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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1041, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of health workers on uptake of maternal healthcare services is well documented; however, their outreach for family planning (FP) services and influence on the intention to use contraceptives is less explored in the Indian context. This study examined the extent of health worker outreach for FP service and its effects on intention to use contraceptives among currently married women aged 15-49 years. METHODS: This study used data from two rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of India, conducted during 2005-06 and 2015-16 respectively. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to understand the level of and change in health worker outreach for FP services over time, and its association with intention to use contraceptives among currently married women. RESULTS: In the past 10 years, health workers' outreach for FP service has significantly increased by about 10 percentage points, although the level is not optimal and only 28% of non-users were reached by health workers in 2015-16. Increase in the outreach to younger and low parity women was higher than their respective counterparts. Intention to use contraceptive among women who were not using any method was 41% when health workers contacted and discussed FP, compared to only 20% when there was no such contact with health workers. Multivariable analysis suggests that contact with health workers has significant positive effects on intention to use contraceptive (AOR = 3.05; p < 0.001; 95% CI 2.85-3.27). CONCLUSION: Increased scope of outreach of frontline health workers to provide FP communication and services will not only help in building knowledge of contraceptive methods but will also increase women's intention to use a method. For India, this may be the most promising way to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals 3.7, which calls for universal access to reproductive health services.


Assuntos
Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Intenção , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20815, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high rate of cesarean section is an important factor affecting breastfeeding in China. To improve the nation's current situation of breastfeeding, promoting breastfeeding in women undergoing cesarean section is essential. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of health belief model-based interventions on breastfeeding knowledge, breastfeeding behaviors, and breastfeeding satisfaction of Chinese cesarean women. METHODS: A total of 346 cesarean section women were enrolled in the randomized controlled trial conducted at a center in Chengdu, China, between July 1, 2018 and August 31, 2018. While the control group (n = 173) received conventional breastfeeding guidance only, the intervention group (n = 173) received additional interventions based on the health belief model. Questionnaires were distributed to assess breastfeeding knowledge, breastfeeding behavior, and breastfeeding satisfaction at discharge, 42 days postpartum, and 4 months postpartum, respectively. RESULTS: At discharge from hospital, the breastfeeding knowledge score of the intervention group was higher than that of the control group (Z = -11.753, P < .001). The exclusive breastfeeding rates in the intervention group at the time of discharge, 42 days postpartum, and 4 months postpartum were 67.3%, 60.7%, and 52.9%, respectively, while those of the control group were 41.2%, 41.6%, and 40.4%, respectively. The differences were statistically significant (χ = 23.353, P < .001; χ = 11.853, P < .001; χ = 4.805, P = .03). The breastfeeding satisfaction of the intervention group was also higher than the control group at the time of discharge, 42 days postpartum and 4 months postpartum (t = 4.955, P < .001; t = 3.051, P = .002; Z = -3.801, P < .001). CONCLUSION: The health belief model-based interventions can effectively increase breastfeeding knowledge for Chinese cesarean women and improve their breastfeeding behaviors and breastfeeding satisfaction within 4 months after delivery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1900026006 .


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/etnologia , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , China/etnologia , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Satisfação do Paciente/etnologia , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(6): 396-402, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641202

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the distribution by age and sex of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in an urban Chinese population and to provide a profile prediction for the risk of bacterial infection, inflammatory diseases, or tissue damages in the body. Methods: Serum hsCRP was determined using the Roche Tina-quant immuno-turbidimetric assay on a Hitachi 7600-010 automatic biochemical analyzer (Roche Diagnostics) in 1,572 males and 1,800 females, including 78 pregnant women, who were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 2010-2012. Results: The average hsCRP concentration in urban China was 0.68 mg/L for males and 0.65 mg/L for females. Significant differences in hsCRP were found among different age groups ( P < 0.05). Monitoring results showed no significant differences among the 6-11, 45-59, and ≥ 60-year-old groups in the comparison of hsCRP between males and females in large cities. However, hsCRP concentration was significantly higher in men aged 12-17 and 18-44 years than in women. Conclusion: The distribution of the hsCRP status of residents in large cities in China was influenced by age and gender, and the hsCRP levels of both sexes increased gradually with age. In addition, hsCRP concentration was higher in healthy pregnant women than in non-pregnant women. Basing on our results, we recommend that this parameter be included in future national and international screening for early detection of various illnesses.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Prevalência , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(6): 403-413, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641203

