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1.
Lit Med ; 37(2): 346-367, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885028

RESUMO

This paper considers the relationship between the practice of resuscitation in mid- to late eighteenth-century Britain, and vitalist physiology and medicine. It explores how the mix of mystery and fact presented in the scene of reanimation, and manifested in the resuscitated body as the site of such a compelling conjunction, is negotiated in contemporary vitalist theories of life and theoretical reflections on natural philosophical method. In this, it gives a particular prominence to the Scottish vitalists, especially William Cullen. It considers the attractions of resuscitation for addressing the particular epistemological predicament faced by vitalism: its combination of post-Newtonian empiricism and the inevitable conjecture-or "provisionally inexplicable explicative device"-necessary when faced with the mysteries of life. Finally, the cultural life of vitalism is considered in the work of William Hawes, Humane Society founder, and John Thelwall, radical journalist.


Assuntos
Medicina na Literatura , Narração , Ressuscitação , Vitalismo , História do Século XVIII , Humanos
2.
Cuad Bioet ; 30(99): 159-170, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206296

RESUMO

This paper links the Sexual Revolution with queer neovitalism, framing both in the emancipatory impulse that underlies European culture. Impulse does not imply the confrontation between tradition and progress, but the confrontation of tradition with itself. After analyzing its epistemological referents of 68, our research shows that the conceptualization of desire as the genuine ″revolutionary instance″ and the synthesis of the relationships between language, power and politics, forged the myth of the Sexual Revolution. In addition, that this, by dissociating the sexual encounter of procreation, inspired the current gender perspective, the culture of performativity and the critique of heteronormativity. Linking the queer perspective with transhumanism, this work reveals the constroversial nature of its neovitalist current and highlines its eugenics and bio-colonial potential. Eugenic and bio-colonial potential that is evidenced by the use of genetic material and foreign bodies as a ″product″ for the social reassignment, as procreator, of the queer collective. Finally, the work reveals the inherent contradiction of the Sexual Revolution, concluding that it did not bring the emancipation that it promised, but that it implied a relapse in the state of nature, in the instinctive centrality that orders praxis to the submission of the environment, propitiating a new form of social control and a new conformity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Vitalismo , Humanos , Conhecimento , Política , Sociologia
3.
Arts Health ; 11(1): 26-37, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper responds to calls for more lived experience research with a vitalist-materialist style of analysis inspired by Deleuze and Guattari. It challenges traditional understandings of art as a therapy associated with medical and psychological perceptions of schizophrenia, which have been found to be reductive. METHODS: Using Deleuze and Guattari's relational assemblages, the flows of affect are mapped as bodies and things, ideas and sensations connect and disconnect through the community arts sense-event "Schizy Jam". RESULTS: Opening a much broader territory for understanding the many ways that art can express, affirm and communicate difference, enables exploration of new ways in which art-makers are activating changes in feeling and thinking about schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: Art-makers can be supported to connect with others with shared experience to find expression for things that have previously been inexpressible and create a world that is more inclusive of them.


Assuntos
Arte , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Vitalismo/psicologia , Conscientização , Criatividade , Humanos
4.
Ann Sci ; 76(2): 184-209, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879392

RESUMO

This article studies the theory of animal seeds as purely material entities in the early seventeenth-century medical writings of Antonio Ponce Santacruz, royal physician to the Spanish king Philipp IV. Santacruz adopts the theory of the eduction of substantial forms from the potentiality of matter, according to which new kinds of causal powers can arise out of material composites of a certain complexity. Santacruz stands out among the late Aristotelian defenders of eduction theory because he applies the concept of an instrument of direction developed by the medieval Avicenna commentator Gentile da Foligno and gives a novel turn to this concept by interpreting animal seeds as separate instruments. The article situates Santacruz's theory in the context of early modern debates about the concept of the eduction of forms, as well as in the context of early modern debates about the concept of separate instruments. Particular attention is paid to Santacruz's responses to the biological views of Julius Caesar Scaliger and Thomas Feyens. Santacruz's response to Scaliger turns out to be central for his explication of the eduction relation, and Santacruz's response to Feyens turns out to be central for his explication of the nature of instrumental causation.


