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1.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(2): 233-238, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530173

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To analyze the differences in accuracy of different eye movement parameters in distinguishing the cooperation and non-cooperation during image completion test of patients with mental disorders caused by craniocerebral trauma. Methods One hundred and forty cases of patients with mental disorders caused by craniocerebral trauma who took psychiatric impairment assessments were collected. The 21 pictures from "image completion" of Wechsler intelligence test were used as stimulating pictures, then divided into cooperation group and non-cooperation group according to binomial forced-choice digit memory test and expert opinions. The eye movement parameters of research subjects during completion of images were obtained by the SMI eye-tracker. The accuracy of eye movement parameters in distinguishing the cooperation or non-cooperation of patients with mental disorders caused by craniocerebral trauma in psychiatric impairment assessments were evaluated by the ROC curve. Results During the process of the image completion test, the area under curve (AUC) value of frequency of blink, frequency of fixation, pupil size, frequency of saccade, latency of saccade, average acceleration of saccade, the average and peak longitudinal velocity of saccade was above 0.5. When it comed to a specific stimulating picture, the AUC value of frequency of blink in looking at a specific stimulating picture could be above 0.8, and the AUC value of X axis diameter of pupil size could be above 0.7. Conclusion The accuracy of eye movement parameters in distinguishing the cooperation or disguise of patients with mental disorders caused by craniocerebral trauma is related with the stimulating picture. The accuracy of frequency of blink in distinguishing cooperation and non-cooperation is better than that of other eye movement parameters.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Piscadela , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(12): 6855-6865, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152108

RESUMO

Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are assemblies of extracellular matrix molecules, which surround the cell body and dendrites of many types of neuron and regulate neural plasticity. PNNs are prominently expressed around neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), but their role in adult cerebellar plasticity and behavior is far from clear. Here we show that PNNs in the mouse DCN are diminished during eyeblink conditioning (EBC), a form of associative motor learning that depends on DCN plasticity. When memories are fully acquired, PNNs are restored. Enzymatic digestion of PNNs in the DCN improves EBC learning, but intact PNNs are necessary for memory retention. At the structural level, PNN removal induces significant synaptic rearrangements in vivo, resulting in increased inhibition of DCN baseline activity in awake behaving mice. Together, these results demonstrate that PNNs are critical players in the regulation of cerebellar circuitry and function.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Núcleos Cerebelares/fisiologia , Condicionamento Palpebral/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Matriz Extracelular , Masculino , Memória , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
4.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the relationship between lipid layer thickness (LLT), incomplete blinking rate and tear film stability in patients with different myopia degrees after small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and to determine whether there is a difference in the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) after SMILE among patients with different myopia degrees. METHODS: Fifty patients (100 eyes) were enrolled in this study; they were divided into 3 groups according to the degree of spherical refraction: a low-myopia group (LMG; spherical refraction ≤-3.00 D, 20 eyes), a moderate-myopia group (MMG; -3.00 D < spherical refraction <-6.00 D, 40 eyes), and a high-myopia group (HMG; spherical refraction ≧-6.00 D, 40 eyes). Testing indicators included the ocular surface disease index (OSDI), fluorescein tear film breakup time (FBUT), corneal fluorescence staining (CFS), the Schirmer test (SI), lipid layer thickness (LLT), blink rate (BR) per 20 seconds, incomplete blinking rate, noninvasive keratograph assessment of first and average tear film breakup time (NIKBUTf, NIKBUTav), and tear meniscus height (TMH). Each indicator was evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 w, 1 mo and 3 mo. RESULTS: The mean age was 29.12±5.95 years. There were no significant differences among the three groups (p>0.05), except preoperative age (p = 0.006). There were significant differences in the FBUT among the three groups at postoperative 1 w and 1 mo (p<0.05). There were significant differences in the incomplete blinking rate and FBUT between the LMG and the HMG at postoperative 1 mo (p<0.05). The number of first tear film breakup points located beyond the 6 mm diameter of the cornea was higher in the HMG than in the other groups. The prevalence of DED in the LMG, the MMG, the HMG was 15%, 8% and 23%, respectively, at 1 w postoperative and 30%, 45% and 53%, respectively, at postoperative 1 mo. The change in LLT was significantly correlated with the changes in FBUT (r = 0.408, p<0.001) and incomplete blinking rate (r = -0.266, p = 0.007). The change in OSDI was negatively correlated with the change in SI (r = -0.502, p = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: The changes in LLT and incomplete blinking rate decreased the stability of the tear film. The changes in LLT, FBUT and incomplete blinking rate differed postoperatively with different myopia degrees. The prevalence of DED was higher in the HMG than in the other two groups.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Córnea/cirurgia , Lipídeos/química , Miopia/patologia , Lágrimas/fisiologia , Adulto , Córnea/fisiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/complicações , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lasers de Excimer , Masculino , Microcirurgia/métodos , Miopia/complicações , Período Pós-Operatório , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
5.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(3): 791-801, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corneal protection is a priority in flaccid facial palsy patients. Denervation of the orbicularis oculi muscle results in weak palpebral closure and predisposes patients to severe corneal sequelae. While periorbital static procedures enhance corneal coverage in repose, voluntary closure is only regained through dynamic reinnervation of the muscle. This study aims to elucidate the added effect of dynamic reinnervation of the orbicularis oculi muscle on long-term corneal integrity as well as on dynamic closure of the palpebral aperture. METHODS: Retrospective review was performed on two groups of complete palsy patients: those who received solely periorbital static procedures and those who underwent concomitant orbicularis oculi muscle reinnervation and static lid procedures. Only patients with complete ophthalmic examinations were included. Corneal punctate epithelial erosions in addition to static and dynamic palpebral measurements were serially assessed preoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: Of 272 facial palsy patients, 26 fit the inclusion criteria. Eleven patients underwent combined muscle reinnervation involving facial-to-masseteric nerve coaptation in addition to static eye procedures, and 15 patients underwent solely static interventions. Analysis revealed a 65.3 percent lower mean punctate epithelial erosion score in reinnervation patients as compared with static patients when evaluated at more than 9 months postoperatively (p < 0.01). Reinnervation patients were also found to have 25.3 percent greater palpebral aperture closure (p < 0.05) and 32.8 percent higher closure velocity (p < 0.01) compared with static patients. CONCLUSION: In patients with subacute facial palsy, dynamic reanimation of the orbicularis oculi muscle with concomitant static interventions provides lasting corneal protection not seen in patients who receive solely static interventions. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.


