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2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(7): 4180-4189, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142607

RESUMO

The threat posed by plastic pollution to marine ecosystems and human health is under increasing scrutiny. Much of the macro- and microplastic in the ocean ends up on the seafloor, with some of the highest concentrations reported in submarine canyons that intersect the continental shelf and directly connect to terrestrial plastic sources. Gravity-driven avalanches, known as turbidity currents, are the primary process for delivering terrestrial sediment and organic carbon to the deep sea through submarine canyons. However, the ability of turbidity currents to transport and bury plastics is essentially unstudied. Using flume experiments, we investigate how turbidity currents transport microplastics, and their role in differential burial of microplastic fragments and fibers. We show that microplastic fragments become relatively concentrated within the base of turbidity currents, whereas fibers are more homogeneously distributed throughout the flow. Surprisingly, the resultant deposits show an opposing trend, as they are enriched with fibers, rather than fragments. We explain this apparent contradiction by a depositional mechanism whereby fibers are preferentially removed from suspension and buried in the deposits as they are trapped between settling sand-grains. Our results suggest that turbidity currents potentially distribute and bury large quantities of microplastics in seafloor sediments.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Sepultamento , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Microplásticos
5.
Nature ; 577(7792): 665-670, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969706

RESUMO

Our knowledge of ancient human population structure in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly prior to the advent of food production, remains limited. Here we report genome-wide DNA data from four children-two of whom were buried approximately 8,000 years ago and two 3,000 years ago-from Shum Laka (Cameroon), one of the earliest known archaeological sites within the probable homeland of the Bantu language group1-11. One individual carried the deeply divergent Y chromosome haplogroup A00, which today is found almost exclusively in the same region12,13. However, the genome-wide ancestry profiles of all four individuals are most similar to those of present-day hunter-gatherers from western Central Africa, which implies that populations in western Cameroon today-as well as speakers of Bantu languages from across the continent-are not descended substantially from the population represented by these four people. We infer an Africa-wide phylogeny that features widespread admixture and three prominent radiations, including one that gave rise to at least four major lineages deep in the history of modern humans.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/história , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Migração Humana/história , Filogenia , Alelos , Animais , Arqueologia , Sepultamento , Camarões , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , DNA Antigo/análise , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano/genética , Haplótipos/genética , História Antiga , Humanos , Idioma/história , Masculino , Pan troglodytes/genética , Análise de Componente Principal
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007666, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961858

RESUMO

At the height of the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone in November 2014, a new decentralized approach to ending infection chains was adopted. This approach was based on building local, small-scale Community Care Centres (CCC) intended to serve as triage units for safe handling of patients waiting for test results, with subsequent transfer to Ebola Treatment Centers (ETC) for those who tested positive for Ebola. This paper deals with local response to the CCC, and explains, through qualitative analysis of focus group data sets, why this development was seen in a positive light. The responses of 562 focus group participants in seven villages with CCC and seven neighbouring referral villages without CCC are assessed. These data confirm that CCC are compatible with community values concerning access to, and family care for, the sick. Mixed reactions are reported in the case of "safe burial", a process that directly challenged ritual activity seen as vital to maintaining good relations between socially-enclaved rural families. Land acquisitions to build CCC prompted divided responses. This reflects problems about land ownership unresolved since colonial times between communities and government. The study provides insights into how gaps in understanding between international Ebola responders and local communities can be bridged.


Assuntos
Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Adulto , Sepultamento , Redes Comunitárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Movimentação e Reposicionamento de Pacientes , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968000

