO

MicroRNA (miRNA) are a class of small non-coding single-stranded RNA that exert their biological effects by binding to target messenger RNA (mRNA). There is new evidence that miRNA may play an important role in regulating the growth and development of mandibular condylar cartilage. In this paper, the production and mechanism of miRNA are reviewed, and the progress of studies on the growth and development of mandibular condylar cartilage, which is helpful to further study the growth and development of mandibular condylar cartilage.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Côndilo Mandibular/crescimento & desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs , Cartilagem , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro
3.
Plant Dis ; 104(3): 677-687, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958247

RESUMO

The effects of winter cover crops on root disease and growth of corn and soybeans are poorly understood. A 3-year field experiment investigated the effect of winter cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) and winter camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz), used either in all three years or in rotation with each other, on corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max. [L.] Merr.) growth, root disease, and yield. Corn following a cover crop of camelina had reduced root disease, a lower Pythium population in seedling roots, and greater growth and yields compared with corn following a rye cover crop. Camelina and rye cover crops before soybean had either a positive or no effect on soybean growth and development, root disease, and yield. Moreover, Pythium clade B populations were greater in corn seedlings after a rye cover crop compared with those following a camelina cover crop, whereas clade F populations were greater on soybean seedlings following a camelina cover crop compared with seedlings following a rye cover crop. A winter camelina cover crop grown before corn had less-negative effects on corn seedling growth, root disease, and final yield than a winter rye cover crop before corn. Neither cover crop had negative effects on soybean, and the cover crop in the preceding spring had no measurable effects on either corn or soybean.


Assuntos
Soja , Zea mays , Agricultura , Produção Agrícola , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Plântula
4.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(1): 82-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948530

RESUMO

There are various types of bioactive substances in human breast milk, such as active proteins, growth factors, cytokines, oligosaccharides, probiotics and cells. Many studies have shown that these bioactive substances in breast milk have important protective effects on infant growth and development, including anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects and the promotion of infant growth and development and immunologic maturation. They can also reduce the incidence rate of infectious diseases in infants, improve neural development in preterm infants, and reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes in future. However, there is still no clinical evidence for the effects of several active substances in breast milk, and their immunoregulatory mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, further studies are needed for clarification.


Assuntos
Leite Humano , Probióticos , Bactérias , Feminino , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 519-535, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646524

RESUMO

The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 2 (CaMK-II) was first discovered in brain tissue and shown to have a central role in long term potentiation, responding to Ca2+ elevations through voltage dependent channels. CaMK-II has a unique molecular mechanism that enables it to remain active in proportion to the degree (frequency and amplitude) of Ca2+ elevations, long after such elevations have subsided. Ca2+ is also a rapid activator of early development and CaMK-II is expressed and activated in early development. Using biochemical, pharmacological and genetic approaches, the functions of CaMK-II overlap remarkably well with those for Ca2+ elevations, post-fertilization. Conclusion. Activated CaMK-II plays a central role in decoding Ca2+ signals to activate specific events during early development; a majority of the known functions of elevated Ca2+ act though CaMK-II.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina , Potenciação de Longa Duração , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Humanos , Potenciação de Longa Duração/fisiologia
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112223, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553926

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Arecae semen has been used as vermifuge and digestant in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for more than one thousand years. However, the toxicity effect of areca semen and its underlying mechanism are still unclear. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was aimed to investigate the toxicity of arecae semen and to explore its mechanisms by serum metabolomics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The male Wistar rats were divided into the control group and treated group (n = 6 in each group), which were given by gavage with distill water or arecae semen aqueous extract (ASAE) once a day for 30 days, respectively. Serum samples were collected from all the rats after treatment of 7-day, 14-day and 30-day for metabolomics analysis. Moreover, biochemistry analysis and histopathological examination were performed at the end of study. RESULTS: The phenomenon of diarrhea, less physical activity, tremors and body curl up were observed in the treated group. Additionally, the body weights of treated rats were significantly decreased compared with control rats from the 8th day after oral administration. Except the level of creatinekinase (CK) in the treated group significantly increased compared with the control group, there were no differences on biochemistry parameters and histopathological test in the two groups. Combined with the methods of principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal projection to latent structure-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) and available databases, the treated and control rats were clearly distinguished from each other and 19 metabolites were identified as the potential biomarkers in the arecae semen treated rats. The identified biomarkers indicated that there were perturbations of the phospholipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and fat acid metabolism in the treated group. CONCLUSIONS: This indicated that arecae semen possessed certain cardiotoxicity and inhibited the normal growth in Wistar male rats. In addition, the metabolomics approach is a useful tool to study the toxicity in TCM.