Assuntos
Doenças da Córnea/prevenção & controle , Músculos Faciais/inervação , Doenças do Nervo Facial/cirurgia , Paralisia Facial/cirurgia , Transferência de Nervo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Piscadela/fisiologia , Criança , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Córnea/patologia , Doenças da Córnea/diagnóstico , Doenças da Córnea/etiologia , Doenças da Córnea/fisiopatologia , Pálpebras/fisiopatologia , Pálpebras/cirurgia , Músculos Faciais/cirurgia , Nervo Facial/cirurgia , Doenças do Nervo Facial/complicações , Paralisia Facial/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nervo Mandibular/transplante , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 204: 111764, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972451

RESUMO

This study was to assess the impact on the cornea and eye blink activity of adapting rabbits to continuous lighting (CL) compared to a 14:10 light:dark cycle. Female New Zealand White rabbits (2 to 2.5 kg) were maintained under a light: dark (L:D) cycle or switched to continuous fluorescent lighting (CL) for an average of 17 +/- 2 days. Animal behaviour in their cages was manually recorded using an event marker and in vivo slitlamp biomicroscopy at 40× undertaken in mid-afternoon. Animals were then euthanized and the corneas prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From images taken at 500× from the central region of the corneas, the number of exfoliating (desquamating) cells and the relative number of different cells with light, medium or dark reflexes were assessed for the corneal epithelial surface, while the number of cells/unit area were assessed for both corneal epithelium and endothelium. Exposure to continuous lighting was associated with higher number of eye blink events (15.7 vs 8.2/15 min) and mild corneal surface alterations evident by biomicroscopy with higher numbers of intra-epithelial 'granules' (32 +/- 14 vs. 4 +/- 3/sq. mm). SEM revealed low numbers of exfoliating cells on the corneal epithelial surface in all CL-adapted animals, but not in L:D controls. Trends were observed for there to be slightly higher numbers of epithelial cells/unit area, higher numbers of small light reflex cells and lower numbers of larger dark reflex cells in CL animals. The corneal endothelium showed no obvious adverse effects in CL-adapted animals but the percentage of 'hexagonal' cells was slightly higher compared to L:D controls. The results indicate that even a short period of exposure of laboratory-raised rabbits to constant lighting can be associated with mild adverse effects on the corneal epithelial surface.