RESUMO

The paper discusses results of an interdisciplinary research project integrating lead isotope, chemical, and archaeological analysis of 20 early metal objects from central Italy. The aim of the research was to develop robust provenance hypotheses for 4th and 3rd millennia BC metals from an important, yet hitherto neglected, metallurgical district in prehistoric Europe, displaying precocious copper mining and smelting, as well as socially significant uses of metals in 'Rinaldone-style' burials. All major (and most minor) ore bodies from Tuscany and neighbouring regions were characterised chemically and isotopically, and 20 Copper Age axe-heads, daggers and halberds were sampled and analysed. The objects were also reassessed archaeologically, paying special attention to find context, typology, and chronology. This multi-pronged approach has allowed us to challenge received wisdom concerning the local character of early metal production and exchange in the region. The research has shown that most objects were likely manufactured in west-central Italy using copper from Southern Tuscany and, quite possibly, the Apuanian Alps. A few objects, however, display isotopic and chemical signatures compatible with the Western Alpine and, in one case, French ore deposits. This shows that the Copper Age communities of west-central Italy participated in superregional exchange networks tying together the middle/upper Tyrrhenian region, the western Alps, and perhaps the French Midi. These networks were largely independent from other metal displacement circuits in operation at the time, which embraced the north-Alpine region and the south-eastern Alps, respectively.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Metalurgia/história , Mineração/história , Ligas/história , Sepultamento/história , Carvão Mineral/história , Cobre/história , Geografia , História Antiga , Isótopos/análise , Itália , Chumbo/análise
8.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110062, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786514

RESUMO

The renowned work of Clyde Snow and the development of the Equipo Argentino de Anthropología Forense (EAAF) team has inspired the use of forensic anthropological and archaeological skills in human rights interventions around the world. Whether for medico-legal intervention and acquisition of evidence or humanitarian repatriation and identification of human remains, forensic expertise has garnered attention in the global arena. Arguably fulfilling evidentiary and psychosocial needs, there has been growing interest in this post-conflict redress. However, as part of the critique of these interventions, scholars and practitioners have pointed out - primarily in medico-legal investigations - a lack of sensitization of local communities regarding forensic work, increasing the potential for re-traumatization, unrealistic expectations, or an unintentional increase in political tensions. Research regarding forensic intervention and human remains have permeated social sciences, peace and conflict studies, and science and technology studies, revealing both intentional and unintentional impacts of forensic sciences after mass violence. In an effort to mitigate negative impacts of medico-legal or humanitarian interventions, the research described here sought to sensitize communities in Uganda about forensic methods. Findings from this study suggest that sensitization is necessary and desired, and that a multi-step approach can assist in managing expectations.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Antropologia Forense/organização & administração , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Altruísmo , Arqueologia , Recursos Audiovisuais , Sepultamento , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Grupos Focais , Antropologia Forense/educação , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , População Rural , Uganda
9.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 266-273, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424577

RESUMO

Colombian forensic investigators required assistance locating clandestine burials of missing persons related to human right atrocities from 14 years ago. Geoscientific search methods were trialled, including a predictive spatial statistical model, using various input and database information, to select the most likely grave locations in difficult mountainous terrain. Groundwork using forensic geomorphology, near-surface geophysics (ERT) and subsequent probing identified suspect burial positions. One site was in mountainous terrain and the other in former school grounds, both difficult to access and in poor weather conditions. In the mountainous area, a negative resistivity anomaly area was identified and intrusively investigated, found to be a buried rock. In school grounds, after MESP and intelligence were used to identify a burial site, surface depressions were identified, and ERT datasets collected over the highest priority depression; intrusive investigations discovered a hand-dug pit containing animal bones. This approach is suggested for Latin American searches.


Assuntos
Sepultamento , Colômbia , Impedância Elétrica , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Estatísticos , Software
10.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 276-282, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305956

RESUMO

A body of an unknown adult female was found within a shallow burial ground in Malaysia whereas the skull was exposed and visible on the ground. During autopsy examination, nine insect larvae were recovered from the interior of the human skull and subsequently preserved in 70% ethanol. The larvae were greyish in appearance, each with a posterior elongated breathing tube. A week after the autopsy, more larvae were collected at the burial site, and some of them were reared into adults. Adult specimens and larvae from the skull and from the burial site were sequenced to obtain DNA barcodes. Results showed all adult flies reared from the burial site, as well as the larvae collected from the skull were identified as Eristalinus arvorum (Fabricius, 1787) (Diptera: Syrphidae). Here, we report the colonization of E. arvorum larvae on a human corpse for the first time.


