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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 168: 104617, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711778

RESUMO

The projection of plant protection products' (PPPs) toxicity to non-target organisms at early stages of their development is challenging and demanding. Recent developments in bioanalytics, however, have facilitated the study of fluctuations in the metabolism of biological systems in response to treatments with bioactives and the discovery of corresponding toxicity biomarkers. Neonicotinoids are improved insecticides that target nicotinic acetylocholine receptors (nAChR) in insects which are similar to mammals. Nonetheless, they have sparked controversy due to effects on non-target organisms. Within this context, mammalian cell cultures represent ideal systems for the development of robust models for the dissection of PPPs' toxicity. Thus, we have investigated the toxicity of imidacloprid, clothianidin, and their mixture on primary mouse (Mus musculus) neural stem/progenitor (NSPCs) and mouse neuroblastoma-derived Neuro-2a (N2a) cells, and the undergoing metabolic changes applying metabolomics. Results revealed that NSPCs, which in vitro resemble those that reside in the postnatal and adult central nervous system, are five to seven-fold more sensitive than N2a to the applied insecticides. The energy equilibrium of NSPCs was substantially altered, as it is indicated by fluctuations of metabolites involved in energy production (e.g. glucose, lactate), Krebs cycle intermediates, and fatty acids, which are important components of cell membranes. Such evidence plausibly suggests a switch of cells' energy-producing mechanism to the direct metabolism of glucose to lactate in response to insecticides. The developed pipeline could be further exploited in the discovery of unintended effects of PPPs at early steps of development and for regulatory purposes.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Nitrocompostos , Animais , Guanidinas , Homeostase , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Neonicotinoides , Sistema Nervoso , Células-Tronco , Tiazóis
2.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(1): 58-70, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621410

RESUMO

Iron homeostasis plays an important role for the maintenance of human health. It is known that iron metabolism is tightly regulated by several key genes, including divalent metal transport-1(DMT1), transferrin receptor 1(TFR1), transferrin receptor 2(TFR2), ferroportin(FPN), hepcidin(HAMP), hemojuvelin(HJV) and Ferritin H. Recently, it is reported that DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and microRNA (miRNA) epigenetically regulated iron homeostasis. Among these epigenetic regulators, DNA hypermethylation of the promoter region of FPN, TFR2, HAMP, HJV and bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) genes result in inhibitory effect on the expression of these iron-related gene. In addition, histone deacetylase (HADC) suppresses HAMP gene expression. On the contrary, HADC inhibitor upregulates HAMP gene expression. Additional reports showed that miRNA can also modulate iron absorption, transport, storage and utilization via downregulation of DMT1, FPN, TFR1, TFR2, Ferritin H and other genes. It is noteworthy that some key epigenetic regulatory enzymes, such as DNA demethylase TET2 and histone lysine demethylase JmjC KDMs, require iron for the enzymatic activities. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of DNA methylation, histone acetylation and miRNA in regulating iron metabolism and also discuss the future research directions.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Homeostase , Ferro , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Receptores da Transferrina
3.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 42(3): 327-330, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616127

RESUMO

Objective To investigate cerebral autoregulation(CA)in patients with severe unilateral carotid artery stenosis by near infrared spectroscopy. Methods Thirty patients who underwent general anesthesia in our hospital from January 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled in this study.The stenosis group included 15 patients with severe unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis,and the control group included 15 patients without carotid artery stenosis.Both groups were matched in sex and age.Cerebral tissue oxygenation index(TOI)and mean arterial pressure were recorded continuously under stable general anesthesia.The Pearson correlation coefficient(r)was calculated to judge the CA status. Results TOI was not significantly different between the stenosis side and the non-stenosis side in the stenosis group(66.52±6.50 vs. 65.23±4.50;t=0.93, P=0.368)or between the stenosis side in the stenosis group and the stenosis side in the control group(66.52±6.50 vs. 64.22±3.87;t=1.18, P=0.248).The r values of stenosis side and non-stenosis side in the stenosis group were 0.36±0.12 and 0.17±0.11,respectively,and the r values of the stenosis side in the stenosis group and the stenosis side of the control group were 0.36±0.12 and 0.13±0.08,respectively.In the stenosis group,5 patients had transient ischemic attack and 2 patients had a history of stroke within 3 months before operation.When an r value of 0.342 was used as the judgment point of CA abnormality,the sensitivity and specificity were 0.625 and 0.909,respectively. Conclusion Within the range of normal blood pressure fluctuation,cerebral blood flow is linked to blood pressure at the stenosis side in patients with severe unilateral carotid artery stenosis.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , Pressão Sanguínea , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Homeostase , Humanos
4.
Aquat Toxicol ; 225: 105524, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610223