Assuntos
Vida , Espiritualidade , Vitalismo/história , Animais , História do Século XVII , Humanos
5.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 41(1): 7, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830497

RESUMO

The history of helminthology in the Early Modern Period has been characterized as a debate between two camps, the internalists and the externalists. The internalists believed that helminths are spontaneously generated within the body of the host, whereas the externalists claimed that helminths enter the host from the external environment. According to the this account, the debate between these two camps ended in the nineteenth century with the victory of the externalist viewpoint. Here, we redefine these two terms, as well as the beliefs that the two groups upheld. We suggest that internalists were not necessarily committed to the theory of spontaneous generation, nor were externalists committed to its rejection. These terms only refer to the place where helminths supposedly originate, but not to the process by which they are generated. Thus, some internalists rejected the theory of spontaneous generation, while others held externalist viewpoints and at the same time accepted this theory. We claim that the debate did not end with the victory of the externalist camp; rather, a new position which we call "life-cyclism", emerged and incorporated some elements of the two earlier positions.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Vida , Vitalismo , Zoologia/história , Animais , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Filosofia
7.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 40(4): 68, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386943

RESUMO

Louis Pasteur's defeat of belief in spontaneous generation has been a classical rationalist example of how the experimental approach of modern science can reveal superstition. Farley and Geison (Bull Hist Med 48:161-198, 1974) told a counter-story of how Pasteur's success was due to political and ideological support rather than superior experimental science. They claimed that Pasteur violated proper norms of scientific method, and that the French Academy of Science did not see this, or did not want to. Farley and Geison argued that Pouchet's experiments were as valid as those of Pasteur. In this paper I argue that the core of the scientific debate was not general theories for or against spontaneous generation but the outcome of specific experiments. It was on the conduct of these experiments that the Academy made judgements favorable to Pasteur. Claude Bernard was a colleague of Pasteur, supportive and sometimes critical. I argue that Bernard's fact-oriented methodology of "experimental medicine" is a better guide to explaining the controversy than the hypothetic-deductive view of scientific method typical of logical empiricism.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Empirismo/história , Vitalismo/história , França , História do Século XIX , Projetos de Pesquisa
8.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 40(4): 64, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353475

RESUMO

This is an introduction to a collection of articles on the conceptual history of epigenesis, from Aristotle to Harvey, Cavendish, Kant and Erasmus Darwin, moving into nineteenth-century biology with Wolff, Blumenbach and His, and onto the twentieth century and current issues, with Waddington and epigenetics. The purpose of the topical collection is to emphasize how epigenesis marks the point of intersection of a theory of biological development and a (philosophical) theory of active matter. We also wish to show that the concept of epigenesis existed prior to biological theorization and that it continues to permeate thinking about development in recent biological debates.


Assuntos
Filosofia/história , Vitalismo/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval
9.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 40(3): 50, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136154

RESUMO

In biology the term "vitalism" is usually associated with Hans Driesch's doctrine of the entelechy: entelechies were nonmaterial, bio-specific agents responsible for governing a few peculiar biological phenomena. Since vitalism defined as such violates metaphysical materialism (or physicalism), the received view refutes the doctrine of the entelechy as a metaphysical heresy. But in the early twentieth century, a different, non-metaphysical evaluation of vitalism was endorsed by some biologists and philosophers, which finally led to a logical refutation of the doctrine of the entelechy. In this non-metaphysical evaluation, first, vitalism was not treated as a metaphysical heresy but a legitimate response to the inadequacy of mechanistic explanations in biology. Second, the refutation of vitalism was logically rather than metaphysically supported by contemporary biological knowledge. The entelechy was not a valid concept, because vitalists could neither formulate vital laws (to attribute determinate consequences to the entelechy), nor offer convincing examples of experimental indeterminism (to confirm the perpetual inadequacy of mechanistic explanations).