Assuntos
Areca/química , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/sangue , Cardiotoxicidade/diagnóstico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/toxicidade , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , Testes de Toxicidade , Água/química
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5640, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822674

RESUMO

Transposable elements (TEs) have deposited functional regulatory elements throughout the human genome. Although most are silenced, certain TEs have been co-opted by the host. However, a comprehensive, multidimensional picture of the contribution of TEs to normal human gene regulation is still lacking. Here, we quantify the epigenomic status of TEs across human anatomy and development using data from the Roadmap Epigenomics Project. We find that TEs encompass a quarter of the human regulatory epigenome, and 47% of elements can be in an active regulatory state. We demonstrate that SINEs are enriched relative to other classes for active and transcribed marks, that TEs encompass a higher proportion of enhancer states in the hematopoietic lineage, and that DNA methylation of Alu elements decreases with age, corresponding with a loss of CpG islands. Finally, we identify TEs that may perform an evolutionarily conserved regulatory function, providing a systematic profile of TE activity in normal human tissue.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Epigenômica , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/genética , Envelhecimento/genética , Elementos Alu , Animais , Sequência Conservada/genética , Epigênese Genética , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Camundongos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética
8.
Prog Orthod ; 20(1): 41, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growth and development can be determined by cervical vertebrae stages that were defined on the cephalometric radiograph. Artificial intelligence has the ability to perform a variety of activities, such as prediction-classification in many areas of life, by using different algorithms, In this study, we aimed to determine cervical vertebrae stages (CVS) for growth and development periods by the frequently used seven artificial intelligence classifiers, and to compare the performance of these algorithms with each other. METHODS: Cephalometric radiographs, that were obtained from 300 individuals aged between 8 and 17 years were included in our study. Nineteen reference points were defined on second, third, and 4th cervical vertebrae, and 20 different linear measurements were taken. Seven algorithms of artificial intelligence that are frequently used in the field of classification were selected and compared. These algorithms are k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), Naive Bayes (NB), decision tree (Tree), artificial neural networks (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and logistic regression (Log.Regr.) algorithms. RESULTS: According to confusion matrices decision tree, CSV1 (97.1%)-CSV2 (90.5%), SVM: CVS3 (73.2%)-CVS4 (58.5%), and kNN: CVS 5 (60.9%)-CVS 6 (78.7%) were the algorithms with the highest accuracy in determining cervical vertebrae stages. The ANN algorithm was observed to have the second-highest accuracy values (93%, 89.7%, 68.8%, 55.6%, and 78%, respectively) in determining all stages except CVS5 (47.4% third highest accuracy value). According to the average rank of the algorithms in predicting the CSV classes, ANN was the most stable algorithm with its 2.17 average rank. CONCLUSION: In our experimental study, kNN and Log.Regr. algorithms had the lowest accuracy values. SVM-RF-Tree and NB algorithms had varying accuracy values. ANN could be the preferred method for determining CVS.


