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1.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(3): 205-222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555987

RESUMO

The Human Genome Project has significantly broadened our understanding of the molecular aspects regulating the homeostasis and the pathophysiology of different clinical conditions. Consequently, the field of nutrition has been strongly influenced by such improvements in knowledge - especially for determining how nutrients act at the molecular level in different conditions, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this manner, characterizing how the genome influences the diet and vice-versa provides insights about the molecular mechanisms involved in chronic inflammation-related diseases. Therefore, the present review aims to discuss the potential application of Nutritional Genomics to modulate obesity-related inflammatory responses. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):205-22.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Inflamação/genética , Nutrigenômica , Obesidade/genética , Doença Crônica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo
2.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 28: 108-113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940613

RESUMO

The advent of the "genomic era" has allowed for nutrigenomics studies to be carried out, which aim to reveal whether there are interactions between the food we consume and our genetic make-up. In turn this information will provide the scientific basis for improved public health messages related to nutrition and diet. With the availability of high throughput, inexpensive and sometime "bed-side" technology, studies into the effect of diet on the aetiology of common oral diseases and oral conditions could now be easily carried out. It is becoming more and more convincing that interactions between genotype and diet are important in determining the risk of most if not all common complex diseases, and it is therefore highly probable that these interactions will be important in determining oral disease risk. A large body of data relating to nutritional genetic studies where the outcome measures have been markers of disease risk, provide proof of principle and highlight the importance of understanding these interactions, illustrating the potential impact dietary modification could have on oral health. These are areas of growth that need to be investigated further.


Assuntos
Nutrigenômica , Saúde Bucal , Dieta , Alimentos , Estado Nutricional
3.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(3): 389-397, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905020

RESUMO

Acetate and ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) are the predominant substrates for de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis in mammary gland of dairy cow. To investigate the nutrigenomic role of acetate and BHBA in bovine mammary epithelial cells during milk fat production, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) transcriptomic analysis was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between acetate- and BHBA-treated cells (high-milk fat cells) and control cells. A total of 625 DEGs (358 upregulated and 267 downregulated) were identified between the high-milk fat cells and control cells. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the upregulated genes in high-milk fat cells were mainly involved in lipid biosynthetic process, steroid biosynthetic process, oxidation-reduction process, receptor binding, and vesicle and small molecule biosynthetic process. The downregulated genes were mainly associated with immune response, cytokine production, negative regulation of biological process, and peptidyl-threonine modification. Pathway analysis indicated that FA metabolism and steroid biosynthesis were significantly enriched for the upregulated genes in the high-milk fat cells, while apoptosis was enriched for the downregulated genes. This work provides a profile of gene expression changes that occur during acetate- and BHBA-induced milk fat synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells, which furthers our understanding of the molecular regulation of lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Bovinos/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Nutrigenômica
5.
Curr Med Chem ; 27(2): 258-281, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324875

RESUMO

The number of obese patients undergoing cardiac and noncardiac surgery is rapidly increasing because they are more prone to concomitant diseases, such as diabetes, thrombosis, sleep-disordered breathing, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders. Even if guidelines are already available to manage anesthesia and surgery of obese patients, the assessment of the perioperative morbidity and mortality from heart and brain disorders in morbidly obese surgical patients will be challenging in the next years. The present review will recapitulate the new mechanisms underlying the Heart-brain Axis (HBA) vulnerability during the perioperative period in healthy and morbidly obese patients. Finally, we will describe the nutrigenomics approach, an emerging noninvasive dietary tool, to maintain a healthy body weight and to minimize the HBA propensity to injury in obese individuals undergoing all types of surgery by personalized intake of plant compounds that may regulate the switch from health to disease in an epigenetic manner. Our review provides current insights into the mechanisms underlying HBA response in obese surgical patients and how they are modulated by epigenetically active food constituents.