RESUMO

Objective: To verify the health advisory for short-term exposure to phenol. Methods: The method of this validation experiment was the same as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for toxicology experiments used to determine phenol drinking water equivalent level (DWEL). Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered phenol in distilled water by gavage at daily doses of 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) from implantation (the 6th day post-mating) to the day prior to the scheduled caesarean section (the 20th day of pregnancy). The following information was recorded: general behavior; body weight; number of corpus luteum, live birth, fetus, stillbirth, and implantation; fetal gender; body weight; body length; tail length; and abnormalities and pathomorphological changes in the dams. Results: In the 60 mg/kg b.w. dose group, the mortality of pregnant rats increased with increasing doses, suggesting maternal toxicity. Fetal and placental weights decreased as phenol dose increased from 30 mg/kg b.w., and were significantly different compared those in the vehicle control group, which suggested developmental toxicity in the fetuses. However, the phenol-exposed groups showed no significant change in other parameters compared with the vehicle control group ( P > 0.05). Conclusion: Despite using the same method as the US EPA, a different NOEAL of 15 mg/(kg·d) was obtained in this study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenol/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
5.
J Int Med Res ; 48(7): 300060520939337, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the emergency responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for pregnant patients at our hospital and their effect on hospital operations and patients' outcomes. METHODS: We developed strategies to prevent hospital-associated transmission of COVID-19 in obstetric care. Infrastructure, including the fever clinic and wards, were modified. Outpatient volume was controlled and screening processes were strictly performed. Verification of the virus was compulsory for non-surgery and non-emergency patients. Emergency operations were performed in a negative pressure theater with surgeons fully protected. Outcomes were analyzed and the patients' characteristics were evaluated. The effect of intervention on depressed and anxious patients was assessed. Data from the first 2 months of 2019 and 2020 were compared. RESULTS: No in-hospital COVID-19 infections occurred in our unit. During the epidemic, patient volume significantly decreased. While major characteristics of patients were similar, a higher prevalence of gestational hypertension was found in 2020 than in 2019. Psychological interventions showed optimistic effects in ameliorating depression and anxiety at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Our strategies were effective in preventing in-hospital infection of COVID-19 and reassuring women about the safety of pregnancy. Monitoring and managing psychological issues were necessary during this critical period.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções , Obstetrícia/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Ansiedade/complicações , Temperatura Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/complicações , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Obstetrícia/tendências , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Telemedicina/tendências , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720944074, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674654

RESUMO

Introduction/Objectives: National guidelines underscore the need for improvement in the detection and treatment of mood disorders in the perinatal period. Exposure to disasters can amplify perinatal mood disorders and even have intergenerational impacts. The primary aim of this pilot study was to use mixed-methods to better understand the mental health and well-being effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, as well as sources of resilience, among women during the perinatal period. Methods: The study team used a simultaneous exploratory mixed-methods design to investigate the primary objective. Thirty-one pregnant and postpartum women participated in phone interviews and were invited to complete an online survey which included validated mental health and well-being measures. Results: Approximately 12% of the sample reported high depressive symptomatology and 60% reported moderate or severe anxiety. Forty percent of the sample reported being lonely. The primary themes related to stress were uncertainty surrounding perinatal care, exposure risk for both mother and baby, inconsistent messaging from information sources and lack of support networks. Participants identified various sources of resilience, including the use of virtual communication platforms, engaging in self-care behaviors (eg, adequate sleep, physical activity, and healthy eating), partner emotional support, being outdoors, gratitude, and adhering to structures and routines. Conclusions: Since the onset of COVID-19, many pregnant and postpartum women report struggling with stress, depression, and anxiety symptomatology. Findings from this pilot study begin to inform future intervention work to best support this highly vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Resiliência Psicológica , Medição de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e038004, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699166