Assuntos
Ortodontia , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial , Teorema de Bayes , Vértebras Cervicais , Criança , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Humanos
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(10): 3491-3500, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621236

RESUMO

The dynamic simulation of cucumber growth and development in sunlight greenhouse can provide technical support for the intelligent management of cucumber production. According to the cucumber response characteristics to light and temperature, the cucumber development module based on the algorithm of clock model was established by using data from four-stage experiment with 'Jinyou 35' as experiment variety in two years. Based on the relationship between the leaf growth and key meteorological factors (temperature and radiation), leaf area index (LAI) module was established with the accumulated product of thermal effectiveness and photosynthetically active radiation (TEP) as independent variables. The simulation module of cucumber dry matter production was established by taking into consideration the double integral of LAI and daily length in photosynthesis per unit leaf area as well as the respiratory expenditure of different organs. Combined with water content of organs, fresh weight simulation module of cucumber organs was constructed. The whole cucumber development and growth simulation model in greenhouse was built based on each sub-module. The model parameters were calibrated and determined. The results showed that root mean square error (RMSE) of simulated values and observed values of four deve-lopment stages (from transplanting date to stretch tendril, to initial flowering, to early harvested and to uprooting), was 3.9-10.5 d. The normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) was 6.5%-28.6%. The coincidence index (D) was 0.79-0.97. The relationship between LAI and TEP was the regression of 'S' type curve. The RMSE of simulated and observed LAI values was 0.19. The nRMSE was 17.2%. The D value was 0.90. The RMSE of dry weight of root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit of the simulated values and observed values were 0.39-8.94 g·m-2. The nRMSE were 10.9%-17.7%. The D values were all above 0.98. The growth and development model of cucumber could accurately simulate the key development period of cucumber, leaf area and the dry and fresh weight of various organs and quantify the growth and development of cucumber in sunlight greenhouse.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Luz Solar
10.
Evol Anthropol ; 28(5): 249-266, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498945

RESUMO

Adverse ecological and social conditions during early life are known to influence development, with rippling effects that may explain variation in adult health and fitness. The adaptive function of such developmental plasticity, however, remains relatively untested in long-lived animals, resulting in much debate over which evolutionary models are most applicable. Furthermore, despite the promise of clinical interventions that might alleviate the health consequences of early-life adversity, research on the proximate mechanisms governing phenotypic responses to adversity have been largely limited to studies on glucocorticoids. Here, we synthesize the current state of research on developmental plasticity, discussing both ultimate and proximate mechanisms. First, we evaluate the utility of adaptive models proposed to explain developmental responses to early-life adversity, particularly for long-lived mammals such as humans. In doing so, we highlight how parent-offspring conflict complicates our understanding of whether mothers or offspring benefit from these responses. Second, we discuss the role of glucocorticoids and a second physiological system-the gut microbiome-that has emerged as an additional, clinically relevant mechanism by which early-life adversity can influence development. Finally, we suggest ways in which nonhuman primates can serve as models to study the effects of early-life adversity, both from evolutionary and clinical perspectives.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Antropologia Física , Aves , Feminino , Glucocorticoides , Humanos , Masculino , Mamíferos , Saúde Materna , Microbiota , Estresse Fisiológico
12.
Zoology (Jena) ; 135: 125688, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383294

RESUMO

Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is common among mammals, with males typically being larger than females, as a product of sex-specific differences in growth rate and growth duration. The Musteloidea, however, exhibit a hypo-allometric reduction in SSD with increasing body size (contrary to Rensch's rule). A variety of extrinsic factors can affect juvenile growth rates and end body size, where one sex may demonstrate greater vulnerability than the other towards a specific factor, moderating patterns and degrees of SSD. Here, we analyse how male and female European badgers (Meles meles) differ in their somatic growth patterns. We compare the sex-specific growth curves across a range of somatic parameters and investigate what extrinsic (social and environmental) factors affect cub growth rates during the first 2 years of life leading to their sexual-dimorphic adult sizes. We found that average male final size of all measurements was significantly larger than those of females. Although male and female weanling cubs had similar body sizes, growth curves diverged significantly from ca. 11 months onwards due to continuous rapid growth of males versus slowing female growth. Consequently, females always concluded growth earlier than did males. In both sexes, extremities ceased to grow at an earlier age than did body length and zygomatic arch width. All badger cubs were impacted by their social environment as well as by weather conditions; however, male cubs were more sensitive to social factors, remaining smaller in social groups with more adult males present, whereas female final size was predominantly affected by weather and associated food availability. We discuss how extrinsic parameters can moderate patterns of SSD in the context of the differential equilibrium model.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Mustelidae/anatomia & histologia , Mustelidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Razão de Masculinidade , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo (Meteorologia)
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374808

