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1.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(2): 48-49, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019637

Assuntos
Farmacologia
2.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3246, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to determine the content and face validity of a safe drug administration assessment instrument for nursing students. METHOD: quantitative, descriptive study. The literature on medication errors made by students was analyzed, and an instrument was developed using the Architecture of Integrated Information Systems and the Work Breakdown Structure. Face validity was analyzed using the nominal technique, with experts in education, management, research and/or clinical practice. RESULTS: nine experts participated in the validation process, which resulted in an instrument containing 8 sub-processes and 58 items, adjusted to the simulation environment and to clinical practice. CONCLUSION: the instrument may be used for the evaluation of safe drug administration by nursing students, especially in a simulation environment.


Assuntos
Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Farmacologia/educação , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(D1): D1006-D1021, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691834

RESUMO

The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (www.guidetopharmacology.org) is an open-access, expert-curated database of molecular interactions between ligands and their targets. We describe significant updates made over the seven releases during the last two years. The database is notably enhanced through the continued linking of relevant pharmacology with key immunological data types as part of the IUPHAR Guide to IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY (www.guidetoimmunopharmacology.org) and by a major new extension, the IUPHAR/MMV Guide to Malaria PHARMACOLOGY (www.guidetomalariapharmacology.org). The latter has been constructed in partnership with the Medicines for Malaria Venture, an organization dedicated to identifying, developing and delivering new antimalarial therapies that are both effective and affordable. This is in response to the global challenge of over 200 million cases of malaria and 400 000 deaths worldwide, with the majority in the WHO Africa Region. It provides new pharmacological content, including molecular targets in the malaria parasite, interaction data for ligands with antimalarial activity, and establishes curation of data from screening assays, used routinely in antimalarial drug discovery, against the whole organism. A dedicated portal has been developed to provide quick and focused access to these new data.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Farmacologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ligantes , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/parasitologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Plasmodium/efeitos dos fármacos , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador , Navegador
4.
Am J Surg ; 219(3): 411-414, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding medical school curricular variability regarding safe prescribing of post-operative opioids for students entering surgical residency. METHODS: Surveys were administered to general surgery residency interviewees at an accredited academic institution for 2018-2019 application season. Responses were anonymously recorded using web-based software on an electronic tablet. Descriptive statistics were evaluated using proportions and medians with interquartile range. RESULTS: Of 103 eligible, 90 (87.4%) interviewees participated. Although 96.7% of students reported opioid pharmacology during medical school, 35.6% reported their curriculum did not include educational material on acute pain management. While 91.1% felt their curriculum adequately covered opioid related adverse events, 34.4% felt adequately prepared to prescribe post-operative opioids to surgical patients. CONCLUSION: Students entering surgical residency from US medical schools have variable exposures to opioid related educational content and many students feel their medical education inadequately prepared them for prescribing postoperative opioids.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Competência Clínica , Manejo da Dor/normas , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacologia/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Padrões de Prática Médica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
7.
Nurse Educ ; 45(1): 47-50, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Team-based learning (TBL) is a collaborative teaching and learning strategy emphasizing student engagement and application of knowledge. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to compare the differences in scores on pharmacology course final and standardized criterion-referenced examinations between students taught in a traditional lecture-based approach and those taught under the TBL approach. METHODS: Using a before-and-after design, 338 prelicensure students were taught pharmacology using either a traditional lecture-based approach or a TBL approach. RESULTS: Significant differences on course final and standardized examination scores were found between the groups, with students taught using TBL scoring higher than students in the traditional lecture-based group. CONCLUSIONS: Team-based learning had a positive impact on learning outcomes. Moreover, TBL may be a more efficient approach to teaching, as students in the TBL group had only 3 credit hours of content versus students in the traditional lecture-based group, who had 4 credit hours.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizagem , Farmacologia/educação , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Humanos , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem , Pesquisa Metodológica em Enfermagem
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112128, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386888