Assuntos
Biologia/história , Metafísica/história , Vitalismo/história , História do Século XX , Conhecimento
10.
Cogn Psychol ; 104: 1-28, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587182

RESUMO

Some episodes of learning are easier than others. Preschoolers can learn certain facts, such as "my grandmother gave me this purse," only after one or two exposures (easy to learn; fast mapping), but they require several years to learn that plants are alive or that the sun is not alive (hard to learn). One difference between the two kinds of knowledge acquisition is that hard cases often require conceptual construction, such as the construction of the biological concept alive, whereas easy cases merely involve forming new beliefs formulated over concepts the child already has (belief revision, a form of knowledge enrichment). We asked whether different domain-general cognitive resources support these two types of knowledge acquisition (conceptual construction and knowledge enrichment that supports fast mapping) by testing 82 6-year-olds in a pre-training/training/post-training study. We measured children's improvement in an episode involving theory construction (the beginning steps of acquisition of the framework theory of vitalist biology, which requires conceptual change) and in an episode involving knowledge enrichment alone (acquisition of little known facts about animals, such as the location of crickets' ears and the color of octopus blood). In addition, we measured children's executive functions and receptive vocabulary to directly compare the resources drawn upon in the two episodes of learning. We replicated and extended previous findings highlighting the differences between conceptual construction and knowledge enrichment, and we found that Executive Functions predict improvement on the Vitalism battery but not on the Fun Facts battery and that Receptive Vocabulary predicts improvement the Fun Facts battery but not on the Vitalism battery. This double dissociation provides new evidence for the distinction between the two types of knowledge acquisition, and bears on the nature of the learning mechanisms involved in each.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Formação de Conceito , Conhecimento , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Vitalismo , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Vocabulário
11.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 26: 2, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29372046

RESUMO

Since its inception, the chiropractic profession has been divided along ideological fault lines. These divisions have led to a profession wide schism, which has limited mainstream acceptance, utilisation, social authority and integration. The authors explore the historical origins of this schism, taking time to consider historical context, religiosity, perpetuating factors, logical fallacies and siege mentality. Evidence is then provided for a way forward, based on the positioning of chiropractors as mainstream partners in health care.


Assuntos
Quiroprática/educação , Terapias Complementares/classificação , Saúde Holística/classificação , Vitalismo/história , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Quiroprática/classificação , Quiroprática/história , Quiroprática/tendências , Terapias Complementares/história , Previsões , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , História do Século XX , Saúde Holística/história , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Filosofia Médica , Sociologia Médica , Estudantes de Medicina
12.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 29: 27-34, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122266

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Concept analysis. INTRODUCTION: This paper is a report on the analysis of the concept of tone in chiropractic. PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of tone as originally understood by Daniel David Palmer from 1895 to 1914 and to monitor its evolution over time. METHODS: Data was sourced from Palmer's original work, published between 1895 and 1914. A literature search from 1980 to 2016 was also performed on the online databases CINHAL, PubMed and Scopus with key terms including 'tone', 'chiropractic', 'Palmer', 'vitalism', 'health', 'homeostasis', 'holism' and 'wellness'. Finally hand-searches were conducted through chiropractic books and professional literature from 1906 to 1980 for any references to 'tone'. Rodgers' evolutionary method of analysis was used to categorise the data in relation to the surrogates, attributes, references, antecedents and consequences of tone. RESULTS: A total of 49 references were found: five from publications by Palmer; three from the database searches, and; the remaining 41 from professional books, trade journals and websites. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: There is no clear interpretation of tone in the contemporary chiropractic literature. Tone is closely aligned with functional neurology and can be understood as an interface between the metaphysical and the biomedical. Using the concept of tone as a foundation for practice could strengthen the identity of the chiropractic profession.


Assuntos
Quiroprática , Formação de Conceito , Saúde Holística , Homeostase , Vitalismo , Quiroprática/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Relações Metafísicas Mente-Corpo , Neurologia
13.
Explore (NY) ; 13(2): 133-138, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28094230

RESUMO

This article is part of a project investigating chiropractors' beliefs on the role of vitalism in their philosophical and practice approaches and how that might contribute to addressing current epidemics of non-communicable diseases. It aims to present atomism, reductionism, materialism and mechanism as fundamental ontologies in biomedicine and to examine what role these might play in its struggle to deal with these epidemics; to present vitalism as a fundamental ontology existing in chiropractic along with these ontologies of biomedicine; and to discuss how imbalances in the use of these ontologies and practices stemming from them might be contributing to difficulties in addressing these epidemics. The use of more balanced approaches by chiropractors involving not only mechanistic biomedical ontologies but also an increased focus on vitalism might offer value in addressing these epidemics and should be investigated.


