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1.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(3): 545-552, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844792

RESUMO

Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a notorious infection in developing countries causing serious local damage and threatening complications. It was a cross sectional observational study to isolate and identify aerobic bacteria and to analyze the susceptibility pattern of the aerobic bacterial isolates. It was carried out from March 2017 to July 2018 in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Samples were collected from Outpatient of ENT department, MMCH. Out of a total 300 patients with CSOM were enrolled in this study and 209 were culture positive. Among them gram negative organisms were 129(61.72%) and gram positive organisms were 70(33.49%). The most frequently isolated organism in this study was Pseudomonas aeruginosa 72(34.44%), gram positive organisms S. aureus 63(30.14%), E. coli 21(10.04%), other Pseudomonas spp (other than P. aeruginosa) 15(7.17%), mixed bacterial infectios 10(4.78%), Proteus spp 9(4.30%), CoNS 7(3.34%), Klebsiela lspp 7(3.34%), Acinetobactor spp 5(2.39%). P. aeruginosa isolates had least resistant to imipenem and colistin, S. aureus were showed high sensitivity to Vancomycin and Linezolid and E. coli were sensitive to imipenem and amikacin, ciprofloxacin and amikacin respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common bacteria isolated from chronic discharging ears followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Piperacillin-Tazobactum, Ciprofioxacin, Gentamicin and Amikacin were found to be the most suitable drug for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli. The resistance against ceftriaxone and aztreonam was found to be very high.


Assuntos
Bacteriologia , Otite Média , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus , Centros de Atenção Terciária
2.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(2): 17, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346811

RESUMO

A longstanding philosophical premise perceives simplicity as a desirable attribute of scientific theories. One of several raised justifications for this notion is that simple theories are more likely to indicate the true makeup of natural systems. Qualitatively parsimonious hypotheses and theories keep to a minimum the number of different postulated entities within a system. Formulation of such ontologically simple working hypotheses proved to be useful in the experimental probing of narrowly defined bio systems. It is less certain, however, whether qualitatively parsimonious theories are effective indicators of the true nature of complex biological systems. This paper assesses the success of ontologically simple theories in envisaging the makeup of three complex systems in bacteriology, immunology, and molecular biology. Evidence shows that parsimonious theories completely misconstrued the actual ontologically complex constitutions of the three examined systems. Since evolution and selective pressures typically produce ontologically intricate rather than simple bio systems, qualitatively parsimonious theories are mostly inapt indicators of the true nature of complex biological systems.


Assuntos
Alergia e Imunologia , Bacteriologia , Ontologias Biológicas , Biologia Molecular , Análise de Sistemas
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1789, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286264

RESUMO

The mechanical properties of the cell envelope in Gram-negative bacteria are controlled by the peptidoglycan, the outer membrane, and the proteins interacting with both layers. In Escherichia coli, the lipoprotein Lpp provides the only covalent crosslink between the outer membrane and the peptidoglycan. Here, we use single-cell atomic force microscopy and genetically engineered strains to study the contribution of Lpp to cell envelope mechanics. We show that Lpp contributes to cell envelope stiffness in two ways: by covalently connecting the outer membrane to the peptidoglycan, and by controlling the width of the periplasmic space. Furthermore, mutations affecting Lpp function substantially increase bacterial susceptibility to the antibiotic vancomycin, indicating that Lpp-dependent effects can affect antibacterial drug efficacy.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Vancomicina/farmacologia
4.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 131: 107401, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707278

RESUMO

Although the term bioelectrochemistry tends to be associated with animal and human tissues, bioelectric currents exist also in plants and bacteria. Especially the latter, when agglomerated in the form of biofilms, can exhibit electroactivity and susceptibility to electrical stimulation. Therefore, electrochemical methods appear to become powerful techniques to expand the conventional strategies of biofilm characterization and modification. In this review, we aim to provide the insight into the electrochemical behaviour of bacteria and present the variety of electrochemical techniques that can be used either for the non-destructive monitoring of bacterial communities or modulation of their growth. The most common applications of electrical stimulation on biofilms are presented, including the prevention of bacterial growth by charging the surface of the materials, changing the direction of bacterial movement under the influence of the electric field and increasing of the potency of antibiotics when bactericides are coupled with the electric field. Also, the industrial applications of microbial electro-technologies are described, such as bioremediation, wastewater treatment, and microbial fuel cells. Consequently, we are showing the complexity of interactions that exist between electrochemistry and bacteriology that can be used for the benefit of these two disciplines.