Assuntos
Nutrigenômica , Arritmias Cardíacas , Encéfalo , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida , Complicações Pós-Operatórias
6.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(8): 1375-1387, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729798

RESUMO

Due to change in lifestyle and food habits, people are more at risk of diet-related diseases and cancers. It is also established that dietary modifications significantly reduce the risk of diseases. Nutrigenomics is relatively fresh discipline, but possess an enormous potential that can apply for prevention and management of certain carcinomas and diseases. This review enables us to generate useful information for scientists and health professionals regarding the role of Nutrigenomics in the prevention of diet and lifestyle-related diseases like cancer. It influences health conditions of individuals and susceptibility of disease by defining the metabolic response and gene expression. Epigenetic modifications can perform a significant role in disease occurrence and pathogenesis. DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling are the most common epigenetic mechanisms. Omega 3 fatty acids are the best example of nutrients and gene interaction not involving DNA methylation while certain bioactive food compounds have a proven role in cancer prevention through an epigenetic mechanism. Dietary polyphenols substantially take part in prevention of oral, breast, skin, esophageal, colorectal, prostate, pancreatic and lung cancers. Moreover, minerals and vitamins involve regulatory processes. Zinc, Selenium and folate involve in DNA repairing process have anticancer properties. Consumption of multivitamins prevents methylation of cancer cells.


Assuntos
Dieta , Epigênese Genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Nutrigenômica , Metilação de DNA , Reparo do DNA/genética , Humanos
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(21)2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671732

RESUMO

The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased rapidly worldwide over the last two decades. Because the pathogenic factors of DM are heterogeneous, determining clinically effective treatments for DM patients is difficult. Applying various nutrient analyses has yielded new insight and potential treatments for DM patients. In this review, we summarized the omics analysis methods, including nutrigenomics, nutritional-metabolomics, and foodomics. The list of the new targets of SNPs, genes, proteins, and gut microbiota associated with DM has been obtained by the analysis of nutrigenomics and microbiomics within last few years, which provides a reference for the diagnosis of DM. The use of nutrient metabolomics analysis can obtain new targets of amino acids, lipids, and metal elements, which provides a reference for the treatment of DM. Foodomics analysis can provide targeted dietary strategies for DM patients. This review summarizes the DM-associated molecular biomarkers in current applied omics analyses and may provide guidance for diagnosing and treating DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Nutrigenômica/métodos , Biomarcadores , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Lipidômica , Proteômica/métodos
8.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222404, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600212

RESUMO

Conjugated linoleic acid was detected in rabbit caecotrophs, due to the presence of microbial lipid activity in rabbit cecum. However, the effect of CLA as a functional food in growing rabbit is not well established. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of CLA on production, meat quality, and its nutrigenomic effect on edible parts of rabbit carcass including skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Therefore, seventy five weaned V-Line male rabbits, 30 days old, were randomly allocated into three dietary treatments receiving either basal control diet, diet supplemented with 0.5% (CLAL), or 1% CLA (CLAH). Total experimental period (63 d) was segmented into 7 days adaptation and 56 days experimental period. Dietary supplementation of CLA did not alter growth performance, however, the fat percentage of longissimus lumborum muscle was decreased, with an increase in protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) and mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were not increased in CLA treated groups. There was tissue specific sensing of CLA, since subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression of PPARA was downregulated, however, CPT1A tended to be upregulated in liver of CLAL group only (P = 0.09). In skeletal muscle, FASN and PPARG were upregulated in CLAH group only (P ≤0.01). Marked cytoplasmic vacuolation was noticed in liver of CLAH group without altering hepatocyte structure. Adipocyte size was decreased in CLA fed groups, in a dose dependent manner (P <0.01). Cell proliferation determined by PCNA was lower (P <0.01) in adipose tissue of CLA groups. Our data indicate that dietary supplementation of CLA (c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12- CLA) at a dose of 0.5% in growing rabbit diet produce rabbit meat rich in PUFA and lower fat % without altering growth performance and hepatocyte structure.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Fígado/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrigenômica , Coelhos , Gordura Subcutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo
9.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601025

RESUMO

The journal NUTRIENTS published some time ago a special issue about "Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Management", which included a series of articles about the role of bioactive compounds, amino acids/proteins and fatty acids for personalized nutritional applications [...].