RESUMO

In the present research, the effects of exposure to a sublethal concentration of zinc (Zn) on metal and ion homeostasis, and the regulation and the localization of various Zn transporters (i.e., the Zrt-Irt Like Protein (ZIP) family of Zn transporters), were investigated in zebrafish (Danio rerio) during early development. Exposure to an elevated level of Zn [4 µM (high) vs. 0.25 µM (control)] from 0 day post-fertilization (dpf) resulted in a significant increase in the whole body content of Zn at 5 dpf. A transient decrease in the whole body calcium (Ca) level was observed in 3 dpf larvae exposed to high Zn. Similarly, whole body nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) contents were also reduced in 3 dpf larvae exposed to high Zn. Importantly, the magnitude of reduction in whole body Ni and Cu contents following Zn exposure was markedly higher than that in Ca content, suggesting that internal Ni and Cu balance were likely more sensitive to Zn exposure in developing zebrafish. Exposure to high Zn altered the mRNA expression levels of specific zip transporters, with an increase in zip1 (at 3 dpf) and zip8 (at 5 dpf), and a decrease in zip4 (at 5 dpf). The expression levels of most zip transporters tended to decrease from 3 dpf to 5 dpf with the exception of zip4 and zip8. Results from in situ hybridization revealed that several zip transporters exhibited distinct spatial distribution (e.g., zip8 in the intestinal tract, zip14 in the pronephric tubules). Overall, our findings suggested that exposure to sublethal concentrations of Zn disrupts the homeostasis of essential metals during early development and that different ZIP transporters may play unique roles in regulating Zn homeostasis in various organs in developing zebrafish.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra , Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Zinco/metabolismo
5.
Science ; 369(6500)2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646971

RESUMO

The general functions of lymphatic vessels in fluid transport and immunosurveillance are well recognized. However, accumulating evidence indicates that lymphatic vessels play active and versatile roles in a tissue- and organ-specific manner during homeostasis and in multiple disease processes. This Review discusses recent advances to understand previously unidentified functions of adult mammalian lymphatic vessels, including immunosurveillance and immunomodulation upon pathogen invasion, transport of dietary fat, drainage of cerebrospinal fluid and aqueous humor, possible contributions toward neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases, and response to anticancer therapies.


Assuntos
Vigilância Imunológica , Vasos Linfáticos/imunologia , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/imunologia , Encefalite/imunologia , Homeostase/imunologia , Humanos , Intestinos/imunologia , Vasos Linfáticos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/imunologia
6.
Toxicol Lett ; 331: 242-253, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579994

RESUMO

Dysregulated bile acid (BA) homeostasis is an extremely significant pathological phenomenon of intrahepatic cholestasis, and the accumulated BA could further trigger hepatocyte injury. Here, we showed that the expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) was down-regulated by α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) in vivo and in vitro. The up-regulated S1PR1 induced by SEW2871 (a specific agonist of S1PR1) could improve ANIT-induced deficiency of hepatocyte tight junctions (TJs), cholestatic liver injury and the disrupted BA homeostasis in mice. BA metabolic profiles showed that SEW2871 not only reversed the disruption of plasma BA homeostasis, but also alleviated BA accumulation in the liver of ANIT-treated mice. Further quantitative analysis of 19 BAs showed that ANIT increased almost all BAs in mice plasma and liver, all of which were restored by SEW2871. Our data demonstrated that the top performing BAs were taurine conjugated bile acids (T-), especially taurocholic acid (TCA). Molecular mechanism studies indicated that BA transporters, synthetase, and BAs nuclear receptors (NRs) might be the important factors that maintained BA homeostasis by SEW2871 in ANIT-induced cholestasis. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that S1PR1 selective agonists might be the novel and potential effective agents for the treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis by recovering dysregulated BA homeostasis.