Assuntos
Bacteriologia , Biofilmes , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletroquímica/métodos , Estimulação Elétrica
6.
Annu Rev Microbiol ; 73: 1-15, 2019 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500534

RESUMO

Mary Osborn was a native Californian. She was an undergraduate at the University of California, Berkeley, where she worked in the laboratory of I.L. Chaikoff. She received her PhD at the University of Washington, where her work on the role of folic acid coenzymes in one-carbon metabolism revealed the mechanism of action of methotrexate. After postdoctoral training with Bernard Horecker in the Department of Microbiology at New York University (NYU), she embarked on her research career as a faculty member in the NYU Department of Microbiology and in the Department of Molecular Biology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. In 1968 she moved as one of the founding faculty of the new medical school of the University of Connecticut, where she remained until her retirement in 2014. Her research was focused on the biosynthesis of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria and on the assembly of the bacterial cell envelope. She made seminal contributions in these areas. She was the recipient of numerous honors and served as president of several important scientific organizations. Later in her career she served as chair of the National Research Council Committee on Space Biology and Medicine, advisory to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which produced an influential report that plotted the path for NASA's space biology research program in the first decade of the twenty-first century. Dr. Osborn died on Jan. 17, 2019.


Assuntos
Bacteriologia/história , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/biossíntese , Bacteriologia/tendências , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Estados Unidos
7.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 26(3): 841-862, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531579

RESUMO

Starting from the hypothesis that laboratories played an important role in pediatrics becoming an autonomous discipline, this article studies the influence of scientific travel on the appropriation of new methodologies by Spanish pediatricians and child-care experts in the first third of the twentieth century. To do so, it analyzes the travel awards granted by the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas. It describes the scientific geography created by the program and takes an in-depth look at the role of mentors - especially Gustavo Pittaluga (1876-1956) - in this process. In addition to a prosopographical study of the group, it presents three cases that demonstrate the importance of the program in bringing pediatrics into contact with bacteriology, pathological anatomy and biochemistry.


Assuntos
Pediatria/história , Viagem/história , Distinções e Prêmios , Bacteriologia/história , Bioquímica/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Laboratórios/história , Mentores/história , Patologia/história , Espanha
8.
Lit Med ; 37(1): 219-240, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402349

RESUMO

While New Materialism and Object Oriented Ontology have provided frameworks to consider human relationships to nonhuman beings and objects in the twenty-first century, scientists and authors explored similar ethical dilemmas brought about by the newly identified presence of microorganisms in what had previously been imagined as a human world at the turn of the twentieth century. This essay considers Mark Twain's later fiction alongside the work of American bacteriologist Herbert W. Conn. Already invested in undermining human exceptionalism through scalar differences in his Mysterious Stranger manuscripts (1897-1908), Twain adapts Conn's bacteriology to experiment with microbial ethics in Three Thousand Years Among the Microbes (1905). While Conn uses microbes to assert scientific mastery and professional authority, Twain uses them to experiment with ethical structures on nonhuman scales. I argue that the failures of Twain's imaginative experiment dramatize the practical challenges to radically inclusive ethical structures proposed by New Materialists and others.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Bacteriologia , Ética , Medicina na Literatura
9.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(12): 3980-3983, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219419