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Medicina de Precisão , Humanos , Nutrigenômica
10.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 20(7): 419-426, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the most frequent causes of death in the world. Inflammation and oxidative damage contribute significantly to the development of atherosclerosis and CVDs. European Food Safety Authority scientific opinion has acknowledged that hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol) and derivatives, contained in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), typically used in Mediterranean diet may play a crucial role in the reduction of the inflammatory pathway and in the prevention of CVDs. The aim of the study was to determine the effect in healthy volunteers of 25 g of phenols-rich EVOO (p-EVOO). METHODS: The clinical study was a randomized, controlled trial to determine the acute effect in the postprandial time of 25 g of p-EVOO. We evaluated nutritional status using anthropometric parameters, body composition, serum metabolites, oxidative stress biomarkers and gene expression of eight genes related to oxidative stress and human inflammasome pathways, lasting 2 h after p-EVOO administration. Twenty-two participants resulted as eligible for the study. RESULTS: A significant reduction of oxidized LDL, malondialdehyde, triglycerides and visceral adiposity index was highlighted (P < 0.05). Significant upregulation of catalase, superoxide dismutase 1 and upstream transcription factor 1 were observed (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The current study shows that intake of 25 g of p-EVOO has been able to be modulated, in the postprandial time, the antioxidant profile and the expression of inflammation and oxidative stress-related genes, as superoxide dismutase 1, upstream transcription factor 1 and catalase. We also observed a significant reduction of oxidized LDL, malondialdehyde, triglycerides and visceral adiposity index. We have demonstrated that a daily intake of phenols and antioxidants can reduce the inflammatory pathway and oxidative stress and therefore the risk of atherosclerosis and CVDs. More studies on a larger population are necessary before definitive conclusions can be drawn.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01890070.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Nutrigenômica/métodos , Azeite de Oliva/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Fenóis/sangue , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Catalase/sangue , Catalase/genética , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Álcool Feniletílico/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Roma , Superóxido Dismutase-1/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Fatores Estimuladores Upstream/sangue , Fatores Estimuladores Upstream/genética , Adulto Jovem
11.
Database (Oxford) ; 20192019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665759

RESUMO

Habitual consumption of certain foods has shown beneficial and protective effects against multiple chronic diseases. However, it is not clear by which molecular mechanisms they may exert their beneficial effects. Multiple -omic experiments available in public databases have generated gene expression data following the treatment of human cells with different food nutrients and bioactive compounds. Exploration of such data in an integrative manner offers excellent possibilities for gaining insights into the molecular effects of food compounds and bioactive molecules at the cellular level. Here we present NutriGenomeDB, a web-based application that hosts manually curated gene sets defined from gene expression signatures, after differential expression analysis of nutrigenomics experiments performed on human cells available in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository. Through its web interface, users can explore gene expression data with interactive visualizations. In addition, external gene signatures can be connected with nutrigenomics gene sets using a gene pattern-matching algorithm. We further demonstrate how the application can capture the primary molecular mechanisms of a drug used to treat hypertension and thus connect its mode of action with hosted food compounds.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Internet , Nutrigenômica , Animais , Humanos
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581435

RESUMO

Ortega et al. published a comprehensive review which examines the relationship between nutritional genomics and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from a wide perspective [1] [...].