Assuntos
Epitélio Anterior/efeitos da radiação , Iluminação , Animais , Piscadela/efeitos da radiação , Contagem de Células , Endotélio/citologia , Endotélio/patologia , Endotélio/efeitos da radiação , Epitélio Anterior/citologia , Epitélio Anterior/patologia , Feminino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Coelhos
7.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(2): 883-896, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The "nociceptive-specific" blink reflex (nBR) evoked by extraoral stimulation has been used to assess trigeminal nociceptive processing in patients with trigeminal nerve damage regardless of the site of damage. This study aimed to test the feasibility of nBR elicited by intraoral stimulation, compare intraoral and extraoral nBR and assess the intrarater and interrater reliability of the intraoral nBR for the maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) branches of the trigeminal nerve. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 17 healthy participants, nBR was elicited by stimulation of two extraoral and two intraoral sites by two operators and repeated intraorally by one operator. Main outcome variables were intraoral stimulus-evoked pain scores and nBR R2 responses at different stimulus intensities. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess reliability. RESULTS: Dependent on the stimulus intensity, intraoral stimulation evoked R2 responses in up to 12/17 (70.6%) participants for V2 and up to 8/17 (47.1%) participants for V3. Pain scores (p < 0.003) and R2 responses (p < 0.004) increased with increasing intensities for V2, but not V3. The R2 responses were significantly smaller with intraoral stimulation compared to extraoral stimulation (p < 0.014). Overall, ICCs were fair to excellent for V2 but poor for V3. CONCLUSION: Intraorally evoked nBR was feasible in a subset of healthy participants and was less responsive than nBR with extraoral stimulation. The V2 nBR showed better reliability than V3. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The nBR can be used to assess nerve damage to the maxillary intraoral regions, though other measures may need to be considered for the mandibular intraoral regions.


Assuntos
Piscadela , Reflexo , Estimulação Elétrica , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 210: 107-115, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606440

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the effects of sustained gazing on visual function of dry eye patients. DESIGN: Prospective, comparative before-and-after study. METHODS: A total of 176 patients with dry eye and 33 control subjects ≥50 years old were included. Dry eye symptomatology along and clinical parameters were assessed. Out-loud reading speed was measured using the International Reading Speed Test (IReST) as words per minute (wpm). Reading speed was repeated using different IReST excerpts following 30-minute silent reading. RESULTS: At baseline, there were no differences between dry eye patients and control subjects with respect to reading speed (172 vs 180 wpm, respectively; P = 0.21) or the time to read the excerpt (33 vs 30 seconds, respectively; P = 0.17). After silent reading, the dry eye patients had decreased reading speed and increases in the length of time to read the passage compared to baseline (161 vs 172 wpm, respectively; P = 0.002; and 38 vs 33 seconds, respectively; P < 0.001). The control subjects did not show significant differences for either parameter. There were significant differences with respect to both parameters between the dry eye and control groups after sustained gazing (161 vs 188 wpm, respectively; P = 0.006; and 38 vs 31 seconds, respectively; P = 0.003). Each 1-point increase in baseline corneal staining score (0-6) led to a 5-wpm reduction in reading speed (95% confidence interval, -8 to -1; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Sustained gazing, such as in silent reading, has a measurable negative impact on visual performance of dry eye patients. Corneal staining represents a clinical parameter relevant to visual function.