Assuntos
Vitalismo , Ontologias Biológicas , Quiroprática , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Doença Crônica/terapia , Humanos
14.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 38(4): 20, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27854052

RESUMO

When "general physiology" emerged as a basic field of research within biology in the early nineteenth century, Henri Ducrotay de Blainville (1777-1850) on the one hand and Johannes Peter Müller (1801-1858) on the other appealed to chemical analysis to account for the properties and operations of organisms that were observed to differ from what was found in inorganic compounds. Their aim was to establish laws of vital organization that would be based on organic chemical processes, but would also be of use to explain morphological and functional differences among life forms. The intent of this paper is to specify for each of these leading physiologists the different presuppositions that provided theoretical frameworks for their interpretation of what they conceived of as laws of organization underpinning the dynamics of vital phenomena. Blainville presumed that the properties of organic compounds depended on the chemical properties of their constitutive molecules, but combined according to patterns of functional development, and that the latter could only be inferred from an empirical survey of modes of organization across the spectrum of life forms. For Müller, while all vital processes involved chemical reactions, in the formative and functional operations of organisms, these reactions would result from the action of life forces that were responsible for the production of organic combinations and thus for vital and animal functions. As both physiologists set significant methodological patterns for their many disciples and followers, their respective quasi-reductionist and anti-reductionist positions need to be accounted for.


Assuntos
Fisiologia/história , Vitalismo/história , Animais , França , Alemanha , História do Século XIX
15.
Vesalius ; 21(1): 80-5, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26592086

RESUMO

A very large number of articles about vitalism have been published since 1894 in the journal Science. Vitalism is a theory according to which living organisms appear to possess something more than inanimate objects. The "vital principle" is minted in 1778 by Barthez in "Les nouveaux éléments de la science de l'homme", (Stahl talks of phlogiston for chemistry). In their view, the life of the whole is not the simple sum of the life of the components. Such a view was hatched in response to the Cartesian mechanist interpretation of living matter as proposed by Galileo and Descartes. Vitalist intuition was revived in the XXth century by new researchers such as Henri Bergson ("l'élan vital" or 'vital force') in France and Hans Driesch ("entelechy") in Germany. Could this view of life now be making a comeback in biology?


Assuntos
Biologia Sintética/história , Vitalismo/história , França , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX
16.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 37(4): 345-81, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26452775

RESUMO

Philosophy of biology is often said to have emerged in the last third of the twentieth century. Prior to this time, it has been alleged that the only authors who engaged philosophically with the life sciences were either logical empiricists who sought to impose the explanatory ideals of the physical sciences onto biology, or vitalists who invoked mystical agencies in an attempt to ward off the threat of physicochemical reduction. These schools paid little attention to actual biological science, and as a result philosophy of biology languished in a state of futility for much of the twentieth century. The situation, we are told, only began to change in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when a new generation of researchers began to focus on problems internal to biology, leading to the consolidation of the discipline. In this paper we challenge this widely accepted narrative of the history of philosophy of biology. We do so by arguing that the most important tradition within early twentieth-century philosophy of biology was neither logical empiricism nor vitalism, but the organicist movement that flourished between the First and Second World Wars. We show that the organicist corpus is thematically and methodologically continuous with the contemporary literature in order to discredit the view that early work in the philosophy of biology was unproductive, and we emphasize the desirability of integrating the historical and contemporary conversations into a single, unified discourse.


Assuntos
Biologia/história , Filosofia/história , Empirismo , História do Século XX , Vitalismo
17.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 41(8): 1069-81, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26089349

RESUMO

Moral vitalism refers to a tendency to view good and evil as actual forces that can influence people and events. We introduce a scale designed to assess the belief in moral vitalism. High scorers on the scale endorse items such as "There are underlying forces of good and evil in this world." After establishing the reliability and criterion validity of the scale (Studies 1, 2a, and 2b), we examined the predictive validity of the moral vitalism scale, showing that "moral vitalists" worry about being possessed by evil (Study 3), being contaminated through contact with evil people (Study 4), and forfeiting their own mental purity (Study 5). We discuss the nature of moral vitalism and the implications of the construct for understanding the role of metaphysical lay theories about the nature of good and evil in moral reasoning.