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in Wuhan, China starting in December 2019. Yet the clinical features and long-term outcomes of neonates with SARS-CoV-2 exposure are lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical course and prognosis of the neonates exposed to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre observational study conducted at the designated children and maternal and child hospitals in the mainland of China. Neonates exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection will be recruited. The data to be collected via case report forms include demographic details, clinical features, laboratory and imaging results, as well as outcomes. Primary outcomes are the mortality of neonates with COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 infection of neonates born to mothers with COVID-19. Secondary outcomes are the birth weight, premature delivery and neurological development of neonates exposed to SARS-CoV-2. The neurological development is assessed by the Chinese standardised Denver Developmental Screening Test at the corrected age of 6 months. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Children's Hospital of Fudan University ethics committee (No. (2020)31). The study findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences in order to improve the understanding of the clinical course among neonates exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and to provide evidence-based treatment and prevention strategies for this group. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04279899.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Maternidades , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Elife ; 92020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662421

RESUMO

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected more than 10 million people, including pregnant women. To date, no consistent evidence for the vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 exists. The novel coronavirus canonically utilizes the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for cell entry. Herein, building upon our previous single-cell study (Pique-Regi et al., 2019), another study, and new single-cell/nuclei RNA-sequencing data, we investigated the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 throughout pregnancy in the placenta as well as in third-trimester chorioamniotic membranes. We report that co-transcription of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 is negligible in the placenta, thus not a likely path of vertical transmission for SARS-CoV-2. By contrast, receptors for Zika virus and cytomegalovirus, which cause congenital infections, are highly expressed by placental cell types. These data show that the placenta minimally expresses the canonical cell-entry mediators for SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Placenta/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Receptores Virais/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Zika virus , Infecção por Zika virus
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(7)2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675129

RESUMO

The clinical implications of COVID-19 in pregnancy remain unknown. While preliminary reports demonstrate that pregnant patients have a similar symptomatic presentation to the general population, the appropriate management and timing of delivery in these patients is still unclear, as pregnancy may impose additional risk factors and impede recovery in gravid patients. In this brief report, we present a case of COVID-19 in a pregnant patient with severe respiratory compromise, whose clinical status significantly improved after caesarean delivery. We also address the potential benefits of experimental therapy, including tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets interleukin-6 receptors.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Cesárea , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 161, 2020 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 4.2 million confirmed cases and more than 285,000 deaths, COVID-19 pandemic continues to harm significant number of people worldwide. Several studies have reported the impact of COVID-19 in general population; however, there is scarcity of information related to pharmacological management and maternal and perinatal outcomes during the pandemic. Altered physiological, anatomical, and immunological response during pregnancy makes it more susceptible to infections. Furthermore, during pregnancy, a woman undergoes multiple interactions with the health care system that increases her chance of getting infected; therefore, managing pregnant population presents a unique challenge. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: This systematic review seeks to answer the following questions in relation to COVID-19: What are the different clinical characteristics presented in maternal and perinatal population? What are the different maternal and perinatal outcome measures reported? What are the distinct therapeutic interventions reported to treat COVID-19? Is it safe to use "medications" used in the treatment of COVID-19 during antenatal, perinatal, postnatal, and breastfeeding? METHOD: The search will follow a comprehensive, sequential three step search strategy. Several databases relevant to COVID-19 and its impact on pregnancy including Medline, CINAHL, and LitCovid will be searched from the inception of the disease until the completion of data collection. The quality of this search strategy will be assessed using Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies Evidence-Based Checklist (PRESS EBC). An eligibility form will be developed for a transparent screening and inclusion/exclusion of studies. All studies will be sent to RefWorks, and abstraction will be independently performed by two researchers. Risk of bias will be assessed using Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for randomized controlled trials, Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for non-randomized studies, and for case reports, Murad et al. tool will be used. Decision to conduct meta-analysis will be based on several factors including homogeneity and outcome measures reported; otherwise, a narrative synthesis will be deemed appropriate. DISCUSSION: This systematic review will summarize the existing data on effect of COVID-19 on maternal and perinatal population. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review addressing therapeutic management and safety of medicines to treat COVID-19 during pregnancy and breastfeeding. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This systematic review has been registered and published with Prospero ( CRD42020172773 ).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Mortalidade Materna , Mortalidade Perinatal , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Índice de Apgar , Betacoronavirus , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Sepse/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(9): e9633, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696818

