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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 156: 111247, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510389

RESUMO

In six contiguous estuaries in Southwest Florida (USA) focused management actions over the past several decades have reduced watershed nutrient loads, resulting in an additional 11,672 ha of seagrass meadows between 1999 and 2016, an improvement of 32%. However, in September of 2017, Hurricane Irma made landfall in the state of Florida, affecting the open water and watersheds of each of these six estuaries. In response, seagrass coverage declined by 1203 ha between 2016 and 2018, a system-wide decrease of 3%. The range of decreases associated with Hurricane Irma varied from less than a 1% loss of seagrass coverage in St. Joseph Sound to declines of 7 and 11% in Clearwater Harbor and Lemon Bay, respectively. Areas with the largest losses between 2016 and 2018 were those systems where seagrass coverage had declined in prior years, indicating the effects of Hurricane Irma might have been intensified by prior impacts.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Estuários , Florida , Pradaria
2.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(3): 205-211, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441037

RESUMO

In 2010 and 2017, respectively, the manuscripts Location and Analysis of Emergency Management Point of Dis-tributions (PODS) for Hurricane Ike and Use of Geographical Information System Data For Emergency Management Points of Distribution Analysis With POD Locator 2.0 were published in the Journal of Emergency Management. These manuscripts described the use of the University of Houston POD Locator software to determine the location of Points of Distribution under emergency conditions. This software achieved a 46 percent improvement in POD loca-tions in comparison to those actually selected during the event. However, a limitation of those research efforts was the absence of the potential effects of flood waters as experienced in the Houston Harris County area during Hurri-cane Harvey in 2017. This research effort focuses on the effects of flood water in determining the location of different PODs under these conditions in comparison to the PODs identified by Hurricane Harvey. The results indicate a sta-tistically significant difference at an alpha level of 0.05 between using and not using flood data when determining the location of PODs. The use of flood data also yielded a 46.5 percent in travel distance reduction over the actual 26 POD locations chosen in Ike.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres , Equipamentos e Provisões , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Emergências , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Inundações , Humanos , Texas
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 12595-12597, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424085

RESUMO

Beyond their immediate effects on mortality, disasters have widespread, indirect impacts on mental and physical well-being by exposing survivors to stress and potential trauma. Identifying the disaster-related stressors that predict health adversity will help officials prepare for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Using data from a prospective study of young, low-income mothers who survived Hurricane Katrina, we find that bereavement, fearing for loved ones' well-being, and lacking access to medical care and medications predict adverse mental and physical health 1 y postdisaster, and some effects persist 12 y later. Adjusting for preexisting health and socioeconomic conditions attenuates, but does not eliminate, these associations. The findings, while drawn from a demographically unique sample, suggest that, to mitigate the indirect effects of COVID-19, lapses in medical care and medication use must be minimized, and public health resources should be directed to those with preexisting medical conditions, their social networks, and the bereaved.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Desastres , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Luto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Medo , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Mães , Nova Orleans , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Pobreza , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Environ Manage ; 264: 110457, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224292