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Chinese medicine provides a unique curative treatment of complex chronic diseases, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is not effectively treated with the current therapies. The pharmacological mechanisms of Shenkang (SK), a herbal medicine containing rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L. or R. tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf.), red sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), and astragalus (Astragalus mongholicus Bunge), widely used to treat CKD in China, are still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the comprehensive approach used for elucidating the pharmacological mechanisms of SK included the identification of the effective constituents, target prediction and network analysis, by investigating the interacting pathways between these molecules in the context of CKD. These results were validated by performing an in vivo study and by comparison with literature reviews. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This approach involved the following main steps: first, we constructed a molecular database for SK and screened for active molecules by conducting drug-likeness and drug half-life evaluations; second, we used a weighted ensemble similarity drug-targeting model to accurately identify the direct drug targets of the bioactive constituents; third, we constructed compound-target, target-pathway, and target-disease networks using the Cytoscape 3.2 software and determined the distribution of the targets in tissues and organs according to the BioGPS database. Finally, the resulting drug-target mechanisms were compared with those proposed by previous research on SK and validated in a mouse model of CKD. RESULTS: By using Network analysis, 88 potential bioactive compounds in the four component herbs of SK and 85 CKD-related targets were identified, including pathways that involve the nuclear factor-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase, transient receptor potential, and vascular endothelial growth factor, which were categorized as inflammation, proliferation, migration, and permeability modules. The results also included different tissues (kidneys, liver, lungs, and heart) and different disease types (urogenital, metabolic, endocrine, cardiovascular, and immune diseases as well as pathological processes) closely related to CKD. These findings agreed with those reported in the literature. However, our findings with the network pharmacology prediction did not account for all the effects reported for SK found in the literature, such as regulation of the hemodynamics, inhibition of oxidative stress and apoptosis, and the involvement of the transforming growth factor-ß/SMAD3, sirtuin/forkhead box protein O (SIRT/FOXO) and B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein pathways. The in vivo validation experiment revealed that SK ameliorated CKD through antifibrosis and anti-inflammatory effects, by downregulating the levels of vascular cell adhesion protein 1, vitamin D receptor, cyclooxygenase-2, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 proteins in the unilateral ureteral obstruction mouse model. This was consistent with the predicted target and pathway networks. CONCLUSIONS: SK exerted a curative effect on CKD and CKD-related diseases by targeting different organs, regulating inflammation and proliferation processes, and inhibiting abnormal extracellular matrix accumulation. Thus, pharmacological network analysis with in vivo validation explained the potential effects and mechanisms of SK in the treatment of CKD. However, these findings need to be further confirmed with clinical studies.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Ontologia Genética , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Farmacologia/métodos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Mol Pharmacol ; 97(1): 49-60, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882404

RESUMO

The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics has revised the Instructions to Authors for Drug Metabolism and Disposition, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, and Molecular Pharmacology These revisions relate to data analysis (including statistical analysis) and reporting but do not tell investigators how to design and perform their experiments. Their overall focus is on greater granularity in the description of what has been done and found. Key recommendations include the need to differentiate between preplanned, hypothesis-testing, and exploratory experiments or studies; explanations of whether key elements of study design, such as sample size and choice of specific statistical tests, had been specified before any data were obtained or adapted thereafter; and explanations of whether any outliers (data points or entire experiments) were eliminated and when the rules for doing so had been defined. Variability should be described by S.D. or interquartile range, and precision should be described by confidence intervals; S.E. should not be used. P values should be used sparingly; in most cases, reporting differences or ratios (effect sizes) with their confidence intervals will be preferred. Depiction of data in figures should provide as much granularity as possible, e.g., by replacing bar graphs with scatter plots wherever feasible and violin or box-and-whisker plots when not. This editorial explains the revisions and the underlying scientific rationale. We believe that these revised guidelines will lead to a less biased and more transparent reporting of research findings.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Farmacologia/normas , Editoração/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sociedades Científicas/normas , Análise de Dados , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/normas , Humanos , Estados Unidos
10.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 260: 3-16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823070