Assuntos
1-Naftilisotiocianato/toxicidade , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Colestase/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxidiazóis/farmacologia , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/agonistas , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Colestase/induzido quimicamente , Colestase/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Homeostase , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/genética , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/patologia
7.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127257, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534297

RESUMO

Heavy metals generate adverse health effects by interfering with immune homeostasis and promoting inflammation in individuals. Our objective was to explore the induction of immune and inflammatory responses by multiple heavy metals in children living in the e-waste contaminated area. A total of 147 preschool children were recruited, including 73 children from Guiyu, a typical e-waste recycling area, and 74 from a reference group. Blood levels of heavy metals, including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As), were detected using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Immune cell counts (neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes) were determined by an automatic blood cell analyzer, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1RA, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13) were analyzed by a Luminex 200 multiplex immunoassay instrument. Multiple correspondences and linear regression analyses were applied to investigate the relationships between heavy metal exposure and relevant parameters. Results shows Guiyu children had higher levels of Pb, Cd, Hg, As, IL-1ß and IL-6, but decreased lymphocyte, IL-1RA and IL-13. Neutrophil count was positively correlated with Pb, Cd and Hg exposure. Anti-inflammatory IL-1RA concentration was negatively related with Pb, Cd, Hg and As, while pro-inflammatory IL-1ß and IL-6 were positively correlated with Pb. Guiyu children may have dysregulated immune response and high inflammation risk. Exposure to Pb, Cd, Hg and As could be harmful for immune response and inflammatory regulation. Our finding of decreased IL-RA production in children exposed to Pb, Cd, Hg, and As is novel and could be an opportunity for future research.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/análise , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Homeostase , Humanos , Inflamação , Mercúrio/análise , Reciclagem
8.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518627

RESUMO

The hormone leptin plays a critical role in energy homeostasis, although our overall understanding of acutely changing leptin levels still needs improvement. Several developments allow a fresh look at recent and early data on leptin action. This review highlights select recent publications that are relevant for understanding the role played by dynamic changes in circulating leptin levels. We further discuss the relevance for our current understanding of leptin signaling in central neuronal feeding and energy expenditure circuits and highlight cohesive and discrepant findings that need to be addressed in future studies to understand how leptin couples with physiological adaptations of food intake and energy expenditure.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Homeostase , Leptina/fisiologia , Humanos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481719

RESUMO

Mucociliary clearance, mediated by a coordinated function of cilia bathing in the airway surface liquid (ASL) on the surface of airway epithelium, protects the host from inhaled pathogens and is an essential component of the innate immunity. ASL is composed of the superficial mucus layer and the deeper periciliary liquid. Ion channels, transporters, and pumps coordinate the transcellular and paracellular movement of ions and water to maintain the ASL volume and mucus hydration. microRNA (miRNA) is a class of non-coding, short single-stranded RNA regulating gene expression by post-transcriptional mechanisms. miRNAs have been increasingly recognized as essential regulators of ion channels and transporters responsible for ASL homeostasis. miRNAs also influence the airway host defense. We summarize the most up-to-date information on the role of miRNAs in ASL homeostasis and host-pathogen interactions in the airway and discuss concepts for miRNA-directed therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronaviridae/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , MicroRNAs/genética , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Absorção pelo Trato Respiratório , Animais , Infecções por Coronaviridae/genética , Infecções por Coronaviridae/virologia , Homeostase , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 735: 139496, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480152