RESUMO

In this study, we posit that in determining the underpinnings and attributes of community resilience to disaster-shocks, an analysis of actual and potential disaster victims' emic perspectives, that is the views of cultural insiders, on recovery processes and community resilience is crucial. We argue that community resilience must be framed within a deeper understanding of the subjective views of the actors themselves, their local knowledge and culture, and the historical context of the place or social formation. In this context, the primary goal of this study was to delineate the fundamental elements of community recovery and attributes of resilience to cyclones, storm surges, and other environmental disaster-shocks in Bangladesh's coastal communities, and, recognizing that social actions are pivotal elements of community resilience, we attempt to make a novel contribution by underscoring local emic perspectives. Using the tools of participatory research methods, we collected empirical data from four sources: a household survey of 300 household heads, eight focus group discussions, 20 key informant interviews, and five in-depth, household case studies. Our research findings revealed that the roles of traditional-informal as well as quasi-formal institutions were vital for rapid recovery and transformation to new local economic and livelihood trajectories. Resilience attributes that were deeply embedded in community characteristics assisted in ameliorating immediate impacts as well as in building future adaptive capacities. Out of 12 resilience attributes identified by the respondents, 'knowledge, skills and learning', 'values and beliefs', 'people-place connection', 'social networks and support', 'active institutions', and 'self-organization' capacities were ranked highest. The community resilience attributes and their functionality in the context of the coastal communities studied varied significantly depending on their economic base, occupations, and their respective contexts of vulnerability. Overall, the findings demonstrate that community resilience attributes function interactively rather than independently, and analyses of community attributes therefore require a clear understanding of network functioning and the processes that drive institutional structures, relations, and outcomes.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Bangladesh , Características da Família , Grupos Focais , Resiliência Psicológica
5.
J Environ Manage ; 264: 110494, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250914

RESUMO

Coastal urban infrastructure and water management programs are vulnerable to the impacts of long-term hydroclimatic changes and to the flooding and physical destruction of disruptive hurricanes and storm surge. Water resilience or, inversely, vulnerability depends on design specifications of the storm and inundation, against which water infrastructure and environmental assets are planned and operated. These design attributes are commonly derived from statistical modeling of historical measurements. Here we argue for the need to carefully examine the approach and associated design vulnerability in coastal areas because of the future hydroclimatic changes and large variability at local coastal watersheds. This study first shows significant spatiotemporal variations of design storm in the Chesapeake Bay of the eastern U.S. Atlantic coast, where the low-frequency high-intensity precipitations vary differently to the tropical cyclones and local orographic effects. Average and gust wind speed exhibited much greater spatial but far less temporal variability than the precipitation. It is noteworthy that these local variabilities are not fully described by the regional gridded precipitation used in CMIP5 climate downscaling and by NOAA's regional design guide Atlas-14. Up to 46.4% error in the gridded precipitation for the calibration period 1950-1999 is further exacerbated in the future design values by the ensemble of 132 CMIP5 projections. The total model projection error (δM) up to -61.8% primarily comes from the precipitation regionalization (δ1), climate downscaling (δ2), and a fraction from empirical data modeling (δE). Thus, a post-bias correction technique is necessary. The bias-corrected design wind speed for 10-yr to 30-yr storms has small changes <20% by the year 2100, but contains large spatial variations even for stations of close proximity. Bias-corrected design precipitations are characteristic of large spatial variability and a notable increase of 2-5 year precipitation in the future along western shores of the Lower and Middle Chesapeake Bay. All these accounts point to the potential vulnerability of water infrastructure and water program in coastal areas, when the hydrological design basis using regional values fails to account for significant spatiotemporal precipitation variations in local coastal watersheds.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Inundações , Mudança Climática , Meio Ambiente , Incerteza
6.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230908, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236119

RESUMO

Stormwater runoff is recognized as a cause of water quality degradation because it may carry nitrogen (N) and other pollutants to aquatic ecosystems. Stormwater ponds are a stormwater control measure often used to manage stormwater runoff by holding a permanent pool of water, which reduces the peak flow, magnitude of runoff volume, and concentrations of nutrients and pollutants. We instrumented the outlet of a stormwater pond in an urban residential neighbourhood in Florida, United States to (1) investigate the concentration and composition of N forms during the summer rainy season (May to September 2016), and (2) determine the bioavailability of organic N in the stormwater pond with a bioassay experiment. A total of 144 outflow water samples over 13 storm events were collected at the outlet of the stormwater pond that collects runoff from the residential catchment. Samples were analysed for various inorganic N [ammonium (NH4-N), nitrate (NO3-N)], and organic N forms [dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and particulate organic nitrogen (PON)]. Flow-weighted mean concentration of total N (TN) in pond outflow for all collected storm events was 1.3±1.42 mg L-1, with DON as the dominant form (78%), followed by PON and NO3-N (each at 8%), and NH4-N (6%). In the bioassay experiment, organic N (DON+PON) was significantly decreased by 25-28% after 5 days of incubation, suggesting that a portion of the DON carried from the pond outflow to receiving water bodies may be bioavailable. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate stormwater N outflows from urban ponds should incorporate both inorganic and organic N in management plans.