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta , Humanos , Nutrigenômica
13.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487787

RESUMO

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption has a beneficial effect on human health, especially for prevention of cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders. Here we underscore the peculiar importance of specific cultivars used for EVOO production since biodiversity among cultivars in terms of fatty acids and polyphenols content could differently impact on the metabolic homeostasis. In this respect, the nutrigenomic approach could be very useful to fully dissect the pathways modulated by different EVOO cultivars in terms of mRNA and microRNA transcriptome. The identification of genes and miRNAs modulated by specific EVOO cultivars could also help to discover novel nutritional biomarkers for prevention and/or prognosis of human disease. Thus, the nutrigenomic approach depicts a novel scenario to investigate if a specific EVOO cultivar could have a positive effect on human health by preventing the onset of cardiovascular disease and/or chronic inflammatory disorders also leading to cancer.


Assuntos
Nutrigenômica , Azeite de Oliva , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos , Polifenóis
14.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(6): 1694-1707, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483547

RESUMO

The transition from a high forage to a high concentrate diet is an important milestone for beef cattle moving from a stocker system to the feedlot. However, little is known about how this transition affects the rumen epithelial gene expression. This study assessed the effects of the transition from a high forage to a high concentrate diet as well as the transition from a high concentrate to a high forage diet on a variety of genes as well as ruminal papillae morphology in rumen fistulated Jersey steers. Jersey steers (n = 5) were fed either a high forage diet (80% forage and 20% grain) and transitioned to a high concentrate diet (20% forage and 80% grain) or a high concentrate diet (40% forage and 60% grain) and transitioned to a high forage diet (100% forage). Papillae from the rumen were collected for histology and RT-qPCR analysis. Body weight had a tendency for significant difference (p = .08). Histological analysis did not show changes in papillae length or width in steers transitioning from a high forage to a high concentrate diet or vice versa (p > .05). Genes related to cell membrane structure (CLDN1, CLDN4, DSG1), fatty acid metabolism (CPT1A, ACADSB), glycolysis (PFKL), ketogenesis (HMGCL, HMGCS2, ACAT1), lactate/pyruvate (LDHA), oxidative stress (NQO1), tissue growth (AKT3, EGFR, EREG, IGFBP5, IRS1) and the urea cycle (SLC14A1) were considered in this study. Overall, genes related to fatty acid metabolism (ACADSB) and growth and development (AKT3 and IGFBP5) had a tendency for a treatment × day on trial interaction effect. These profiles may be indicators of rumen epithelial adaptations in response to changes in diet. In conclusion, these results indicate that changes in the composition of the diet can alter the expression of genes with specific functions in rumen epithelial metabolism.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrigenômica , Rúmen/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Glucose/metabolismo , Cetonas/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ureia/metabolismo
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(8)2019 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382709

RESUMO

In this study, we analyzed the effects of breed, diet energy source, and their interaction on adipose tissue transcriptome in growing Iberian and Duroc pigs. The study comprised 29 Iberian and 19 Duroc males, which were kept under identical management conditions except the nutritional treatment. Two isoenergetic diets were used with 6% high oleic sunflower oil (HO) or carbohydrates (CH) as energy sources. All animals were slaughtered after 47 days of treatment at an average live weight of 51.2 kg. Twelve animals from each breed (six fed each diet) were employed for ham subcutaneous adipose tissue RNA-Seq analysis. The data analysis was performed using two different bioinformatic pipelines. We detected 837 and 1456 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) according to breed, depending on the pipeline. Due to the strong effect of breed on transcriptome, the effect of the diet was separately evaluated in the two breeds. We identified 207 and 57 DEGs depending on diet in Iberian and Duroc pigs, respectively. A joint analysis of both effects allowed the detection of some breed-diet interactions on transcriptome, which were inferred from RNA-Seq and quantitative PCR data. The functional analysis showed the enrichment of functions related to growth and tissue development, inflammatory response, immune cell trafficking, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and allowed the identification of potential regulators. The results indicate different effects of diet on adipose tissue gene expression between breeds, affecting relevant biological pathways.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Hibridização Genética , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Nutrigenômica , Óleo de Girassol/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323740