RESUMO

Pyriproxyfen (PPF), a broad-spectrum insecticide known to cause reproductive and endocrine disruption in invertebrates, while the data is scarce in aquatic vertebrates. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of PPF on reproductive endocrine system of male and female zebrafish along hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In brain, PPF caused significant alteration in the transcripts of erα, lhß, and cyp19b genes in male and fshß, lhß, and cyp19b genes in female zebrafish. The downstream genes of steroidogenic pathway like, star, 3ßhsd, 17ßhsd, and cyp19a expression were significantly altered in gonad of both sexes. Subsequent changes in circulatory steroid hormone levels lead to imbalance in hormone homeostasis as revealed from estradiol/testosterone (E2/T) ratio. Further, the vitellogenin transcript level was enhanced in hepatic tissues and their blood plasma content was increased in male (16.21%) and declined in female (21.69%). PPF also induced histopathological changes in gonads such as, reduction of mature spermatocytes in male and vitellogenic oocytes in female zebrafish. The altered E2/T ratio and gonadal histopathology were supported by the altered transcript levels of HPG axis genes. Overall, these findings provide new insights of PPF in zebrafish reproductive system and highlights for further investigations on its potential risks in aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase , Hipotálamo , Masculino , Piridinas , Reprodução , Vitelogeninas , Peixe-Zebra
11.
Braz Dent J ; 31(2): 135-142, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556012

RESUMO

Inflammation of periodontal tissues is the consequence of interaction between periodontal pathogens and immune system. This is associated with increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, which may exert destructive effect to the periodontal tissues when released over long period. The aim of this study was to chronologically track the homeostasis of oral keratinocytes following removal of periodontal pathogens. This was done by investigating expression of selected inflammatory markers and integrity of epithelial monolayers in vitro. Rat oral keratinocytes were stimulated with heat-killed Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis over 7-days then bacteria were washed away and epithelial cells re-cultured for 3-days. Expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8 was measured by ELISA while transcription of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase -8 (MMP-8) was measured by polymerase chain reaction before and after removal of bacteria. Integrity of epithelial sheet was investigated by using transepithelial electrical resistance. Data showed general downregulation of IL-1b, IL-6, and IL-8 associated with restoring transcription of TIMP-1 and MMP-8 to normal level following removal of bacteria from epithelial cultures. However, expression of IL-8 and MMP-8 remained significantly higher than unstimulated epithelial cells despite withdrawal of F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis respectively from oral keratinocytes cultures. In addition, integrity of epithelial barrier function remained compromised even after removal of P. gingivalis. Results suggest that even after three days following removal of periodontal pathogens, oral keratinocytes sustained persistent upregulation of certain inflammatory markers that could compromise integrity of epithelial barrier function.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1 , Animais , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Homeostase , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Ratos
12.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127096, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447113

RESUMO

Global change and anthropogenic activities have driven marine environment changes dramatically during the past century, and hypoxia, acidification and warming have received much attention recently. Yet, the interactive effects among these stressors on marine organisms are extremely complex and not accurately clarified. Here, we evaluated the combined effects of low dissolved oxygen (DO), low pH and warming on the digestive enzyme activities of the mussel Mytilus coruscus. In this experiment, mussels were exposed to eight treatments, including two degrees of pH (8.1, 7.7), DO (6, 2 mg/l) and temperature (30 °C and 20 °C) for 30 days. Amylase (AMS), lipase (LPS), trypsin (TRY), trehalase (TREH) and lysozyme (LZM) activities were measured in the digestive glands of mussels. All the tested stress conditions showed significant effects on the enzymatic activities. AMS, LPS, TRY, TREH showed throughout decreased trend in their activities due to low pH, low DO, increased temperature and different combinations of these three stressors with time but LZM showed increased and then decreased trend in their activities. Hypoxia and warming showed almost similar effects on the enzymatic activities. PCA showed a positive correlation among all measured biochemical parameters. Therefore, the fitness of mussel is likely impaired by such marine environmental changes and their population may be affected under the global change scenarios.


Assuntos
Aquecimento Global , Mytilus/fisiologia , Amilases , Animais , Digestão , Homeostase/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hipóxia , Mytilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Água do Mar/química
13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(4): 519-520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of corticosteroids is common in obstetric practice. In this concise review we queried on the effects of corticosteroids in pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We performed a literature search on PubMed, regarding the use of corticosteroids in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, in pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2, as well as their impact on glycemia in pregnant women with or without diabetes. Furthermore, we searched for effects of SARS-CoV-2 and of other coronaviridae on insulin secretion and glycemia. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection appears to be a risk factor for complications in pregnancy. Corticosteroids may not be recommended for treating SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia but they may be needed for at-risk pregnancies. Corticosteroids in pregnancy have a diabetogenic potential. SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviridae may have effects on glycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Caution should be exercised while using corticosteroids in pregnant women with COVID-19 requiring preterm delivery.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Hipoglicemia/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/patologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Hipoglicemia/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/metabolismo
14.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(5): e1008561, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453788