Assuntos
Dípteros/genética , Dípteros/fisiologia , Entomologia Forense , Crânio/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Sepultamento , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/fisiologia , Malásia , Mudanças Depois da Morte
11.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110056, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765883

RESUMO

The killings during the Second World War, with nearly one hundred thousand victims, is one of the greatest losses of life in Slovenia's modern history. This article presents the genetic identification of the victims of the largest family massacre that occurred in Slovenia, in which 10 members of the same family were killed. Seven of them were buried in a hidden mass grave and only two children survived. In 2015 and 2016, two graves were found and three incomplete female skeletons and at least three incomplete male skeletons were exhumed. A total of 12 bones and teeth were analysed and compared to two living relatives. Extracted DNA was quantified using the PowerQuant kit, and various autosomal and Y-STR kits were used for STR typing. Up to 2.7 ng DNA/g of powder was acquired from the samples analysed. We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from seven bones and one molar. From the female grave, autosomal profiles were obtained only from one skeleton, and from the male grave from five out of six femurs. The relationships between the males were additionally confirmed by analyses of Y-STRs. STR profiles made possible the identification of four family members; one of the aunts from the female grave, and two uncles and the father of the surviving children, who were used as family references, from the male grave. The product rule was used to calculate a combined likelihood ratio for autosomal and Y-STRs, and statistical analyses showed high confidence of correct identification with posterior probability (PP) greater than 99.9 % for three out of four victims identified. For identifying the aunt, the PP obtained after ESI-17 and NGM STR typing was too low. To increase the PP, the next-generation sequencing Precision ID GlobalFiler NGS STR Panel was used and, after the analysis of additional STR loci, the statistical analysis showed a PP greater than 99.9 %, indicating that a sufficient number of genetic markers had been investigated in identifying the skeletal remains of the aunt. An elimination database containing the genetic profiles of all individuals that had been in contact with the bones was created to ensure traceability in case of contamination, and no matches were found. After more than 70 years, the skeletal remains were returned to the surviving children, who buried their relatives in a family grave.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Família , Dente/química , Restos Mortais , Sepultamento , Cromossomos Humanos Y , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Exumação , Feminino , Genética Forense , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Linhagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Eslovênia , II Guerra Mundial
12.
J R Soc Med ; 112(12): 492, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825279

Assuntos
Sepultamento
13.
J R Soc Med ; 112(12): 492, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825282
15.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693700

RESUMO

The emergence of mobile herding lifeways in Mongolia and eastern Eurasia was one of the most crucial economic and cultural transitions in human prehistory. Understanding the process by which this played out, however, has been impeded by the absence of a precise chronological framework for the prehistoric era in Mongolia. One rare source of empirically dateable material useful for understanding eastern Eurasia's pastoral tradition comes from the stone burial mounds and monumental constructions that began to appear across the landscape of Mongolia and adjacent regions during the Bronze Age (ca. 3000-700 BCE). Here, along with presenting 28 new radiocarbon dates from Mongolia's earliest pastoral monumental burials, we synthesise, critically analyse, and model existing dates to present the first precision Bayesian radiocarbon model for the emergence and geographic spread of Bronze Age monument and burial forms. Model results demonstrate a cultural succession between ambiguously dated Afanasievo, Chemurchek, and Munkhkhairkhan traditions. Geographic patterning reveals the existence of important cultural frontiers during the second millennium BCE. This work demonstrates the utility of a Bayesian approach for investigating prehistoric cultural dynamics during the emergence of pastoral economies.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Sepultamento/história , Datação Radiométrica , Teorema de Bayes , História Antiga , Humanos , Mongólia
17.
Nature ; 574(7777): 246-248, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554964

RESUMO

The study of childhood diet, including breastfeeding and weaning, has important implications for our understanding of infant mortality and fertility in past societies1. Stable isotope analyses of nitrogen from bone collagen and dentine samples of infants have provided information on the timing of weaning2; however, little is known about which foods were consumed by infants in prehistory. The earliest known clay vessels that were possibly used for feeding infants appear in Neolithic Europe, and become more common throughout the Bronze and Iron Ages. However, these vessels-which include a spout through which liquid could be poured-have also been suggested to be feeding vessels for the sick or infirm3,4. Here we report evidence for the foods that were contained in such vessels, based on analyses of the lipid 'fingerprints' and the compound-specific δ13C and Δ13C values of the major fatty acids of residues from three small, spouted vessels that were found in Bronze and Iron Age graves of infants in Bavaria. The results suggest that the vessels were used to feed infants with milk products derived from ruminants. This evidence of the foodstuffs that were used to either feed or wean prehistoric infants confirms the importance of milk from domesticated animals for these early communities, and provides information on the infant-feeding behaviours that were practised by prehistoric human groups.