RESUMO

Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (FT1DM) has received clinical attention for its low incidence and poor prognosis. Currently, few cases of FT1DM are associated with pregnancy in clinical practice, but it poses a great threat to the life of mothers and infants. Here, we present two cases of FT1DM in pregnancy. In Case 1, the patient was a 26-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital with reduced fetal movement. She was diagnosed with FT1DM and delivered a dead female fetus. Lispro and lantus were administered to control blood glucose, and lipoic acid for antioxidant therapy. In Case 2, the patient was a 28-year-old woman who developed nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and polydipsia, which later proved to be FT1DM. An abortion was induced and blood glucose levels were controlled using an insulin pump. All physicians should be aware of this disease in order to provide prompt diagnosis and emergency treatment, thus improving maternal prognosis. We suggest that plasma glucose/hemoglobin A1C ratio be adopted as a new clinical parameter in predicting FT1DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Adulto , Glicemia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Gravidez , Ácido Tióctico
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21334, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702930

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2019 has become a global pandemic. It is not known whether the disease is associated with a higher risk of infection in pregnant women or whether intrauterine vertical transmission can occur. We report 2 cases of pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19. PATIENT CONCERNS: In all of Yichang city from January 20, 2020, to April 9, 2020, only 2 pregnant women, who were in the late stage of pregnancy, were diagnosed with COVID-19; one patient was admitted for fever with limb asthenia, and the other patient was admitted for abnormal chest computed tomography results. DIAGNOSES: Both pregnant women were diagnosed with COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: After the medical staff prepared for isolation and protection, the 2 pregnant women quickly underwent cesarean sections. A series of tests, such as laboratory, imaging, and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid examinations, were performed on the 2 women with COVID-19 and their newborns. OUTCOMES: One of the 2 infected pregnant women had severe COVID-19, and the other had mild disease. Both babies were delivered by cesarean section. Both of the women with COVID-19 worsened 3 to 6 days after delivery. Chest computed tomography suggested that the lesions due to SARS-CoV-2 infection increased. These women began to exhibit fever or reduced blood oxygen saturation again. One of the 2 newborns was born prematurely, and the other was born at full term. Neither infant was infected with COVID-19, but both had increased prothrombin time and fibrinogen, lactate dehydrogenase, phosphocreatine kinase, and creatine kinase isoenzyme contents. LESSONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection was not found in the newborns born to the 2 pregnant women with COVID-19, but transient coagulation dysfunction and myocardial damage occurred in the 2 newborns. Effective management strategies for pregnant women with COVID-19 will help to control the outbreak of COVID-19 among pregnant women.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto , Astenia/etiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Cesárea/métodos , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido/sangue , Recém-Nascido/metabolismo , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
15.
Harefuah ; 159(7): 492-497, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720766