RESUMO

Several Xanthomonas species have a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that injects a cocktail of antibacterial proteins into neighbouring Gram-negative bacteria, often leading to rapid lysis upon cell contact. This capability represents an obvious fitness benefit since it can eliminate competition while the liberated contents of the lysed bacteria could provide an increase in the local availability of nutrients. However, the production of this Mega Dalton-sized molecular machine, with over a hundred subunits, also imposes a significant metabolic cost. Here we show that the chromosomal virB operon, which encodes the structural genes of this T4SS in X. citri, is regulated by the conserved global regulator CsrA. Relieving CsrA repression from the virB operon produced a greater number of T4SSs in the cell envelope and an increased efficiency in contact-dependent lysis of target cells. However, this was also accompanied by a physiological cost leading to reduced fitness when in co-culture with wild-type X. citri. We show that T4SS production is constitutive despite being downregulated by CsrA. Cells subjected to a wide range of rich and poor growth conditions maintain a constant density of T4SSs in the cell envelope and concomitant interbacterial competitiveness. These results show that CsrA provides a constant though partial repression on the virB operon, independent of the tested growth conditions, in this way controlling T4SS-related costs while at the same time maintaining X. citri's aggressive posture when confronted by competitors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Homeostase , Óperon , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo IV/biossíntese , Xanthomonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo IV/genética , Xanthomonas/genética
15.
16.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(2): 181-189, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454455

RESUMO

Objective: Long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) negatively influences bone. The short-term effects on bone and mineral homeostasis are less known. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the early effects of ADT on calcium/phosphate homeostasis and bone turnover. Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: Eugonadal adult, male sex offenders, who were referred for ADT to the endocrine outpatient clinic, received cyproterone acetate. Changes in blood markers of calcium/phosphate homeostasis and bone turnover between baseline and first follow-up visit were studied. Results: Of 26 screened patients, 17 were included. The median age was 44 (range 20-75) years. The median time interval between baseline and first follow-up was 13 (6-27) weeks. Compared to baseline, an 81% decrease was observed for median total testosterone (to 3.4 nmol/L (0.4-12.2); P < 0.0001) and free testosterone (to 0.06 nmol/L (0.01-0.18); P < 0.0001). Median total estradiol decreased by 71% (to 17.6 pmol/L (4.7-35.6); P < 0.0001). Increased serum calcium (P < 0.0001) and phosphate (P = 0.0016) was observed, paralleled by decreased PTH (P = 0.0156) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (P = 0.0134). The stable calcium isotope ratio (δ44/42Ca) decreased (P = 0.0458), indicating net calcium loss from bone. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin decreased (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0056, respectively), periostin tended to decrease (P = 0.0500), whereas sclerostin increased (P < 0.0001), indicating suppressed bone formation. Serum bone resorption markers (TRAP, CTX) were unaltered. Conclusions: In adult men, calcium release from the skeleton occurs early following sex steroid deprivation, reflecting early bone resorption. The increase of sclerostin and reduction of bone formation markers, without changes in resorption markers, suggests a dominant negative effect on bone formation in the acute phase.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetato de Ciproterona/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatos/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Delitos Sexuais , Testosterona/sangue
17.
J Sport Health Sci ; 9(3): 203-210, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444145

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of human death worldwide. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved degradation pathway, which is a highly conserved cellular degradation process in which lysosomes decompose their own organelles and recycle the resulting macromolecules. Autophagy is critical in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis and function, and excessive or insufficient autophagy or autophagic flux can lead to cardiovascular disease. Enormous evidence indicates that exercise training plays a beneficial role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The regulation of autophagy during exercise is a bidirectional process. For cardiovascular disease caused by either insufficient or excessive autophagy, exercise training restores normal autophagy function and delays the progression of cardiovascular disease. An in-depth exploration and discussion of exercise-mediated regulation of autophagy in the cardiovascular system can broaden our view about the prevention of various autophagy-related diseases through exercise training. In this article, we review autophagy and its related signaling pathways, as well as autophagy-dependent beneficial effects of exercise in cardiovascular system.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Homeostase , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0225873, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352968

