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1.
J Biol Dyn ; 14(1): 590-607, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696723

RESUMO

In this paper, we apply optimal control theory to a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) transmission model given by a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations. Optimal control strategies are obtained by minimizing the number of exposed and infected population considering the cost of implementation. The existence of optimal controls and characterization is established using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. An expression for the basic reproduction number is derived in terms of control variables. Then the sensitivity of basic reproduction number with respect to model parameters is also analysed. Numerical simulation results demonstrated good agreement with our analytical results. Finally, the findings of this study shows that comprehensive impacts of prevention, intensive medical care and surface disinfection strategies outperform in reducing the disease epidemic with optimum implementation cost.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Conceitos Matemáticos , Dinâmica não Linear , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Biologia de Sistemas
2.
Math Biosci ; 326: 108391, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497623

RESUMO

The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic threatens the health of humans and causes great economic losses. Predictive modeling and forecasting the epidemic trends are essential for developing countermeasures to mitigate this pandemic. We develop a network model, where each node represents an individual and the edges represent contacts between individuals where the infection can spread. The individuals are classified based on the number of contacts they have each day (their node degrees) and their infection status. The transmission network model was respectively fitted to the reported data for the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan (China), Toronto (Canada), and the Italian Republic using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) optimization algorithm. Our model fits all three regions well with narrow confidence intervals and could be adapted to simulate other megacities or regions. The model projections on the role of containment strategies can help inform public health authorities to plan control measures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Algoritmos , Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Intervalos de Confiança , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Cadeias de Markov , Conceitos Matemáticos , Método de Monte Carlo , Ontário/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Math Biosci ; 326: 108405, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565231

RESUMO

Lockdown and social distancing restrictions have been widely used as part of policy efforts aimed at controlling the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Since these restrictions have a negative impact on the economy, there exists a strong incentive to relax these policies while protecting public health. Using a modified SEIR epidemiological model, this paper explores the costs and benefits associated with the sequential release of specific groups based on age and risk from lockdown and social distancing measures. The results in this paper suggest that properly designed staggered-release policies can do better than simultaneous-release policies in terms of protecting the most vulnerable members of a population, reducing health risks overall, and increasing economic activity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Controle de Infecções/economia , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Conceitos Matemáticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Quarentena/economia , Quarentena/métodos , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5098598, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596319

RESUMO

In this article, a qualitative analysis of the mathematical model of novel corona virus named COVID-19 under nonsingular derivative of fractional order is considered. The concerned model is composed of two compartments, namely, healthy and infected. Under the new nonsingular derivative, we, first of all, establish some sufficient conditions for existence and uniqueness of solution to the model under consideration. Because of the dynamics of the phenomenon when described by a mathematical model, its existence must be guaranteed. Therefore, via using the classical fixed point theory, we establish the required results. Also, we present the results of stability of Ulam's type by using the tools of nonlinear analysis. For the semianalytical results, we extend the usual Laplace transform coupled with Adomian decomposition method to obtain the approximate solutions for the corresponding compartments of the considered model. Finally, in order to support our study, graphical interpretations are provided to illustrate the results by using some numerical values for the corresponding parameters of the model.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
5.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 5714714, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565882

RESUMO

Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease that has captured the attention of the worldwide public. Modeling of such diseases can be extremely important in the prediction of their impact. While classic, statistical, modeling can provide satisfactory models, it can also fail to comprehend the intricacies contained within the data. In this paper, authors use a publicly available dataset, containing information on infected, recovered, and deceased patients in 406 locations over 51 days (22nd January 2020 to 12th March 2020). This dataset, intended to be a time-series dataset, is transformed into a regression dataset and used in training a multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network (ANN). The aim of training is to achieve a worldwide model of the maximal number of patients across all locations in each time unit. Hyperparameters of the MLP are varied using a grid search algorithm, with a total of 5376 hyperparameter combinations. Using those combinations, a total of 48384 ANNs are trained (16128 for each patient group-deceased, recovered, and infected), and each model is evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2). Cross-validation is performed using K-fold algorithm with 5-folds. Best models achieved consists of 4 hidden layers with 4 neurons in each of those layers, and use a ReLU activation function, with R2 scores of 0.98599 for confirmed, 0.99429 for deceased, and 0.97941 for recovered patient models. When cross-validation is performed, these scores drop to 0.94 for confirmed, 0.781 for recovered, and 0.986 for deceased patient models, showing high robustness of the deceased patient model, good robustness for confirmed, and low robustness for recovered patient model.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão
6.
Math Biosci ; 326: 108389, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473161