Assuntos
Alimentação Artificial/história , Sepultamento , Cerâmica , Leite/química , Ruminantes , Alcanos/análise , Alcanos/química , Animais , Sepultamento/história , Cemitérios , Cerâmica/história , Criança , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Alemanha , História Antiga , Humanos , Leite/história
18.
Homo ; 70(1): 57-62, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475288

RESUMO

Despite the high mortality that have been associated with pregnancy and childbirth in past populations, few cases of the remains of pregnant women burials are described in the bioarchaeological reports. This paper is focused on the case of a double inhumation found in the Medieval Muslim Necropolis (11th to 15th centuries) of Sahl ben Malik in Granada (Spain). A complete skeleton of a woman and the skeletal remains of a full-term fetus located under the mother's left femur, were discovered in this burial. None of the evidence for the mother was decisive in determining the cause of death. However, evidence of physiological stress in the woman and possible gynecological complications may have contributed to the death of both individuals. The link between the individuals and their cause of death is examined, discussed and compared with similar archaeological records.


Assuntos
Sepultamento/história , Islamismo/história , Morte Materna/história , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Morte Fetal , Feto/anatomia & histologia , História Medieval , Humanos , Paleopatologia , Gravidez , Espanha
19.
Homo ; 70(1): 45-56, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475291

RESUMO

In the pre-Hispanic necropolis of Juan Primo, northwest Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) a grave was found containing a 20-25 year-old woman with a foetus in her abdominal region, whose age at death was estimated at 33-35 weeks of gestation. The purpose of this study is to discuss the possible cause of death of the woman and foetus. Skeletons of both individuals were well preserved, permitting a good record of the bones found in the burial, which is compatible with a pregnancy at preterm. The age of the foetus and the position of the left upper limb raise the possibility that their death was the result of a difficult birth (dystocia). However, a number of alternative disorders can be put forward to explain this death in the third trimester of pregnancy, such as eclampsia and abruption placentae. In this case, pertinent ethnohistorical and osteoarchaeological information about the ancient canaries allows us to assess some of the stressors that would increase their maternal mortality. The lack of similar evidence in archaeological contexts makes this an important finding, providing a likely case of obstetric problems and their impact on pre-industrial societies.


Assuntos
Morte Fetal , Morte Materna , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Sepultamento/história , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Paleopatologia , Gravidez , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
20.
Homo ; 70(2): 93-104, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475723

RESUMO

Much of the recent archaeological and anthropological research on Italian modern age secondary burials has focused primarily on source analysis and the funerary context descriptions. To enable a clearer understanding of these atypical burials we need more archaeological data. To comprehend the mortuary practices it is necessary to investigate the surviving funeral monuments, burials and human remains. In fact, through the correct analysis of cultural material and human remains, it is possible to highlight the taphonomic changes of the corpse experiences during the entire ritual process. This will allow us to reconstruct the modality of body treatment in the funeral ritual. Now, we know partially the diffusion of the secondary burial ritual in southern Italy, but in northern Italy, it is lesser known. In this paper, we report the results of the archaeological and anthropological investigations conducted inside the Crypt of the Franciscan Monastery of Azzio (Varese, northern Italy). In the hypogeal funerary chamber, the corpses were temporarily deposed in seat-niches. This type of burial recalls the sitting colatois (masonry seat with a hole in the center), known in Naples as "cantarelle" and largely present in southern Italy. Throughout archaeological, anthropological and historical investigations, we tried to reconstruct the ritual adopted by the Friars and to better understand the ties with other northern and southern Italian testimonies. After our investigations, we received several notices of other similar funerary monuments in northern Italy that would be worth investigating.


Assuntos
Sepultamento/história , Adulto , Arqueologia , Arquitetura/história , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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