Assuntos
Piscadela , Síndromes do Olho Seco/fisiopatologia , Leitura , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes Visuais
9.
Accid Anal Prev ; 135: 105386, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805427

RESUMO

Sleepiness is a major contributor to motor vehicle crashes and shift workers are particularly vulnerable. There is currently no validated objective field-based measure of sleep-related impairment prior to driving. Ocular parameters are promising markers of continuous driver alertness in laboratory and track studies, however their ability to determine fitness-to-drive in naturalistic driving is unknown. This study assessed the efficacy of a pre-drive ocular assessment for predicting sleep-related impairment in naturalistic driving, in rotating shift workers. Fifteen healthcare workers drove an instrumented vehicle for 2 weeks, while working a combination of day, evening and night shifts. The vehicle monitored lane departures and behavioural microsleeps (blinks >500 ms) during the drive. Immediately prior to driving, ocular parameters were assessed with a 4-min test. Lane departures and behavioural microsleeps occurred on 17.5 % and 10 % of drives that had pre-drive assessments, respectively. Pre-drive blink duration significantly predicted behavioural microsleeps and showed promise for predicting lane departures (AUC = 0.79 and 0.74). Pre-drive percentage of time with eyes closed had high accuracy for predicting lane departures and behavioural microsleeps (AUC = 0.73 and 0.96), although was not statistically significant. Pre-drive psychomotor vigilance task variables were not statistically significant predictors of lane departures. Self-reported sleep-related and hazardous driving events were significantly predicted by mean blink duration (AUC = 0.65 and 0.69). Measurement of ocular parameters pre-drive predict drowsy driving during naturalistic driving, demonstrating potential for fitness-to-drive assessment in operational environments.


Assuntos
Direção Distraída , Sonolência , Vigília/fisiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Piscadela/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/fisiologia
10.
Cornea ; 39(1): 132-135, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403529

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe a new method to distinguish between normal versus lipid-deficient dry eye using a Tear Film Imager (TFI). METHODS: Two groups of study subjects, controls versus lipid-deficient dry eye, were tested using the TFI. This instrument provides an accurate measurement of the thickness and spatial distribution of the muco-aqueous and lipid layers of the tear film. The nanometer thickness resolution of the TFI enables the creation of detailed maps of the lipid layer thickness (LLT) across the corneal surface. These maps are captured with a large field of view of 6.5 mm diameter. RESULTS: A LLT map taken at 1 second from a blink end in the controls appears uniform, whereas a nonuniform layer was measured in the lipid-deficient dry eye. Lipid map uniformity can quantify the spatial variation of lipid across the cornea. A case study showed the ability to distinguish between controls [lipid map uniformity (LMU) = 14 nm] and lipid-deficient dry eye (LMU = 125 nm) through characterization of the LLT distribution. CONCLUSIONS: High-resolution lateral LLT maps demonstrate the significance of the lipid layer uniformity, which may play an important role in maintaining tear film health. LLT maps and the quantitative LMU could be used to diagnose and treat patients with dry eye.


Assuntos
Córnea/metabolismo , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/instrumentação , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/análise , Lágrimas/química , Piscadela/fisiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/metabolismo , Síndromes do Olho Seco/fisiopatologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12867, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125469

RESUMO

The hippocampus is a subcortical structure in the medial temporal lobe involved in cognitive functions such as spatial navigation and reorientation, episodic memory, and associative learning. While much is understood about the role of hippocampal function in learning and memory in adults, less is known about the relations between the hippocampus and the development of these cognitive skills in young children due to the limitations of using standard methods (e.g., MRI) to examine brain structure and function in developing populations. This study used hippocampal-dependent trace eyeblink conditioning (EBC) as a feasible approach to examine individual differences in hippocampal functioning as they relate to spatial reorientation and episodic memory performance in young children. Three- to six-year-old children (N = 50) completed tasks that measured EBC, spatial reorientation, and episodic memory, as well as non-hippocampal-dependent processing speed abilities. Results revealed that when age was held constant, individual differences in EBC performance were significantly related to individual differences in performance on the spatial reorientation test, but not on the episodic memory or processing speed tests. When the relations between hippocampal-dependent EBC and different reorientation strategies were explored, it was found that individual differences in hippocampal function predicted the use of geometric information for reorienting in space as opposed to a combined strategy that uses both geometric information and salient visual cues. The utilization of eyeblink conditioning to examine hippocampal function in young populations and its implications for understanding the dissociation between spatial reorientation and episodic memory development are discussed.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Condicionamento Palpebral/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Aprendizagem , Masculino
12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225897, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790478