RESUMO

The many variations on a graphic illustrating the impact of non-pharmaceutical measures to mitigate pandemic influenza that have appeared in recent news reports about COVID-19 suggest a need to better explain the mechanism by which social distancing reduces the spread of infectious diseases. And some reports understate one benefit of reducing the frequency or proximity of interpersonal encounters, a reduction in the total number of infections. In hopes that understanding will increase compliance, we describe how social distancing (a) reduces the peak incidence of infections, (b) delays the occurrence of this peak, and (c) reduces the total number of infections during epidemics. In view of the extraordinary efforts underway to identify existing medications that are active against SARS-CoV-2 and to develop new antiviral drugs, vaccines and antibody therapies, any of which may have community-level effects, we also describe how pharmaceutical interventions affect transmission.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Conceitos Matemáticos , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232450, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433692

RESUMO

Many insects show discontinuous respiration with three phases, open, closed, and fluttering, in which the spiracles open and close rapidly. The relative durations of the three phases and the rate of fluttering during the flutter phase vary for individual insects depending on developmental stage and activity, vary between insects of the same species, and vary even more between different species. We studied how the rate of oxygen uptake during the flutter phase depends on the rate of fluttering. Using a mathematical model of oxygen diffusion in the insect tracheal system, we derive a formula for oxygen uptake during the flutter phase and how it depends on the length of the tracheal system, percentage of time open during the flutter phase, and the flutter rate. Surprisingly, our results show that an insect can have its spiracles closed a high percentage of time during the flutter phase and yet receive almost as much oxygen as if the spiracles were always open, provided the spiracles open and close rapidly. We investigate the respiratory gain due to fluttering for four specific insects. Our formula shows that respiratory gain increases with body size and with increased rate of fluttering. Therefore, insects can regulate their rate of oxygen uptake by varying the rate of fluttering while keeping the spiracles closed during a large fraction of the time during the flutter phase. We also use a mathematical model to show that water loss is approximately proportional to the percentage of time the spiracles are open. Thus, insects can achieve both high oxygen intake and low water loss by keeping the spiracles closed most of the time and fluttering while open, thereby decoupling the challenge of preventing water loss from the challenge of obtaining adequate oxygen uptake.


Assuntos
Insetos/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Oxigênio/fisiologia , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Água Corporal/metabolismo , Himenópteros/fisiologia , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Lepidópteros/fisiologia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Respiração , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Traqueia/anatomia & histologia , Traqueia/fisiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414172

RESUMO

With the rapid outbreak of COVID-19, most people are facing antivirus mask shortages. Therefore, it is necessary to reasonably select antivirus masks and optimize the use of them for everyone. However, the uncertainty of the effects of COVID-19 and limits of human cognition add to the difficulty for decision makers to perfectly realize the purpose. To maximize the utility of the antivirus mask, we proposed a decision support algorithm based on the novel concept of the spherical normal fuzzy (SpNoF) set. In it, firstly, we analyzed the new score and accuracy function, improved operational rules, and their properties. Then, in line with these operations, we developed the SpNoF Bonferroni mean operator and the weighted Bonferroni mean operator, some properties of which are also examined. Furthermore, we established a multi-criteria decision-making method, based on the proposed operators, with SpNoF information. Finally, a numerical example on antivirus mask selection over the COVID-19 pandemic was given to verify the practicability of the proposed method, which the sensitive and comparative analysis was based on and was conducted to demonstrate the availability and superiority of our method.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Tomada de Decisões , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus , Cognição , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Incerteza
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233031, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407356