RESUMO

It is fitting that the 100th anniversary of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology celebrates not only its founding but also the founding of experimental pharmacology as both had their beginnings in Germany. Founded in 1919 by Arthur Heffter (1859-1925) as the "Handbuch der Experimentellen Pharmakologie" and renamed to its current title in 1937, the Handbook has continued to capture the emergence and developments of experimental pharmacology since the initial systematic work of Rudolf Buchheim and his student Oswald Schmiedeberg. Heffter, the first Chairman of the German Society of Pharmacology, was also responsible for isolating mescaline as the active psychedelic component from the peyote cactus, thereby initiating a series of studies along with an Institute that, much like the Handbook and the discipline of pharmacology, continues to discover and disseminate new findings to this day. These early endeavors to establish pharmacology as a viable and valuable contributor to the medical sciences met with considerable resistance and challenges. However, the persistence and dedication of these early pharmacologists placed pharmacology on a firm foundation from which to spread this discipline globally, leading ultimately to our current understanding of the principles of drug action and with an impact likely unanticipated by these founding scientists. Summarizing the beginnings of these efforts and their early spread to other countries provides an appropriate context in which to document the many contributions pharmacological research has made over the past 100 years and provide an opportunity to anticipate expectations around its future developments.


Assuntos
Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Farmacologia/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 412, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Learning analytics aims to improve learning outcomes through the systematic measurement and analysis of learning-related data. However, which parameters have the highest predictive power for academic performance remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of different online assessment parameters with summative exam performance in undergraduate medical education of pharmacology. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with a cohort of undergraduate medical students enrolled in a pharmacology course at Technical University of Munich, Germany. After a four-week teaching and learning period, students were given access to an online assessment platform consisting of 440 multiple choice (MC) questions. After 12 days, a final written summative exam was performed. Bivariate correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed for different online assessment parameters as predictors and summative exam performance as dependent variable. Self-perceived pharmacology competence was measured by questionnaires pre- and postintervention. RESULTS: A total of 224 out of 393 (57%) students participated in the study and were included in the analysis. There was no significant correlation for the parameters "number of logins" (r = 0.01, p = 0.893), "number of MC-questions answered" (r = 0.02, p = 0.813) and "time spent on the assessment platform" (r = - 0.05, p = 0.459) with exam performance. The variable "time per question" was statistically significant (p = 0.006), but correlated negatively (r = - 0.18) with academic performance of study participants. Only "total score" (r = 0.71, p < 0.001) and the "score of first attempt" (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) were significantly correlated with final grades. In a multiple regression analysis, "score first attempt" accounted for 52% of the variation of "score final exam", and "time per question" and "total score" for additional 5 and 1.4%, respectively. No gender-specific differences were observed. Finally, online assessments resulted in improved self-perceived pharmacology competence of students. CONCLUSION: In this prospective cohort study, we systematically assessed the correlation of different online assessments parameters with exam performance and their gender-neutrality. Our findings may help to improve predictive models of academic performance in undergraduate medical education of pharmacology.


Assuntos
Educação Médica Continuada , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Farmacologia/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistemas On-Line , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8152-8171, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666500

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is an important health problem worldwide. Siwu decoction (SWD) and its modification have a good clinical effect on osteoporosis. However, the molecular mechanism of SWD on osteoporosis has not been thoroughly explained. A systematic pharmacological methodology was utilized to predict the active compounds and potential targets of SWD, collect the genes of osteoporosis and the known targets of SWD, and analyze the osteoporosis and SWD's network. Five networks were constructed and analyzed: (1) Osteoporosis genes' protein-protein interaction (PPI) network; (2) Compound-compound target network of SWD; (3) SWD-osteoporosis PPI network; (4) Compound-known target network of SWD; and (5) SWD known target- osteoporosis PPI network. Several osteoporosis and treatment-related targets (eg.,. HSP90AB1, FGFR1, HRAS, GRB2, and PGF), clusters, biological processes, and signaling pathways (e.g., PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway and FoxO signaling pathway) were found. The therapeutic effect of SWD on osteoporosis may be achieved by interfering with the biological processes and signaling pathways related to the development of osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , China , Humanos , Fenômenos Farmacológicos , Farmacologia/métodos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Mar Drugs ; 17(11)2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766220