Assuntos
Nitratos/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Tanques/química , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Florida , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Reforma Urbana , Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
7.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275722

RESUMO

Strong tropical cyclone (TC) Ockhi occurred in the southeastern Arabian Sea (AS) in 2017. Ockhi greatly changed the oceanic conditions and induced large variation in chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The dynamic mechanisms of the long-term phytoplankton bloom after the passage of the TC were investigated in this study. Prominent surface ocean responses, e.g., decreasing temperature and salinity, were identified from Argo data by comparing the pre- and post-conditions of the TC. A phytoplankton bloom was observed in southeastern AS after the passage of TC Ockhi within the area of (11°N-14°N, 67°E-70°E) and lasted for seven days. Interestingly, there were two weaker cyclonic eddies, with an average vorticity of less than 0.14 s-1, on the TC trajectory from November 28 to December 2. As Ockhi approached, strong vertical mixing occurred on December 3, increasing the eddy vorticity to 0.26 s-1. After the passage of Ockhi, both eddies, with a two-day oscillation period, were substantially enhanced. Especially from December 11 to 16, the vorticity above 70 m was as high as 0.2 s-1 in the thermocline. Because of the high photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) and low precipitation, the enhanced cyclonic eddies induced upwelling for the entire thermocline for over ten days and uplifted nitrates into the mixed layer. This study offers new insights on the influence of eddies in regulating the impacts of typhoons on Chl-a, and the results can help evaluate typhoon-induced biological responses in the future.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Nitratos , Oceanos e Mares , Fotossíntese , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar/química , Temperatura
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(5): 307, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328814

RESUMO

Conventional water quality measurements are nearly impossible during and immediately after extreme storms due to dangerous conditions. In this study, remotely sensed reflectance is used to develop a regression equation that quantifies total suspended solids (TSS) in near real-time after Hurricane Harvey. The application focused specifically on sediment loading and deposition and its potential impacts on the Houston Ship Channel and Galveston Bay riverine-estuarine system. The European Space Agency's Sentinel-2 satellite captured images at critical points in the storm's progression, necessitating the development of a new algorithm for this relatively new satellite mission. Several linear regressions were analyzed with the goal of developing a simple one- or two-band equation, and the final model uses the red and near infrared bands (R2 = 0.74). Results show that record flows during Harvey delivered unprecedented suspended sediment loads to the Gulf of Mexico at concentrations above 125 mg/L with a mean concentration of 43 mg/L across the bay. The study findings demonstrated that it took up to 11 days after the storm for sediment transport to abate.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Clima Extremo , Modelos Teóricos , Qualidade da Água , Água , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Golfo do México , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Comunicações Via Satélite , Análise Espectral , Texas , Água/química
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229957, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236120

RESUMO

Hurricanes are powerful agents of destruction with significant socioeconomic impacts. A persistent problem due to the large-scale evacuations during hurricanes in the southeastern United States is the fuel shortages during the evacuation. Computational models can aid in emergency preparedness and help mitigate the impacts of hurricanes. In this paper, we model the hurricane fuel shortages using the SIR epidemic model. We utilize the crowd-sourced data corresponding to Hurricane Irma and Florence to parametrize the model. An estimation technique based on Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is employed to evaluate the SIR dynamic parameters. Finally, an optimal control approach for refueling based on a vaccination analogue is presented to effectively reduce the fuel shortages under a resource constraint. We find the basic reproduction number corresponding to fuel shortages in Miami during Hurricane Irma to be 3.98. Using the control model we estimated the level of intervention needed to mitigate the fuel-shortage epidemic. For example, our results indicate that for Naples- Fort Myers affected by Hurricane Irma, a per capita refueling rate of 0.1 for 2.2 days would have reduced the peak fuel shortage from 55% to 48% and a refueling rate of 0.75 for half a day before landfall would have reduced to 37%.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas/economia , Planejamento em Desastres , Gasolina/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287308