RESUMO

In order to determine correct dosage of chemotherapy drugs, the effect of the drug must be properly quantified. There are two important values that characterize the effect of the drug: εmax is the maximum possible effect of a drug, and IC50 is the drug concentration where the effect diminishes by half. There is currently a problem with the way these values are measured because they are time-dependent measurements. We use mathematical models to determine how the εmax and IC50 values depend on measurement time and model choice. Seven ordinary differential equation models (ODE) are used for the mathematical analysis; the exponential, Mendelsohn, logistic, linear, surface, Bertalanffy, and Gompertz models. We use the models to simulate tumor growth in the presence and absence of treatment with a known IC50 and εmax. Using traditional methods, we then calculate the IC50 and εmax values over fifty days to show the time-dependence of these values for all seven mathematical models. The general trend found is that the measured IC50 value decreases and the measured εmax increases with increasing measurement day for most mathematical models. Unfortunately, the measured values of IC50 and εmax rarely matched the values used to generate the data. Our results show that there is no optimal measurement time since models predict that IC50 estimates become more accurate at later measurement times while εmax is more accurate at early measurement times.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/análise , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Neoplasias/patologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311001

RESUMO

Previous studies have revealed the role of relative performance information feedback on providing agent incentives under a relative rewarding scheme through laboratory experiments. This study examines the impact of relative performance information feedback of students' performance on their examination score under the relative grading scheme in an actual educational environment. Conducting a randomized controlled trial in a compulsory subject at a Japanese university, we show that the relative performance information feedback has a significantly positive impact on the students' examination score on average, but that the average positive impact is derived by the improvement of low-performing students.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Estudantes/psicologia , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Conceitos Matemáticos , Motivação , Universidades
12.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229651, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126113

RESUMO

Though traditional thresholding methods are simple and efficient, they may result in poor segmentation results because only image's brightness information is taken into account in the procedure of threshold selection. Considering the contextual information between pixels can improve segmentation accuracy. To to this, a new thresholding method is proposed in this paper. The proposed method constructs a new two dimensional histogram using brightness of a pixel and local relative entropy of it's neighbor pixels. The local relative entropy (LRE) measures the brightness difference between a pixel and it's neighbor pixels. The two dimensional histogram, consisting of gray level and LRE, can reflect the contextual information between pixels to a certain extent. The optimal thresholding vector is obtained via minimizing cross entropy criteria. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve more accurate segmentation results than other thresholding methods.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Cor , Entropia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Conceitos Matemáticos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229668, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160217

RESUMO

Dengue disease is a major problem for public health surveillance entities in tropical and subtropical regions having a significant impact not only epidemiological but social and economical. There are many factors involved in the dengue transmission process. We can evaluate the importance of these factors through the formulation of mathematical models. However, the majority of the models presented in the literature tend to be overparameterized, with considerable uncertainty levels and excessively complex formulations. We aim to evaluate the structure, complexity, trustworthiness, and suitability of three models, for the transmission of dengue disease, through different strategies. To achieve this goal, we perform structural and practical identifiability, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses to these models. The results showed that the simplest model was the most appropriate and reliable when the only available information to fit them is the cumulative number of reported dengue cases in an endemic municipality of Colombia.


Assuntos
Dengue/transmissão , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Dengue/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Fatores Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Modelos Biológicos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Incerteza
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229932, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163453

RESUMO

Metacognitive monitoring is a critical predictor of arithmetic in primary school. One outstanding question is whether this metacognitive monitoring is domain-specific or whether it reflects a more general performance monitoring process. To answer this conundrum, we investigated metacognitive monitoring in two related, yet distinct academic domains: arithmetic and spelling. This allowed us to investigate whether monitoring in one domain correlated with monitoring in the other domain, and whether monitoring in one domain was predictive of performance in the other, and vice versa. Participants were 147 typically developing 8-9-year-old children (Study 1) and 77 typically developing 7-8-year-old children (Study 2), who were in the middle of an important developmental period for both metacognitive monitoring and academic skills. Pre-registered analyses revealed that within-domain metacognitive monitoring was an important predictor of arithmetic and spelling at both ages. In 8-9-year-olds the metacognitive monitoring measures in different academic domains were predictive of each other, even after taking into account academic performance in these domains. Monitoring in arithmetic was an important predictor of spelling performance, even when arithmetic performance was controlled for. Likewise, monitoring in spelling was an important predictor of arithmetic performance, even when spelling performance was controlled for. In 7-8-year-olds metacognitive monitoring was domain-specific, with neither correlations between the monitoring measures, nor correlations between monitoring in one domain and performance in the other. Taken together, these findings indicate that more domain-general metacognitive monitoring processes emerge over the ages from 7 to 9.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência/estatística & dados numéricos , Idioma , Masculino , Conceitos Matemáticos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228960, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045454