Assuntos
Cognição , Princípios Morais , Religião , Vitalismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Physis Riv Int Stor Sci ; 50(1-2): 165-215, 2015.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156092

RESUMO

By means of the analysis of three works (Dell'anima de' bruti [Of the soul of beasts], Sofilo Molossio, and Sofilo senza maschera [Sofilo without a mask]) of Alessandro Pascoli (1669-1757), the psysician and philosopher from Perugia, the article reconstructs his fluctuating thought with regard to the problem of sensation in animals, indicated as the problem of the "soul of beasts." Regarding this question, Pascoli oscillates between, on the one hand, the Cartesian theory, which considered animals similar to mechanical automatons, devoid of the capacity to experience sensations (that is say, devoid of "sensitivity"); and, on the other hand, the Church's scholastic-peripatetic doctrine that attributed to animals the capacity to feel, thus affirming the presence in them of a "sensitive soul," considered -as compared with the human one -imperfect, material, and mortal. In expounding the reasons and argumentations of the Cartesians, on the one hand, and of the ecclesiastic teachings, on the other, Pascoli manifests a substantial convergence with the former, but also the need, inasmuch as Catholic professor of medicine at the Sapienza University of Rome, to not deny the possibility of the latter. In this tormented and contorted alternation of opinions, between the thesis of the animal-machine and that of the animal gifted with a sensitive soul, he introduces conceptual elements that, further developed, will end up by conducting to the ideas of "vital property" and of "vital principle" typical of the vitalistic thought of the 18th and 19th centuries.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Catolicismo/história , Mamíferos/psicologia , Filosofia/história , Vitalismo/história , Animais , Comportamento Animal/ética , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Vida , Teoria Psicológica , Religião e Ciência
19.
J Hist Biol ; 48(1): 37-66, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25099169

RESUMO

The sustained interdisciplinary debate about neovitalism between two Johns Hopkins University colleagues, philosopher Arthur O. Lovejoy and experimental geneticist H. S. Jennings, in the period 1911-1914, was the basis for their theoretical reconceptualization of scientific knowledge as contingent and necessarily incomplete in its account of nature. Their response to Hans Driesch's neovitalist concept of entelechy, and his challenge to the continuity between biology and the inorganic sciences, resulted in a historically significant articulation of genetics and philosophy. This study traces the debate's shift of problem-focus away from neovitalism's threat to the unity of science - "organic autonomy," as Lovejoy put it - and toward the potential for development of a nonmechanististic, nonrationalist theory of scientific knowledge. The result was a new pragmatist epistemology, based on Lovejoy's and Jennings's critiques of the inadequacy of pragmatism's account of scientific knowledge. The first intellectual move, drawing on naturalism and pragmatism, was based on a reinterpretation of science as organized experience. The second, sparked by Henri Bergson's theory of creative evolution, and drawing together elements of Dewey's and James's pragmatisms, produced a new account of the contingency and necessary incompleteness of scientific knowledge. Prompted by the neovitalists' mix of a priori concepts and, in Driesch's case, and adherence to empiricism, Lovejoy's and Jennings's developing pragmatist epistemologies of science explored the interrelation between rationalism and empiricism.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Vitalismo/história , Empirismo/história , História do Século XX , Estados Unidos
20.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 70(4): 516-48, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25324429

RESUMO

The use of mercury as an injection mass in anatomical experiments and preparations was common throughout Europe in the long eighteenth century, and refined mercury-injected preparations as well as plates of anatomical mercury remain today. The use and meaning of mercury in related disciplines such as medicine and chemistry in the same period have been studied, but our knowledge of anatomical mercury is sparse and tends to focus on technicalities. This article argues that mercury had a distinct meaning in anatomy, which was initially influenced by alchemical and classical understandings of mercury. Moreover, it demonstrates that the choice of mercury as an anatomical injection mass was deliberate and informed by an intricate cultural understanding of its materiality, and that its use in anatomical preparations and its perception as an anatomical material evolved with the understanding of the circulatory and lymphatic systems. By using the material culture of anatomical mercury as a starting point, I seek to provide a new, object-driven interpretation of complex and strongly interrelated historiographical categories such as mechanism, vitalism, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology, which are difficult to understand through a historiography that focuses exclusively on ideas.


Assuntos
Anatomia/métodos , Vasos Sanguíneos/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Linfático/anatomia & histologia , Mercúrio/história , Preservação Biológica/métodos , Alquimia , Anatomia/história , Europa (Continente) , Historiografia , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Injeções/métodos , Vitalismo
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