RESUMO

Rule 24b of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes regulates the priority of names that are considered to be heterotypic synonyms. However, the rule is imperfect because it caters only for names that compete for priority that were only included on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names or for names that were only validly published in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology or the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, either in an original article or via the Validation Lists. Although this should be self-explanatory, Rule 24b does not cater for what happens when one or more names considered to be heterotypic synonyms have appeared on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names while other names also considered to be heterotypic synonyms were validly published in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology or the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, either in an original article or via the Validation Lists. Formal changes to the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes are required.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bacteriologia , Filogenia , Terminologia como Assunto
10.
Endeavour ; 43(1-2): 11-16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030894

RESUMO

Richard Julius Petri's status as inventor of the culture dish that bears his name has been subject to a number of challenges over the years. Both those bacteriologists who claimed self-recognition for the invention, and those to whom it was attributed by their various advocates were all contemporaries of Petri. The evidence assembled here indicates that no single individual-including Petri-ought to be accorded credit for the inception of that shallow, circular, covered culture dish which, it transpires, is a simultaneous invention made by half a dozen bacteriologists active in the mid-1880s and ultimately owes its emergence to the prevailing bacteriological zeitgeist.


Assuntos
Bacteriologia/história , Meios de Cultura , Invenções/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(5): 1519-1520, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777819

RESUMO

The wording of Rule 40d was discussed at the XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology, Istanbul in 2008 and some changes were made to clarify how the authorship of names covered by this rule were to be cited. However, a key topic that was raised and discussed was the issue of wording that either automatically creates a subspecies name or whether an automatic consequence of the rule was that a subspecies name based on the nomenclatural type of the corresponding species was required, but must be validly published in accordance with the Rules of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes. The differences are subtle, but important.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bacteriologia/normas , Terminologia como Assunto
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(5): 1515-1518, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714892

RESUMO

There are various ways in which the names of prokaryotes can be duplicated in the literature. An examination of the various ways that this may happen under the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes indicates that a concept is missing, namely the one that refers to the same name based on the same nomenclatural type published in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology/International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, by the same or different authors in different manuscripts or in the Validation Lists. To cater for such instances it would be appropriate to introduce the concept of the isonym and to regulate how they are to be dealt with.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bacteriologia/normas , Terminologia como Assunto
13.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(1A): S1-S111, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26596770

RESUMO

This volume contains the edition of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes that was presented in draft form and available for comment at the Plenary Session of the Fourteenth International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology (BAM), Montréal, 2014, together with updated lists of conserved and rejected bacterial names and of Opinions issued by the Judicial Commission. As in the past it brings together those changes accepted, published and documented by the ICSP and the Judicial Commission since the last revision was published. Several new appendices have been added to this edition. Appendix 11 addresses the appropriate application of the Candidatus concept, Appendix 12 contains the history of the van Niel Prize, and Appendix 13 contains the summaries of Congresses. The full-text version of this article contains chapters 1-4 of the Code, and their associated references. All other material, including foreword, prefaces, and appendices, can be found in the PDF version.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Bacteriologia
15.
Ulster Med J ; 87(3): 173-176, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559540

RESUMO

Background: New legislation has been introduced in Northern Ireland from April 2017, requiring domestic households to recycle all domestic food waste items. The purpose of this study was to examine the bacteriology of compost derived from this source which is supplied free-of-charge to the public for horticultural use. Methods: Municipal compost samples were compared microbiologically with commercial garden compost samples, examining total viable count and diversity of bacteria cultivated. Results: The municipal compost had a mean Total Viable Count (TVC) of 1.53 × 108 colony forming units (cfu)/ g compost, whereas the commercial garden compost had a mean TVC of 4.5 × 107 cfu/g compost. Campylobacter, Salmonella and Listeria were not isolated from any compost. Twenty-three bacterial genera were represented amongst the 46 organisms recovered. Of these, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium perfringens were the most clinically significant. Discussion: The application of municipal compost to cultivate non-food plants, such as roses and flowers presents minimal risk, provided safe handling practices are adopted and hands are thoroughly washed and dried afterwards. However, if applied to soil growing food produce, it is important that municipal compost does not enter the food chain without an effective critical control point which would prevent germination of spores of Clostridium perfringens. Risk may be increased in products such as marinades, home canning, home bottling and associated products. These methods of food preparation are common in ethnic Eastern European populations in Northern Ireland, where awareness of risk needs to be increased.