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia (PE) is a major obstetric complication affecting 3-5% of pregnancies and a major contributor to fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The level of placental growth factor (PLGF) >150pg/ml in the third trimester was reported to predict PE occurrence within the next 14 days. AIMS: We have conducted a preliminary study among pregnant Israeli women in order to evaluate whether maternal serum PLGF test at admission with suspected PE could rule-out the risk for developing PE. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled pregnant women who were admitted to the high-risk pregnancy department at Shamir Medical Center with suspected PE. The women signed an informed consent form and blood samples were drawn, separated into serum, and taken for PLGF immuno-diagnostic test. All women with suspected PE were managed according to local protocol. The medical staff was blinded regarding PLGF results. All patients' computerized medical records, including developing of PE within 14 days and patients' computerized medical records were collected and a telephone interview was held to verify whether post charging events occurred. RESULTS: Of the 29 women who were enrolled in the study, the group with PLGF<150 pg/ml included 19 women, who had mean PLGF=44.7pg/ml [(95%CI: 6.5-95.3], of which 14 developed PE (positive predictive value 73.7%). There were ten women in the PLGF>150pg/ml group, with mean PLGF=528.7 pg/ml [(95% CI:168-1300, P<0.001)] of which one developed PE (negative predictive value 90%). The sensitivity for ruling out PE by PLGF>150pg/ml was 93%, and the specificity=64.3. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating blood testing of PLGF into the evaluation triage of pregnant women in Israel who admitted to the delivery clinic with suspected development of PE has generated high efficacy and negative predictive value (NPV) as was previously published Our findings are in accordance with results reported elsewhere but need validation in Israel with larger studies. DISCUSSION: Assuming that at least 7% of ~184,450 (2018) live births in Israel are admitted to the high risk departments for evaluating suspected PE, implementing a PLGF test has a cost-benefit ratio of ~1/8.28 with a cost of NIS 2.52M for test performance of all women attending the delivery clinic with suspected PE over saving NIS 21.37M on unnecessary hospital days.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Placentário/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez
16.
Harefuah ; 159(7): 503-507, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Quite a few people of both genders are still smoking today, although their number is decreasing in the developed countries. In Israel, people who smoke constitute 22% of the adult population and the ratio between male and female smokers is 4:1. Jewish women smoke 1.8 times more in comparison with Arab women. Smoking is known to constrict small blood vessels and hence there exists a more prevalent outcome of prematurity and small-for-gestational-age fetus in pregnant women who are exposed to secondhand (passive) smoking during their pregnancy. In the relevant literature, it is claimed that secondhand smoking is responsible for delivery at early stages, as well as low birth weight of newborns for women who were exposed to it. However, these findings were not found as such in a number of studies in which the question of a relation between passive smoking and adverse pregnancy outcomes was not proven. Moreover, exposure to passive smoking by other smokers is considered only one of the many pollutants that exist in our industrial and overcrowded world, hence focusing on that one variable only ignores the effect of many other pollutants that may possibly do harm to the fetus as well as to the pregnant woman. The relation between passive smoking and adverse effects on the fetus leads to the restriction of smoking in public places with no evident proof of its benefit on pregnant women.


Assuntos
Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Israel , Masculino , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Tabaco
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(30): 988-992, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730237

RESUMO

In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region (SEAR)* reported an estimated 40 million persons living with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and 285,000 deaths from complications of chronic infection, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (1). Most chronic HBV infections, indicated by the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) on serologic testing, are acquired in infancy through perinatal or early childhood transmission (2). To prevent perinatal and childhood infections, WHO recommends that all infants receive at least 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), including a timely birth dose (HepB-BD)† (1). In 2016, the SEAR Immunization Technical Advisory Group endorsed a regional hepatitis B control goal with a target of achieving hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence of ≤1% among children aged ≥5 years by 2020, which is in line with the WHO Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis 2016-2021 (2,3). The South-East Asia Regional Vaccine Action Plan 2016-2020 (SEARVAP) (4) identified the acceleration of hepatitis B control as one of the eight regional goals for immunization. The plan outlined four main strategies for achieving hepatitis B control: 1) achieving ≥90% coverage with 3 doses of HepB (HepB3), 2) providing timely vaccination with a HepB birth dose (HepB-BD), 3) providing catch-up vaccination of older children, and 4) vaccinating adult populations at high risk and health care workers (1,4). In 2019, SEAR established a regional expert panel on hepatitis B to assess countries' HBV control status. This report describes the progress made toward hepatitis B control in SEAR during 2016-2019. By 2016, all 11 countries in the region had introduced HepB in their national immunization programs, and eight countries had introduced HepB-BD. During 2016-2019, regional HepB3 coverage increased from 89% to 91%, and HepB-BD coverage increased from 34% to 54%. In 2019, nine countries in the region achieved ≥90% HepB3 coverage, and three of the eight countries that provide HepB-BD achieved ≥90% HepB-BD coverage. By December 2019, four countries had been verified to have achieved the hepatitis B control goal. Countries in the region can make further progress toward hepatitis B control by using proven strategies to improve HepB-BD and HepB3 coverage rates. Conducting nationally representative hepatitis B serosurveys among children will be key to tracking and verifying the regional control targets.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica/prevenção & controle , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Objetivos , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(29): 951-955, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701936