RESUMO

In recent years, natural viewing settings with video presentation have been used in neurological and psychological experiments. However, the experienced cognitive load may differ among participants. In this study, we show that rapid serial blinks (RSB) can indicate temporally increased cognitive load with high temporal resolution. We proposed a method to create a personal criterion for respective participants by using empirical blink intervals. When we focused on more than four serial blinks (i.e., three inter-blink intervals), an increased number of RSB detect participants who felt hard to understanding, indicating a poor understanding of the subject matter. By contrast, a constant criterion across participants used in previous study could not detect participant's understanding. These results suggest that individual differences in cognitive trait of each participant may skew the results of experiments. To avoid biases, we recommend researchers to perform an operational check on individually different temporally increased cognitive loads among experimental groups.


Assuntos
Piscadela , Cognição , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 36(6): 415-421, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688324

RESUMO

Blinking is one of the motor acts performed more frequently by healthy human subjects. It involves the reciprocal action of at least two muscles: the orbicularis oculi shows a brief phasic activation while the levator palpebrae shows transient inhibition. In clinical practice, noninvasive recording of the orbicularis oculi activity is sufficient to obtain useful information for electrodiagnostic testing. Blinking can be spontaneous, voluntary, or reflex. Although the analysis of spontaneous blinks can already furnish interesting data, most studies are based on reflex blinking. This article is a review of some of the alterations that can be observed in blinking, focusing in four patterns of abnormality that can be distinguished in the blink reflex: (1) afferent versus efferent, which allows characterization of trigeminal or facial lesions; (2) peripheral versus central, which distinguishes alterations in nerve conduction from those involving synaptic delay; (3) upper versus lower brainstem lesions, which indicates the lesions involving specific circuits for trigeminal and somatosensory blink reflexes; and (4) asymmetric abnormal excitability pattern, which shows a unilateral alteration in the descending control of excitability in brainstem circuits. The blink reflex excitability recovery curve to paired stimuli may provide information about other modulatory inputs to trigemino-facial circuits, such as those proposed for the connection between basal ganglia and trigeminal neurons. Finally, prepulse inhibition of blink reflex reflects the motor surrogate of subcortical gating on sensory volleys, which is still another window by which electrodiagnosis can document motor control mechanisms and their abnormalities in neurologic diseases.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Reflexo/fisiologia , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico
14.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(6): 1061e-1070e, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 1984, Terzis reported on the potential use of a free platysma muscle transfer to reanimate the orbicularis oculi in longstanding paralysis of this unit. However, the vascularized platysma flap proved difficult to transfer, and this technique is not widely used today. In the present study, the authors have described the technique involving grafting of the platysma muscle to restore eyelid function and retrospectively discussed its clinical outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included patients with longstanding facial paralysis who underwent orbicularis oculi reconstruction with neurotized platysma grafts. The authors have described the surgical technique and its retrospective clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Between 1992 and 2015, 38 consecutive patients underwent this procedure; of them, 34 [16 men (47 percent) and 18 women (53 percent)] completed the follow-up. The time between the first and second surgical stages was a mean 8.6 months (range, 6 to 22 months). The surgical results were good in 18 patients (53 percent) and the recovery was satisfactory in 13 (38 percent). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the feasibility and effectiveness of grafted muscle functional recovery and the efficiency of neuromuscular neurotization. The presented surgical technique is safe and effective for treating longstanding facial palsy of the orbicularis oculi muscle. This is the only technique that is easy and reproducible, leads to facial nerve recovery, and places a similar muscle at the original site of the paralyzed muscle for functional recovery. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.