Assuntos
Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Compostagem , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Reciclagem/legislação & jurisprudência , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriologia , Compostagem/legislação & jurisprudência , Compostagem/normas , Irlanda do Norte , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Prática de Saúde Pública , Reciclagem/normas
17.
Water Sci Technol ; 78(1-2): 320-328, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101767

RESUMO

Microorganism growth in industrial systems is controlled through the use of biocides and biodispersants. There is, however, no simple means of determining the efficacy of these control mechanisms, but it is currently tested using complex bacterial culturing techniques. Biolog Ecoplates® have been used to detect bacterial population changes in various communities. These microtitre plates comprise 31 different carbon substrates (in triplicate) with wells. When a sample is added to the wells, bacteria capable of metabolising the relevant carbon sources respire the substrates, causing the tetrazolium dye in the well to turn purple, indicating a positive result. Hypothetically, the higher the microbial diversity, the more substrates will be utilised and vice versa. The objective of this study was to test this hypothesis, using Biolog Ecoplates® as a potential simple indicator to determine the efficiency of a biocide to control microbial growth in cooling water systems by monitoring the changes in the microbial metabolic pattern. This study proved the hypothesis using Biolog Ecoplates®, indicating that the addition of biocides at various concentrations resulted in fewer substrates being utilised, indicative of a decrease in microbial species diversity.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacteriologia , Carbono/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Consórcios Microbianos
18.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 76(4): 365-372, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078775

RESUMO

Bacteriology remained essentially manual for many years. After a partial automation for blood cultures, identifications and sensitivity testing, new technological developments including robotisation and digital pictures made it possible to open new ways. In the context of economic pression and need to increase the quality, automation offers multiple advantages concerning increase of productivity, standardization, traceability and decreasing of the delay to obtain the results. Moreover the use of digitalized pictures opens the way to tele-bacteriology, particularly useful when considering the merging of hospital laboratories because it makes it possible to geographically dissociate strict manipulation from the validation of the results and from the consultant activity of the microbiologist. The choice criteria of the equipment are detailed as well as the experience of the LHUB-ULB bacteriological laboratory which was automated at the time of merging of the Brussels public hospital laboratories and developed a conclusive experience of tele-bacteriology for the peripheral lab.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/tendências , Bacteriologia/tendências , Laboratórios Hospitalares/tendências , Automação Laboratorial/instrumentação , Automação Laboratorial/métodos , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/normas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/tendências , Humanos , Laboratórios Hospitalares/organização & administração , Laboratórios Hospitalares/normas , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/tendências
20.
Bull Hist Med ; 92(1): 1-45, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681547

RESUMO

Reviewing recent, overlapping work by historians of medicine and health and of environmental history, this article proposes a further agenda upon which scholars in both fields may converge. Both environmental and medical historians can seek to understand the past two centuries of medical history in terms of a seesaw dialogue over the ways and means by which physicians and other health professionals did, and did not, consider the influence of place-airs and waters included-on disease. Modernizing and professionalizing as well as new styles of science nourished attendant aspirations for a clinical place neutrality, for a medicine in which patients' own places didn't matter to what doctors thought or did. The rise of place neutrality from the late nineteenth century onward also had close and enabling historical ties to the near-simultaneous formation of place-defined specialties-tropical medicine, bacteriological public health, and industrial medicine and hygiene.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental/história , Saúde do Trabalhador/história , Medicina do Trabalho/história , Saúde Pública/história , Medicina Tropical/história , Bacteriologia , Geografia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI
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