RESUMO

Herein, we present coastal-wave records under historically extreme conditions caused by a strong typhoon in Japan in 2017. The extreme typhoon generated large infragravity waves, reaching a height of 2 m in shallow water. We took advantage of the extraordinary conditions to analyze the effect of the energetic infragravity waves on the nearshore evolution of relatively short waves. Individual wave analyses clearly demonstrate that the instantaneous water-level rise and drawdown caused by the infragravity waves alternately decelerated and accelerated the breaking of short waves under extreme conditions. This mechanism transmitted the large short-wave energy on the infragravity wave crests to the shore, eventually increasing the height of the nearshore waves. This study provides in situ evidence that the infragravity waves significantly affect nearshore wave characteristics under extreme conditions.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Desastres , Japão , Água
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0226189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208420

RESUMO

The Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) and Bay of Bengal Ocean Acidification (BOBOA) mooring measurements were used to identify changes in the partial pressure of CO2 at the sea surface (pCO2sea) and air-sea CO2 fluxes (FCO2) associated with passage of two tropical cyclones (TCs), Florence and Hudhud. TC Florence passed about 165 km off the BTM mooring site with strong wind speeds of 24.8 m s-1 and translation speed of 7.23 m s-1. TC Hudhud passed about 178 km off the BOBOA mooring site with wind speeds of 14.0 m s-1 and translation speed of 2.58 m s-1. The present study examined the effect of temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), air-sea CO2 flux, and phytoplankton chlorophyll a change on pCO2sea as a response to TCs. Enhanced mixed layer depths were observed due to TCs-induced vertical mixing at both mooring sites. Decreased pCO2sea (-15.16±5.60 µatm) at the BTM mooring site and enhanced pCO2sea (14.81±7.03 µatm) at the BOBOA mooring site were observed after the passage of Florence and Hudhud, respectively. Both DIC and TA are strongly correlated with salinity in the upper layer of the isothermal layer depth (ILD). Strong (weak) vertical gradient in salinity is accompanied by strong (weak) vertical gradients in DIC and TA. Strong vertical salinity gradient in the upper layer of the ILD (0.031 psu m-1), that supply much salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity from the thermocline was the cause of the increased pCO2sea in the BOBOA mooring water. Weak vertical salinity gradient in the upper layer of the ILD (0.003 psu m-1) was responsible for decreasing pCO2sea in the BTM mooring water. The results of this study showed that the vertical salinity gradient in the upper layer of the ILD is a good indicator of the pCO2sea variation after the passages of TCs.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Modelos Biológicos , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salinidade , Bermudas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares
12.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(2): 141-152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181869