Assuntos
Paralisia Facial/cirurgia , Transferência de Nervo/métodos , Sistema Musculoaponeurótico Superficial/transplante , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/transplante , Adolescente , Adulto , Piscadela/fisiologia , Pálpebras/inervação , Pálpebras/cirurgia , Paralisia Facial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Sistema Musculoaponeurótico Superficial/inervação , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/inervação , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17255, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the dynamic changes of tear film optical quality in a short tear break-up time (TBUT) dry eye by using a double-pass system. METHODS: Thirty-five short TBUT dry eye participants and 43 control subjects without dry eye were included in this study. One eye for each subject was analyzed. The Objective Scatter Index (OSI), modulation transfer function (MTF), and strehl ratio (SR) were recorded within a 20-second period with the participants asked to blink freely, and 10 successive seconds of nonblinking immediately after a blink was recorded to analyze the tear film OSI. The mean tear film OSI in 10 successive seconds, ΔOSI, and ΔOSI/time were evaluated. The correlation between tear film OSI and MTF, and the correlation between tear film OSI and MIT were also analysed. RESULTS: Short TBUT dry eye participants showed significant deterioration of MTF and SR compared to control subjects. The mean tear film OSI in 10 successive seconds was significantly higher in dry eye participants than in control subjects. The mean OSI of the tear film (0-5 seconds) and the mean OSI of the tear film (6-10 seconds) were significantly higher in dry eye participants than in control participants. Moreover, the ΔOSI was significantly higher in dry eye participants than in control participants. The tear film OSI was significantly correlated with the MTF and the SR. CONCLUSIONS: The tear film OSI of short TBUT dry eye participants is significantly increased in the early stage. Tear film instability in short TBUT dry eye participants has a significant effect on optical quality.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/normas , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Lágrimas , Adulto , Piscadela/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
J Integr Neurosci ; 18(3): 217-229, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601069

RESUMO

In the electroencephalogram recorded data are often confounded with artifacts, especially in the case of eye blinks. Different methods for artifact detection and removal are discussed in the literature, including automatic detection and removal. Here, an automatic method of eye blink detection and correction is proposed where sparse coding is used for an electroencephalogram dataset. In this method, a hybrid dictionary based on a ridgelet transformation is used to capture prominent features by analyzing independent components extracted from a different number of electroencephalogram channels. In this study, the proposed method has been tested and validated with five different datasets for artifact detection and correction. Results show that the proposed technique is promising as it successfully extracted the exact locations of eye blinking artifacts. The accuracy of the method (automatic detection) is 89.6% which represents a better estimate than that obtained by an extreme machine learning classifier.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Piscadela , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto , Algoritmos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(12): 3265-3271, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650212