RESUMO

Dietary guidelines recommended by key health agencies are generally designed for a global population. However, ethnicity affects human disease and environment-gene interactions, including nutrient intake. Historically, isolated human populations with different genetic backgrounds have adapted to distinct environments with varying food sources. Ethnicity is relevant to the interaction of food intake with genes and disease susceptibility; yet major health agencies generally do not recommend food and nutrients codified by population genotypes and their frequencies. In this paper, we have consolidated published nutrigenetic variants and examine their frequencies in human superpopulations to prioritize these variants for future investigation of population-specific genotype-directed nutrition. The nutrients consumed by individuals interact with their genome and may alter disease risk. Herein, we searched the literature, designed a data model, and manually curated hundreds of papers. The resulting database houses 101 variants that reached significance (p < 0.05), from 35 population studies. Nutrigenetic variants associated with modified nutrient intake have the potential to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and several other diseases. Since many nutrigenetic studies have identified a major variant in some populations, we suggest that superpopulation-specific genotype-directed nutrition modifications be prioritized for future study and evaluation. Genotype-directed nutrition approaches to dietary modification have the potential to reduce disease risk in select human populations.


Assuntos
Nutrigenômica/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
17.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344895

RESUMO

Human nutrition is a branch of medicine based on foods biochemical interactions with the human body. The phenotypic transition from health to disease status can be attributed to changes in genes and/or protein expression. For this reason, a new discipline has been developed called "-omic science". In this review, we analyzed the role of "-omics sciences" (nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in the health status and as possible therapeutic tool in chronic degenerative diseases. In particular, we focused on the role of nutrigenetics and the relationship between eating habits, changes in the DNA sequence and the onset of nutrition-related diseases. Moreover, we examined nutrigenomics and the effect of nutrients on gene expression. We perused the role of proteomics and metabolomics in personalized nutrition. In this scenario, we analyzed also how dysbiosis of gut microbiota can influence the onset and progression of chronic degenerative diseases. Moreover, nutrients influencing and regulating gene activity, both directly and indirectly, paves the way for personalized nutrition that plays a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic degenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Valor Nutritivo , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Metabolismo Energético , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Metabolômica , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Nutrigenômica , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Proteção , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
18.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284450

RESUMO

This review discusses the personalised dietary approach with respect to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It identifies gene-nutrient interactions associated with the nutritional deficiencies that people with IBD commonly experience, and the role of the Western diet in influencing these. It also discusses food intolerances and how particular genotypes can affect these. It is well established that with respect to food there is no "one size fits all" diet for those with IBD. Gene-nutrient interactions may help explain this variability in response to food that is associated with IBD. Nutrigenomic research, which examines the effects of food and its constituents on gene expression, shows that-like a number of pharmaceutical products-food can have beneficial effects or have adverse (side) effects depending on a person's genotype. Pharmacogenetic research is identifying gene variants with adverse reactions to drugs, and this is modifying clinical practice and allowing individualised treatment. Nutrigenomic research could enable individualised treatment in persons with IBD and enable more accurate tailoring of food intake, to avoid exacerbating malnutrition and to counter some of the adverse effects of the Western diet. It may also help to establish the dietary pattern that is most protective against IBD.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/dietoterapia , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/dietoterapia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia , Nutrigenômica/métodos , Estado Nutricional , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Deficiências Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/genética , Deficiências Nutricionais/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/genética , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/genética , Valor Nutritivo , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Biochimie ; 164: 53-59, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302162

RESUMO

RNA modifications regulate gene expression by impacting different steps in RNA processing. They are as diverse as they are important for the cell. Most of them have been identified around 1970 and the recent development of high-throughput techniques has shed some insights on their prevalence and function. They are present in all RNA types, but their regulation is still not fully understood. The most described RNA modification is methylation, which requires S-adenosylmethionine as a methyl donor, produced through the one carbon metabolism. Different micronutrients (i.e. folate and vitamin B12) are required to properly generate S-adenosylmethionine, making nutrition a strong regulating factor. Although micronutrients have been extensively described to affect epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, protein histone post-translational modifications or miRNAs, far less is known about RNA methylation. Here, we review what is known about the regulation of RNA methylation by micronutrients and the physiological consequences of deficiencies.