RESUMO

Disasters are diversified in all aspects: they range from storms and tornadoes to earthquakes, tsunamis and cyclones etc. They affect a range of countries. Most disasters are caused by geographical factors. The overall response depends on the wealth of a country. For example, Japan is better prepared than Nepal or Haiti. Disaster responses are multidimensional and are assumed to be effective. From a service quality perspective, groups of responders provide services to victims. Effectiveness and efficiency of victim services are perhaps two outcome measures. Unfortunately, published studies on evaluation of disaster responses are sparse to nonexistent. The intent of this study is to develop a preliminary method for assessing the perceived effectiveness and efficiency (service quality) from the perspectives of both the responders and the victims. A method (preliminary) is proposed in which all anticipated attributes and outcomes are measured. Regression is the proposed modeling tool. It is hoped that the proposed preliminary method will facilitate the preparedness of the response teams and give rise to a permanent method.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Desastres , Modelos Organizacionais , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Terremotos , Humanos , Tsunamis
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229246, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In September 2017, the Hurricane Irma devastated the islands of Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthelemy (French West Indies). This was a particularly distressing time for the local healthcare staff in charge of rescuing the population. The aim of this study was to identify the explanatory factors of post-traumatic distress and burnout in hospital staff. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was sent to all 509 hospital workers of Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthelemy. Post-traumatic distress and burnout was assessed using the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-S) and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) scales. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the explanatory variables for these two psychological disorders. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-two questionnaires were completed (response rate of 51.7%). The explanatory factors of post-traumatic distress were female gender (OR = 12.93, 95% CI: 2.70-232.10), electricity shortages (OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.13-8.19) and home damage (OR = 1.16, 95% CI [1.02-1.33]). In parallel, the explanatory factors of burnout were post-traumatic distress (OR: 10.42, 95% CI: 4.72-25.58), female gender (OR = 2,41, 95% CI: 1.24-5.02) and paramedical staff (OR = 2,53, 95% CI: 1.15-6.21). In the multivariate analysis, only burnout was significantly associated with post-traumatic distress (OR = 9.26, 95% CI: 4.11-23.14). CONCLUSIONS: Six months after Irma, post-traumatic distress among hospital staff was strongly linked to burnout. This study revealed the lack of electricity as a new factor related to post-traumatic distress. It also suggested that psychological intervention should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 5719-5725, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123063

RESUMO

Coastal wetlands dampen the impact of storm surge and strong winds. Studies on the economic valuation of this protective service provided by wetland ecosystems are, however, rare. Here, we analyze property damage caused by 88 tropical storms and hurricanes hitting the United States between 1996 and 2016 and show that counties with more wetland coverage experienced significantly less property damage. The expected economic value of the protective effects of wetlands varies widely across coastal US counties with an average value of about $1.8 million/km2 per year and a median value of $91,000/km2 Wetlands confer relatively more protection against weaker storms and in states with weaker building codes. Recent wetland losses are estimated to have increased property damage from Hurricane Irma by $430 million. Our results suggest the importance of considering both natural and human factors in coastal zone defense policy.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas/economia , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Áreas Alagadas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Planejamento em Desastres/economia , Elevação do Nível do Mar , Clima Tropical , Estados Unidos
15.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(5): 2785-2797, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115808

RESUMO

Anticipating future changes of an ecosystem's dynamics requires knowledge of how its key communities respond to current environmental regimes. The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is under threat, with rapid changes of its reef-building hard coral (HC) community structure already evident across broad spatial scales. While several underlying relationships between HC and multiple disturbances have been documented, responses of other benthic communities to disturbances are not well understood. Here we used statistical modelling to explore the effects of broad-scale climate-related disturbances on benthic communities to predict their structure under scenarios of increasing disturbance frequency. We parameterized a multivariate model using the composition of benthic communities estimated by 145,000 observations from the northern GBR between 2012 and 2017. During this time, surveyed reefs were variously impacted by two tropical cyclones and two heat stress events that resulted in extensive HC mortality. This unprecedented sequence of disturbances was used to estimate the effects of discrete versus interacting disturbances on the compositional structure of HC, soft corals (SC) and algae. Discrete disturbances increased the prevalence of algae relative to HC while the interaction between cyclones and heat stress was the main driver of the increase in SC relative to algae and HC. Predictions from disturbance scenarios included relative increases in algae versus SC that varied by the frequency and types of disturbance interactions. However, high uncertainty of compositional changes in the presence of several disturbances shows that responses of algae and SC to the decline in HC needs further research. Better understanding of the effects of multiple disturbances on benthic communities as a whole is essential for predicting the future status of coral reefs and managing them in the light of new environmental regimes. The approach we develop here opens new opportunities for reaching this goal.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema
16.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 13(3): 278-288, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093818