RESUMO

The effect of Jendrassik Maneuver (JM) has been extensively studied on monosynaptic reflexes in numerous muscles below the level at which the maneuver was performed. Here we hypothesize that the effect of JM could be observed also on other reflexes, indicating a widespread influence of performing a motor act such as the JM. We examined polysynaptic reflexes caudal (i.e., the withdrawal reflex of the lower extremities) and rostral (i.e., the blink reflex to supraorbital nerve stimulation) to the level of JM contraction. We have assessed soleus tendon (T) reflex; withdrawal reflex in tibialis anterior and soleus muscle; blink reflex (BR), blink reflex excitability recovery curve (BR-ER) and prepulse inhibition of the blink reflex. Our results showed that (1) T-reflex amplitude increased during JM and decreased just after and 15 min after JM; (2) no change in the withdrawal reflex; (3) R2 area of BR reduced significantly just after or 15 min after JM; (4) Prepulse inhibition in BR reduced significantly during JM; (5) no change in BR-ER. Our results indicate that JM leads to generalized effects on neural excitability at both caudal and rostral levels. Furthermore, JM has a selective effect on excitability of reflex circuitries.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Inibição Pré-Pulso/fisiologia , Reflexo/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Piscadela/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reflexo de Estiramento/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222467, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The application of artificial tears before performing perimetry can improve the reliability and results of perimetry in patients with glaucoma and dry eye (DE). However, the effects of ocular surface and tear film conditions on perimetry measurements and reliability have not been fully characterized. METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter study investigated tear metrics in perimetry and assessed the relationships that existed among ocular surface condition, tear condition, and perimetry reliability. Forty-three eyes (43 patients) with DE disease according to the 2016 Japanese diagnostic criteria of DE and 43 eyes (43 subjects) of age- and visual field mean deviation-matched normal control subjects were studied. Perimetry was performed using the Humphrey Field Analyzer (30-2 SITA-Standard). Schirmer's test, strip meniscometry value, blink rate, tear film break-up time (TFBUT), fluorescein staining of ocular surface, and Dry Eye-related Quality of Life Score (DEQS) were measured. Blink rate was re-measured during perimetry. TFBUT and fluorescein staining were re-evaluated after perimetry. Perimetry reliability was evaluated with fixation loss, false-positive, and false-negative rates. RESULTS: Blink rate during perimetry was significantly lower for both patients with DE and normal controls (both P<0.001). TFBUT after perimetry was significantly higher than before perimetry in patients with DE (P<0.001). Fluorescein staining of ocular surface was significantly increased in patients with DE and normal control subjects (P = 0.002 and P<0.001, respectively). Spearman correlation analysis revealed that blink rate during perimetry was negatively correlated with fixation-loss rate (r = -0.393, P = 0.009) in patients with DE. CONCLUSIONS: Performing perimetry was associated with a significant change in tear condition and ocular surface condition in both patients with DE and normal control subjects. The changes in tear condition and ocular surface condition may impact the reliability of perimetry in patients with DE.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/fisiopatologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/terapia , Lubrificantes Oftálmicos/administração & dosagem , Lágrimas/metabolismo , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Piscadela/efeitos dos fármacos , Piscadela/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Síndromes do Olho Seco/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4106, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511514

RESUMO

Conscious perception is crucial for adaptive behaviour yet access to consciousness varies for different types of objects. The visual system comprises regions with widely distributed category information and exemplar-level representations that cluster according to category. Does this categorical organisation in the brain provide insight into object-specific access to consciousness? We address this question using the Attentional Blink approach with visual objects as targets. We find large differences across categories in the attentional blink. We then employ activation patterns extracted from a deep convolutional neural network to reveal that these differences depend on mid- to high-level, rather than low-level, visual features. We further show that these visual features can be used to explain variance in performance across trials. Taken together, our results suggest that the specific organisation of the higher-tier visual system underlies important functions relevant for conscious perception of differing natural images.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Piscadela , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Redes Neurais de Computação , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 144: 40-46, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415796

RESUMO

Individuals with eating disorders have exhibited both positive and negative emotional responses to food when assessed via self-report and psychophysiology. These mixed findings may be explained by a lack of association between self-report and physiological measures, and the degree of association may differ based on core eating disorder symptoms like dietary restriction and binge eating. Women from the community (N = 82) were recruited based on the presence or absence of dietary restriction and binge eating. We examined the startle eyeblink reflex, a physiological measure of defensive motivation, in relation to self-reported valence, arousal, and craving ratings of emotional (positive, neutral, negative) and food (high- and low-calorie) images. Dietary restriction and binge eating were investigated as moderators of self-report/physiology relationships. Replicating extant literature, valence ratings of emotional images were correlated with startle blink reflex magnitude, with more unpleasant ratings related to higher startle eyeblink reflex magnitudes. Increased craving, but not valence, ratings of food images were related to lower startle blink reflex magnitudes. Dietary restriction and binge eating did not moderate the relationship between self-report ratings and startle blink magnitude to food. Our findings suggest that self-reported appetitive motivation towards food relates to a decrease in physiologically measured aversion towards food. Future research should examine the extent to which self-report ratings correlate with physiological indices of positive emotion (e.g., postauricular reflex, zygomaticus major) during the viewing of food images in both patients with eating disorders and healthy controls.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Fissura/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Alimentos , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bulimia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
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