RESUMO

Black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens L.) larvae can convert fresh pig manure into protein and fat-rich biomass, which can then be used as aquafeed for select species. Currently, BSF is the only approved insect for such purposes in Canada, USA, and the European Union. Pig manure could serve as a feed substrate for BSF; however, it is contaminated with zoonotic pathogens (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp.). Fortunately, BSF larvae inhibit many of these zoonotic pathogens; however, the mechanisms employed are unclear. We employed RNAi, qRT-PCR, and Illumina MiSeq 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing to examine the interaction between two immune genes (Duox in Duox-reactive oxygen species [ROS] immune system and TLR3 in the Toll signaling pathway) and select pathogens common in pig manure to decipher the mechanisms resulting in pathogen suppression. Results indicate Bsf Duox-TLR3 RNAi increased bacterial load but decreased relative abundance of Providencia and Dysgonomonas, which are thought to be commensals in the BSF larval gut. Bsf Duox-TLR3 RNAi also inactivated the NF-κB signaling pathway, downregulated the expression of antimicrobial peptides, and diminished inhibitory effects on zoonotic pathogen. The resulting dysbiosis stimulated an immune response by activating BsfDuox and promoting ROS, which regulated the composition and structure of the gut bacterial community. Thus, BsfDuox and BsfTLR3 are important factors in regulating these key gut microbes, while inhibiting target zoonotic pathogens.


Assuntos
Oxidases Duais/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Esterco/microbiologia , Simuliidae/imunologia , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Homeostase , Humanos , Larva/imunologia , Larva/microbiologia , Salmonella/imunologia , Infecções por Salmonella/imunologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Simuliidae/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Suínos , Zoonoses/imunologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
19.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(2): 44-48, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366069

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During some eye surgeries, a need for hemostasis can arise in order to prevent bleeding. PURPOSE: To determine the optimal settings for remote laser action of Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 1.44 µm on the conjunctival and episcleral vessels of the eye to stop bleeding, as well as for preemptive anemisation of tissue prior to performing a surgical incision. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The characteristics of the laser impact on vessels of the conjunctiva and sclera were studied clinically while conducting surgeries on 36 patients for cataract, glaucoma and excision of pterygium. RESULTS: The best mode of operation of Nd:YAG laser for remote laser anaemisation of the area of planned cut were 1.44 µm wavelength with 5 Hz frequency and energy of 100 mJ. Remote hemostasis can be achieved with the following settings for energy parameters: for pulse frequency of 5 Hz - pulse energy from 150 to 200 mJ; for pulse frequency of 10 Hz and 15 Hz - energy from 100 to 150 mJ; for pulse frequency of 25 Hz - energy not exceeding 100 mJ. CONCLUSION: No scar remained after the action of 1.44-µm Nd:YAG laser, and recanalization of individual vessels was possible.


Assuntos
Esclera , Túnica Conjuntiva , Homeostase , Humanos , Terapia a Laser , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos
20.
Virus Res ; 285: 198018, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430279

RESUMO

Covid-19 is a major pandemic facing the world today caused by SARS-CoV-2 which has implications on our understanding of infectious diseases. Although, SARS-Cov-2 primarily causes lung infection through binding of ACE2 receptors present on the alveolar epithelial cells, yet it was recently reported that SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in the faeces of infected patients. Interestingly, the intestinal epithelial cells particularly the enterocytes of the small intestine also express ACE2 receptors. Role of the gut microbiota in influencing lung diseases has been well articulated. It is also known that respiratory virus infection causes perturbations in the gut microbiota. Diet, environmental factors and genetics play an important role in shaping gut microbiota which can influence immunity. Gut microbiota diversity is decreased in old age and Covid-19 has been mainly fatal in elderly patients which again points to the role the gut microbiota may play in this disease. Improving gut microbiota profile by personalized nutrition and supplementation known to improve immunity can be one of the prophylactic ways by which the impact of this disease can be minimized in old people and immune-compromised patients. More trials may be initiated to see the effect of co-supplementation of personalized functional food including prebiotics/probiotics along with current therapies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Envelhecimento , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dieta , Disbiose , Homeostase , Humanos , Imunidade , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
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