RESUMO

Opioid use disorder and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) increased in Massachusetts from 1999 to 2013 (1,2). In response, in 2016, the state passed a law requiring birth hospitals to report the number of newborns who were exposed to controlled substances to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH)* by mandating monthly reporting of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) diagnostic codes related to maternal dependence on opioids (F11.20) or benzodiazepines (F13.20) and to newborns affected by maternal use of drugs of addiction (P04.49) or experiencing withdrawal symptoms from maternal drugs of addiction (P96.1) separately.† MDPH uses these same codes for monthly, real-time crude estimates of NAS and uses P96.1 alone for official NAS state reporting.§ MDPH requested CDC's assistance in evaluating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of either maternal or newborn codes to identify substance-exposed newborns, and of newborn exposure codes (both exposure [P04.49] or withdrawal [P96.1]) and the newborn code for withdrawal alone (P96.1) to identify infants with NAS cases related to three exposure scenarios: 1) opioids, 2) opioids or benzodiazepines, and 3) any controlled substance. Confirmed diagnoses of substance exposure and NAS abstracted from linked clinical records for 1,123 infants born in 2017 and their birth mothers were considered the diagnostic standard and were compared against hospital-reported ICD-10-CM codes. For identifying substance-exposed newborns across the three exposure scenarios, the newborn exposure codes had higher sensitivity (range = 31%-61%) than did maternal drug dependence codes (range = 16%-41%), but both sets of codes had high PPV (≥74%). For identifying NAS, for all exposure scenarios, the sensitivity for either newborn code (P04.49 or P96.1) was ≥92% and the PPV was ≥64%; for P96.1 alone the sensitivity was ≥79% and the PPV was ≥92% for all scenarios. Whereas ICD-10-CM codes are effective for NAS surveillance in Massachusetts, they should be applied cautiously for substance-exposed newborn surveillance. Surveillance for substance-exposed newborns using ICD-10-CM codes might be improved by increasing the use of validated substance-use screening tools and standardized facility protocols and improving communication between patients and maternal health and infant health care providers.


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20888, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629679

RESUMO

This study aims to identify prognostic value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in early miscarriages. A total of 260 pregnant women with vaginal spotting were recruited from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Kyung Hee Medical Center from January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2018. Venous samples were obtained from the women for measurements of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio, and NLR. All the patients were in < 14 gestational weeks of their pregnancy. Eighty-four patients were excluded because of incomplete data, loss of follow-up, and serious medical diseases. We enrolled 176 women for analysis and divided them into two groups. Group 1 included 104 women with threatened abortion; and group 2, 72 women with missed abortion. A significant difference in NLR was found between the groups (p = 0.001; P < .01). The multivariate analysis also revealed that NLR was the only prognostic factor of early miscarriage (odd ratio [OR], 0.732; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.612-0.881, P = .001). The area under the Receiver-operating characteristic of NLR for distinguishing between the missed and threatened abortion groups was 0.792, and the best cutoff value was 5.72 (P < .05).


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/sangue , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Adulto , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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