RESUMO

At present, there is insufficient evidence on whether prenatal multi-micronutrient (MM) supplementation can be an antenatal nutritional intervention or not. This study aimed to explore the sustained effect of prenatal MM supplementation on early childhood health. A total of 939 mother-offspring pairs were followed up in the study between 2015 to 2018 in Changsha, China. Information was mainly collected through household surveys at the ages of 1, 3, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. General linear models and generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the effects of maternal prenatal MM compared with IFA supplementation on infant growth and development. Offspring of women who used prenatal MM compared with IFA supplements had lower weight-for-age z score (WAZ) (adjusted ß: -0.23, 95% CI: (-0.40, -0.06)) and weight-for-length z score (WLZ) (adjusted ß: -0.20, 95% CI: (-0.37, -0.02)) at 3 months old, but a reduced risk of obesity at birth (aRR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.11-0.78) and being overweight at 3 months old (aRR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.32-0.84). Moreover, offspring of women who used prenatal MM compared with IFA supplements had significantly higher scores for communication (adjusted ß: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.61-0.21), gross motor (adjusted ß: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.49-0.88), fine motor (adjusted ß: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.45-1.84), problem solving (adjusted ß: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.10-0.49), and personal-social (adjusted ß: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.70-1.10) skills at 36 months old. Prenatal MM supplementation could result in better infant growth in the first few months of life and improve development scores at the age of 3 years compared with IFA supplementation.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
14.
Biol Bull ; 237(1): 16-25, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441700

RESUMO

Marine invertebrate larvae have often been reared in artificial rather than natural seawater, either for convenience or to avoid potentially confounding effects of unknown contaminants. This study sought to determine the impact of artificial seawater on various aspects of development for three marine invertebrate species. We examined the impact of Instant Ocean on growth, survival, and fecundity of the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella teleta at 2 salinities: 24 and 34 ppt; the impact on survival, growth rate, and time to metamorphic competence for the slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata; and the impact on larval growth for the sea star Asterias forbesi. Juveniles of C. teleta survived better in natural seawater than in Instant Ocean at both salinities but at the higher salinity grew more quickly in Instant Ocean; fecundity was not significantly affected by the type of seawater used at either salinity. Using Instant Ocean in place of natural seawater had no pronounced impact on the survival of C. fornicata larvae or on how long it took them to become competent to metamorphose; however, larvae grew somewhat more quickly in Instant Ocean than in natural seawater for the first 4 days of development, but by day 7 they were about 4.5% larger if they had been reared in seawater. The type of seawater used affected the growth of A. forbesi larvae, with larvae growing significantly more slowly in Instant Ocean than in natural seawater, no matter how growth was measured. In conclusion, our results suggest that although Instant Ocean may be a reasonable substitute for natural seawater for work with some species, using it may affect experimental outcomes in some aspects of work with other species.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes/fisiologia , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Poliquetos/fisiologia , Água do Mar/química , Estrelas-do-Mar/fisiologia , Animais , Reprodução/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0216030, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461459