RESUMO

Fucosterol is an algae-derived unique phytosterol having several medicinal properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticholinesterase, neuroprotective, and so on. Accumulated evidence suggests a therapeutic promise of fucosterol in neurodegeneration; however, the in-depth pharmacological mechanism of its neuroprotection is poorly understood. Here, we employed system pharmacology and in silico analysis to elucidate the underlying mechanism of neuropharmacological action of fucosterol against neurodegenerative disorders (NDD). Network pharmacology revealed that fucosterol targets signaling molecules, receptors, enzymes, transporters, transcription factors, cytoskeletal, and various other proteins of cellular pathways, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), neurotrophin, and toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, which are intimately associated with neuronal survival, immune response, and inflammation. Moreover, the molecular simulation study further verified that fucosterol exhibited a significant binding affinity to some of the vital targets, including liver X-receptor-beta (LXR-), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4), and ß -secretase (BACE1), which are the crucial regulators of molecular and cellular processes associated with NDD. Together, the present system pharmacology and in silico findings demonstrate that fucosterol might play a significant role in modulating NDD-pathobiology, supporting its therapeutic application for the prevention and treatment of NDD.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estigmasterol/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Farmacologia , Estigmasterol/farmacologia
14.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 260: 17-41, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768748

RESUMO

Pharmacology, the chemical control of physiology, emerged as an offshoot of physiology when the physiologists using chemicals to probe physiological systems became more interested in the probes than the systems. Pharmacologists were always, and in many ways still are, bound to study drugs in systems they do not fully understand. Under these circumstances, null methods were the main ways in which conclusions about biologically active molecules were made. However, as understanding of the basic mechanisms of cellular function and biochemical systems were elucidated, so too did the understanding of how drugs affected these systems. Over the past 20 years, new ideas have emerged in the field that have completely changed and revitalized it; these are described herein. It will be seen how null methods in isolated tissues gave way to, first biochemical radioligand binding studies, and then to a wide array of functional assay technologies that can measure the effects of molecules on drug targets. In addition, the introduction of molecular dynamics, the appreciation of the allosteric nature of receptors, protein X-ray crystal structures, genetic manipulations in the form of knock-out and knock-in systems and Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs have revolutionized pharmacology.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Farmacologia/tendências , Receptores de Superfície Celular/fisiologia , Humanos
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(43): 21427-21437, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601737

RESUMO

Pharmacology and optogenetics are widely used in neuroscience research to study the central and peripheral nervous systems. While both approaches allow for sophisticated studies of neural circuitry, continued advances are, in part, hampered by technology limitations associated with requirements for physical tethers that connect external equipment to rigid probes inserted into delicate regions of the brain. The results can lead to tissue damage and alterations in behavioral tasks and natural movements, with additional difficulties in use for studies that involve social interactions and/or motions in complex 3-dimensional environments. These disadvantages are particularly pronounced in research that demands combined optogenetic and pharmacological functions in a single experiment. Here, we present a lightweight, wireless, battery-free injectable microsystem that combines soft microfluidic and microscale inorganic light-emitting diode probes for programmable pharmacology and optogenetics, designed to offer the features of drug refillability and adjustable flow rates, together with programmable control over the temporal profiles. The technology has potential for large-scale manufacturing and broad distribution to the neuroscience community, with capabilities in targeting specific neuronal populations in freely moving animals. In addition, the same platform can easily be adapted for a wide range of other types of passive or active electronic functions, including electrical stimulation.


Assuntos
Optogenética/métodos , Farmacologia/métodos , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Química Encefálica , Channelrhodopsins/metabolismo , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Optogenética/instrumentação , Farmacologia/instrumentação , Próteses e Implantes , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação
16.
Mo Med ; 116(3): 217-225, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527945

RESUMO

About half a million adverse drug reactions are reported in the US each year that result in disability, hospitalization or death. The efficacy or toxicity of a drug in a patient can be strongly influenced by their genetics as well as environment. Application of genomics to clinical pharmacology, "pharmacogenomics," promises to transform patient care and health resource utilization in the coming decade.