Assuntos
Micronutrientes/deficiência , Micronutrientes/fisiologia , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Animais , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Metilação , Nutrigenômica , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(6): e12580, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrigenomics forms the basis of personalized nutrition by customizing an individual's dietary plan based on the integration of life stage, current health status, and genome information. Some common genes that are included in nutrition-based multigene test panels include CYP1A2 (rate of caffeine break down), MTHFR (folate usage), NOS3 (risk of elevated triglyceride levels related to omega-3 fat intake), and ACE (blood pressure response in related to sodium intake). The complexity of gene test-based personalized nutrition presents barriers to its implementation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare a self-driven approach to gene test-based nutrition education versus an integrated practitioner-facilitated method to help develop improved interface tools for personalized nutrition practice. METHODS: A sequential, explanatory mixed methods investigation of 55 healthy adults (35 to 55 years) was conducted that included (1) a 9-week randomized controlled trial where participants were randomized to receive a standard nutrition-based gene test report (control; n=19) or a practitioner-facilitated personalized nutrition intervention (intervention; n=36) and (2) an interpretative thematic analysis of focus group interview data. Outcome measures included differences in the diet quality score (Healthy Eating Index-Canadian [HEI-C]; proportion [%] of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and sugar; omega 3 fatty acid intake [grams]; sodium intake [milligrams]); as well as health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scale score. RESULTS: Of the 55 (55/58 enrolled, 95%) participants who completed the study, most were aged between 40 and 51 years (n=37, 67%), were female (n=41, 75%), and earned a high household income (n=32, 58%). Compared with baseline measures, group differences were found for the percentage of calories from total fat (mean difference [MD]=-5.1%; Wilks lambda (λ)=0.817, F1,53=11.68; P=.001; eta-squared [η²]=0.183) and saturated fat (MD=-1.7%; λ=0.816; F1,53=11.71; P=.001; η²=0.18) as well as HRQoL scores (MD=8.1 points; λ=0.914; F1,53=4.92; P=.03; η²=0.086) compared with week 9 postintervention measures. Interactions of time-by-group assignment were found for sodium intakes (λ=0.846; F1,53=9.47; P=.003; η²=0.15) and HEI-C scores (λ=0.660; F1,53=27.43; P<.001; η²=0.35). An analysis of phenotypic and genotypic information by group assignment found improved total fat (MD=-5%; λ=0.815; F1,51=11.36; P=.001; η²=0.19) and saturated fat (MD=-1.3%; λ=0.822; F1,51=10.86; P=.002; η²=0.18) intakes. Time-by-group interactions were found for sodium (λ=0.844; F3,51=3.09; P=.04; η²=0.16); a post hoc analysis showed pre/post differences for those in the intervention group that did (preintervention mean 3611 mg, 95% CI 3039-4182; postintervention mean 2135 mg, 95% CI 1564-2705) and did not have the gene risk variant (preintervention mean 3722 mg, 95% CI 2949-4496; postintervention mean 2071 mg, 95% CI 1299-2843). Pre- and postdifferences related to the Dietary Reference Intakes showed increases in the proportion of intervention participants within the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges for fat (pre/post mean difference=41.2%; P=.02). Analysis of textual data revealed 3 categories of feedback: (1) translation of nutrition-related gene test information to action; (2) facilitation of eating behavior change, particularly for the macronutrients and sodium; and (3) directives for future personalized nutrition practice. CONCLUSIONS: Although improvements were observed in both groups, healthy adults appear to derive more health benefits from practitioner-led personalized nutrition interventions. Further work is needed to better facilitate positive changes in micronutrient intakes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03310814; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03310814. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/resprot.9846.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Nutrigenômica/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Ocupações em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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