RESUMO

The neural computational model GrowthEstimate is introduced with focusing on new perspectives for the practical estimation of weight specific growth rate (SGR, % day-1). It is developed using recurrent neural networks of reservoir computing type, for estimating SGR based on the known data of three key biological factors relating to growth. These factors are: (1) weight (g) for specifying the age of the growth stage; (2) digestive efficiency through the pyloric caecal activity ratio of trypsin to chymotrypsin (T/C ratio) for specifying genetic differences in food utilization and growth potential, basically resulting from food consumption under variations in food quality and environmental conditions; and (3) protein growth efficiency through the condition factor (CF, 100 × g cm-3), as higher dietary protein level affecting higher skeletal growth (length) and resulting in lower CF. The computational model was trained using four datasets of different salmonids with size variations. It was evaluated with 15% of each dataset, resulting in an acceptable range of SGR outputs. Additional tests with different species indicated similarity between the estimated SGR outputs and the real SGR values, and the same ranking of wild population growth. The developed model GrowthEstimate is exceptionally useful for the precise and comparable growth estimation of living resources at individual levels, especially in natural ecosystems where the studied individuals, environmental conditions, food availability and consumption rates cannot be controlled. It is a revelation and will help to minimize uncertainty in wild stock assessment process. This will improve our knowledge in nutritional ecology, through the biochemical effects of climate change and environmental impact on the growth performance quality of aquatic living resources in the wild, as well as in aquaculture. The original GrowthEstimate software is available at GitHub repository (https://github.com/RungruangsakTorrissenManoonpong/GrowthEstimate). All other relevant data are within the paper. It will be improved for generality for future use, and required co-operations of the biodata collections of different species from different climate zones. Therefore, a co-operation will be available.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Digestão , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1138: 57-70, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313258

RESUMO

Advances in technology are facilitating wider access to delicate, and often irreplaceable, anatomy specimens for teaching. Moreover, 3-dimensional (3D) models and interactive applications may help students to understand the spatial arrangement of complex 3D anatomical structures in a way not afforded by the 2-dimensional (2D) textbook images of traditional teaching.Historical specimens from the University of Glasgow's Museum of Anatomy were digitised for the creation of a 3D learning tool to help students better understand the growth and development of the juvenile skull. The overarching goal of this project was to assess whether interactive 3D applications can provide a useful tool for teaching more complex, non-static, anatomy subjects such as growth and development.The application received positive feedback from the small test group of 12 anatomy students. The majority of participants strongly agreed that the application helped them learn more about the human skull and they positively rated the use of 3D models in helping them learn about the position and structure of anatomical features, and in comparing skulls at different stages of development. Following on from this positive feedback, further tests could be conducted to assess if this 3D application confers an advantage in student learning over traditional teaching methods.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Modelos Anatômicos , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(7)2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319533

RESUMO

The growth traits are important traits in chickens. Compared to white feather broiler breeds, Chinese local broiler breeds have a slow growth rate. The main genes affecting the growth traits of local chickens in China are still unclear and need to be further explored. This experiment used fast-growth and slow-growth groups of the Jinghai Yellow chicken as the research objects. Three males and three females with similar body weights were selected from the two groups at four weeks old and eight weeks old, respectively, with a total of 24 individuals selected. After slaughter, their chest muscles were taken for transcriptome sequencing. In the differentially expressed genes screening, all of the genes obtained were screened by fold change ≥ 2 and false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05. For four-week-old chickens, a total of 172 differentially expressed genes were screened in males, where there were 68 upregulated genes and 104 downregulated genes in the fast-growth group when compared with the slow-growth group. A total of 31 differentially expressed genes were screened in females, where there were 11 upregulated genes and 20 downregulated genes in the fast-growth group when compared with the slow-growth group. For eight-week-old chickens, a total of 37 differentially expressed genes were screened in males. The fast-growth group had 28 upregulated genes and 9 downregulated genes when compared with the slow-growth group. A total of 44 differentially expressed genes were screened in females. The fast-growth group had 13 upregulated genes and 31 downregulated genes when compared with the slow-growth group. Through gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, many genes were found to be related to cell proliferation and differentiation, muscle growth, and cell division such as SNCG, MCL1, ARNTL, PLPPR4, VAMP1, etc. Real-time PCR results were consistent with the RNA-Seq data and validated the findings. The results of this study will help to understand the regulation mechanism of the growth and development of Jinghai Yellow chicken and provide a theoretical basis for improving the growth rate of Chinese local chicken breeds.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Peso Corporal , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Genoma , Genômica/métodos
18.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(7): 770-774, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357796