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to compare developmental changes in nonsymbolic and symbolic magnitude representations across the elementary school years. For this aim, we used a four-wave longitudinal study with a one-year interval in schoolchildren in grades 1-4 in Russia and Kyrgyzstan (N = 490, mean age was 7.65 years at grade 1). The results of mixed-effects growth models revealed that growth in the precision of symbolic representation was larger than in the nonsymbolic representation. Moreover, growth in nonsymbolic representation was fully explained by growth in fluid intelligence (FI), visuospatial working memory (VSWM) and processing speed (PS). The analysis demonstrated that growth in nonsymbolic magnitude representation was significant only for pupils with a high level of FI and PS, whereas growth in precision of symbolic representation did not significantly vary across pupils with different levels of FI or VSWM.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Quirguistão , Lógica , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Conceitos Matemáticos , Memória , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Federação Russa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Simbolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 686, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019934

RESUMO

Humans' symbolic counting skills are built on a primordial ability to approximately estimate the number of items, or numerosity. To date it is debated whether numerosities presented in categorically different formats, that is as temporal sequences versus spatial arrays, are represented abstractly in the brain. To address this issue, we identified the behavioral characteristics and neuronal codes for sequential and simultaneous number formats in crows. We find a format-dependent representation by distinct groups of selective neurons during the sensory encoding stage. However, an abstract and format-independent numerosity code emerges once the encoding phase is completed and numerosities needed to be memorized. These results suggest a successive two-stage code for categorically different number formats and help to reconcile conflicting findings observed in psychophysics and brain imaging.


Assuntos
Corvos/fisiologia , Telencéfalo/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Conceitos Matemáticos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Percepção Visual
17.
Nature ; 577(7789): 283-284, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907449
18.
Nature ; 577(7789): 281-283, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907450
19.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(1): 63-68, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The acute angle between inflow cannula and device body of HeartMate II left ventricular assist device (LVAD) (Abbott, Pleasanton, California) is associated with device thrombosis. However, most studies utilized two-dimensional (2D) angle obtained from chest roentgenogram (CXR), which is unlikely accurate. We aimed to create and validate a formula to estimate actual three-dimensional (3D) angle. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the cohort undergoing HeartMate II LVAD implantation between 2008 and 2016. A formula for calculating 3D angles of the LVAD inflow cannula relative to the device body was mathematically derived, using simple 2D measurements from CXR. RESULTS: The cohort included consecutive 275 patients with HeartMate II (median age: 60 [25% quartile: 51, 75% quartile: 68] years). There was no significant difference between the calculated 3D angles (from formula) and actual 3D angles (from computed tomography) from the subset group with 3D computed tomography (n = 28) (71.7° ± 13.4° vs 71.1° ± 11.5°, P = .858). Among all participants, the calculated 3D angle (from formula) was 74.4° ± 14.2°, which was significantly larger than the 2D projected angle (from CXR) (65.2° ± 11.3°, P < .001). There was no statistical difference in the calculated 3D angles (from formula) between patients with/without device thrombosis, hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, or mortality (P > .05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: We established a novel formula to mathematically calculate actual 3D angles between inflow cannula and device body of HeartMate II. The formula would help investigators to validate their findings of the relationship between 2D projected angle (from CXR) and device thrombosis.


Assuntos
Cânula , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Coração Auxiliar , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Conceitos Matemáticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenho de Prótese , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Dev Sci ; 23(2): e12897, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448505

RESUMO

Research demonstrating that infants discriminate between small (e.g., 1 vs. 3 dots) and large numerosities (e.g., 8 vs. 16 dots) is central to theories concerning the origins of human numerical abilities. To date, there has been no quantitative meta-analysis of the infant numerical competency data. Here, we quantitatively synthesize the evidential value of the available literature on infant numerosity discrimination using a meta-analytic tool called p-curve. In p-curve the distribution of available p-values is analyzed to determine whether the published literature examining particular hypotheses contains evidential value. p-curves demonstrated evidential value for the hypotheses that infants can discriminate between both small and large unimodal and cross-modal numerosities. However, the analyses also revealed that the published data on infants' ability to discriminate between large numerosities is less robust and statistically powered than the data on their ability to discriminate small numerosities. We argue there is a need for adequately powered replication studies to enable stronger inferences in order to use infant data to ground theories concerning the ontogenesis of numerical cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Conceitos Matemáticos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Distribuições Estatísticas
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