RESUMO

This paper uses Endsley's three-level model of situational awareness to analyse the challenges faced by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) when coordinating the relief efforts in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria made landfall. Most obviously, obtaining data about the impacted area was highly challenging, making it much harder to comprehend the magnitude of the event. In turn, this made it difficult to know where to focus recovery efforts as the event unfolded. The situation was further exacerbated by Puerto Rico's remote location with respect to the US mainland, and the fact that FEMA was not logistically prepared for Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria to spread its resources so thin. The paper concludes that for US disaster responses to be successful, all levels of government and the private sector should pool resources in a complementary manner in order to streamline supply chain and inventory management practices.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres , Conscientização , Desastres , Porto Rico
18.
Am J Public Health ; 110(4): 574-579, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078350

RESUMO

Objectives. To compare the flood impacts experienced by Harris County, Texas, hospitals with Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood hazard areas and Hurricane Harvey's inundation boundary.Methods. One year following Hurricane Harvey, we created a novel data set of Hurricane Harvey's flood impacts in Harris County hospitals. We then mapped the hospital flood impact data in ArcGIS alongside FEMA flood hazard areas and Hurricane Harvey's inundation boundary to classify each hospital's location in high flood-risk areas and in areas purportedly affected by Hurricane Harvey.Results. Of the 66 hospitals for which flood impact information was ascertained, 16 (24%) hospitals experienced flood impacts during Hurricane Harvey. Of these 16 hospitals, 5 (31%) were located outside a FEMA flood hazard area and 8 (50%) were located outside Hurricane Harvey's inundation boundary.Conclusions. FEMA flood hazard areas did not accurately predict all areas of Harris County, Texas, that flooded during Hurricane Harvey or which hospitals experienced flood impacts.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Inundações/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Espacial , Texas
19.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227808, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023260

RESUMO

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones have been used by disaster relief organizations in the United States since 2005. However, their place in the disaster response ecosystem-the standardization, utility, ethical, and legal challenges of drone use-remains largely unstudied. This case series describes how UAVs were used by two teams of responders for damage assessment purposes during the 2017 southeastern US Hurricanes Harvey and Irma. Data streams ranged from social media, direct observation, participant-observation and semi-directed interviews. Qualitative analysis was performed for thematic content derived from field observation and from post-hoc interviews. Outcomes of the qualitative analysis emphasize the barriers to deploying drones in the disaster context, their tactical implementation, programmatic integration, and ethical and legal challenges. These observations lay the groundwork for both future research on the utilization of drones and the prudent and ethical implementation of programs that employ drones in post-disaster settings.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Desastres , Ecossistema , Florida , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Controle Social Formal , Texas
20.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045408

RESUMO

Typhoons frequently affect the South China Sea (SCS), playing an important role in changing the coastal marine system. To determine which process has the greatest impact on material transport in the coastal marine area during a typhoon, the sea temperature, salinity, concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll-a, total suspended matter, and δ13C of particulate organic carbon (δ13C-POC) in the water column of coastal Northern SCS (NSCS) were measured during two cruises in June 2017, in the pre- and post-typhoon Merbok periods. The results show that all parameters changed significantly between the two periods. During the pre-typhoon period, stratification of nutrients and physicochemical parameters, combined to high nutrient concentrations, high temperature, and low salinity in the water column of the nearshore area, suggests that the nearshore area is influenced by the river diluted water originated in the coastal cities adjacent to our study area. In the offshore area, mineralization may be responsible for the high nutrient concentration in the bottom water. However, during the post-typhoon, the stratification of nutrients is less significant and their distribution more homogenous in the whole water column of the nearshore area. In the upper water, the nutrient concentration increased and the temperature decreased significantly. These results suggest that the enhanced vertical mixing induced by the typhoon was the dominant process in changing the nutrient distribution pattern in the coastal NSCS.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Clorofila/análogos & derivados , Clorofila/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Salinidade , Imagens de Satélites , Água do Mar , Análise Espacial , Temperatura
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