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the influence of antiretroviral prophylaxis on the growth and development of HIV-exposed uninfected infants in Guangzhou. Methods: Data were from the national information system for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection, syphilis and hepatitis B. After excluding death and perinatal HIV infection cases, 564 HIV-exposed uninfected infants were included. The infants were divided into three groups, nevirapine (NVP) group, zidovudine (AZT) group and untreated group. The influences of antiretroviral prophylaxis on the body weight and height of the HIV-exposed uninfected infants were analyzed by using generalized estimating equations. Results: The HIV-exposed uninfected infants at 1-month old had lower Z scores of body weight-for-age and body height-for-age than the World Health Organization's reference standard. The prevalence of wasting in AZT group (17.5%) was higher than that in NVP group (6.2%) for 1-month old infants. Taking NVP or AZT was a protective factor for Z score of body length-for-age (P<0.05). Intrauterine exposure to triple antiviral drugs was a risk factor for the Z scores of body weight-for-age and body length-for-age (P<0.05). Conclusion: The physical growth and development of HIV-exposed uninfected infants at 1-month old was not well, and HIV-exposed uninfected infants who taking AZT had a higher incidence of wasting. Attention should be paid to these infants.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia
19.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 11-18, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302396

RESUMO

The use of insecticides based on metabolites found in live organisms, such as the insecticide spinosad, has been an option for the control of agricultural pests because of the allegedly low toxicological risk for nontarget arthropods, such as stingless bees. In the current study, we evaluate the effects of chronic oral exposure to spinosad during the larval phase on survival, developmental time, body mass, midgut epithelial remodeling, and the peritrophic matrix (PM) of Partamona helleri stingless bee workers. Worker larvae that were raised in the laboratory were orally exposed to different concentrations (0, 6.53, 13.06, 32.64, and 3,264 ng. a.i. bee-1) of spinosad (formulation), and the resulting survival, developmental time, and body mass were studied. The concentration of spinosad recommended for use in the field (3,264 ng. a.i. bee-1) reduced the survival of workers during development. Also, sublethal concentrations of spinosad delayed the development and caused morphological changes in the midgut epithelium. Finally, the chronic exposure of larvae to 32.64 ng. a.i. bee-1 spinosad also altered the remodeling of the midgut during metamorphosis and affected the organization of the PM of larvae, pupae, and adults. Our data suggest possible environmental risks for using spinosad in cultures that are naturally pollinated by stingless bees.


Assuntos
Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Himenópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Macrolídeos/toxicidade , Animais , Abelhas , Sistema Digestório , Combinação de Medicamentos , Himenópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Polinização
20.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 207: 73-82, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208851

RESUMO

A dopamine type-2 receptor (DRD2) SNP, previously found to be correlated with serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations in cattle, was evaluated for impact on growth traits, serum prolactin concentration, and semen quality. Over a four-year period, yearling beef bulls were allowed diets containing or lacking ergot alkaloids (EA). Every 21 or 28 d semen was collected for semen motility and morphology assessment and blood samples were collected to measure serum PRL concentrations. In addition, body condition score and scrotal circumference were evaluated. Serum PRL concentrations were assessed using a radioimmunoassay. In the first year, all bulls were sacrificed at the end of a 126-day study. Testicles and epididymis were collected at the end of the study or 60 days after removal from treatment. Immunohistochemistry was performed on testis, epididymis, and sperm cells, incubated with or without a primary antibody for DRD2 and counterstained with DAPI. Isolation of DNA was performed on sperm pellets using DNAzol (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) methods. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to amplify the region of the DRD2 gene containing the SNP of interest. The products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Further, all samples were subjected to genotyping using a custom Taqman genotyping assay (Applied Biosystems, Foster city, CA, USA). The presence of DRD2 was detected in the testis, epididymis, and sperm cells. The DRD2 genotype was not associated with semen quality, serum PRL, or growth traits. Consumption of EA resulted in lesser PRL serum concentrations but had no effect on values for other variable examined.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prolactina/sangue , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Constituição Corporal/genética , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dopamina/sangue , Genótipo , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/genética , Masculino , Sêmen/metabolismo , Sêmen/fisiologia , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/genética
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