Assuntos
Tratamento Farmacológico/tendências , Farmacogenética , Papel do Médico , Medicina de Precisão , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Genômica , Humanos , Farmacologia
18.
Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh ; 16(1)2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539361

RESUMO

Medication errors continue to be a significant issue, posing substantial threats to the safety and well-being of patients. Through Bandura's theory of self-efficacy, nursing students' self-efficacy (confidence) related to medication administration was examined to investigate its influence on the generation of medication errors with the use of an Electronic Medication Administration Record (eMAR) in clinical simulation. This study examined the generation of medication errors and the differences that may exist based on nursing students' perceived confidence. The findings of this study demonstrated that nursing students continue to generate medication errors within clinical simulation. No differences in the generation of medication errors were found between nursing students with perceived high levels of confidence and those with perceived low levels of confidence (one exception noted). Further examination of the variables and contextual factors related to safe medication administration practices is required to inform nursing education and practice.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Farmacologia/educação , Autoeficácia , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Erros de Medicação/enfermagem , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 154(3): 143-150, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527365

RESUMO

Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) is an emerging field of modeling technologies that describes the dynamic interaction between biological systems and drugs. Recently, QSP is increasingly being applied to pharmaceutical drug discovery and development, and used for various types of decision makings. In contrast to empirical and statistical models, QSP represents complex systems of human physiology by integrating comprehensive biological information, hence, it can address various purposes including target and/or disease-related biomarker identification, hypothesis testing, and prediction of clinical efficacy or toxicity. On the other hand, structures of QSP models become quite complicated with huge amount of biological components, therefore, close collaboration between pharmacologists having profound knowledge of biology and drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK) scientists, experts of model building, is crucial for QSP development and implementation. This article introduces, from DMPK scientists to pharmacologists, main features of QSP and its applications in pharmaceutical industries, and discusses challenges and future perspectives for effective utilization in drug discovery and development.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Farmacologia/métodos , Humanos , Farmacocinética , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221923, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509554

RESUMO

Practical laboratory classes teaching molecular pharmacology approaches employed in the development of therapeutic strategies are of great interest for students of courses in Biotechnology, Applied Biology, Pharmaceutic and Technology Chemistry, Translational Oncology. Unfortunately, in most cases the technology to be transferred to learning students is complex and requires multi-step approaches. In this respect, simple and straightforward experimental protocols might be of great interest. This study was aimed at presenting a laboratory exercise focusing (a) on a very challenging therapeutic strategy, i.e. microRNA therapeutics, and (b) on the employment of biomolecules of great interest in applied biology and pharmacology, i.e. peptide nucleic acids (PNAs). The aims of the practical laboratory were to determine: (a) the possible PNA-mediated arrest in RT-qPCR, to be eventually used to demonstrate PNA targeting of selected miRNAs; (b) the possible lack of activity on mutated PNA sequences; (c) the effects (if any) on the amplification of other unrelated miRNA sequences. The results which can be obtained support the following conclusions: PNA-mediated arrest in RT-qPCR can be analyzed in a easy way; mutated PNA sequences are completely inactive; the effects of the employed PNAs are specific and no inhibitory effect occurs on other unrelated miRNA sequences. This activity is simple (cell culture, RNA extraction, RT-qPCR are all well-established technologies), fast (starting from isolated and characterized RNA, few hours are just necessary), highly reproducible (therefore easily employed by even untrained students). On the other hand, these laboratory lessons require some facilities, the most critical being the availability of instruments for PCR. While this might be a problem in the case these instruments are not available, we would like to underline that determination of the presence or of a lack of amplified product can be also obtained using standard analytical approaches based on agarose gel electrophoresis.


Assuntos
Bioquímica/educação , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácidos Nucleicos Peptídicos/farmacologia , Farmacologia/educação , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mutação , Ácidos Nucleicos Peptídicos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
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