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1.
Homo ; 68(5): 362-377, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28987535

RESUMO

This paper addresses the history, composition and scientific value of one of the most comprehensive facemask collections in Africa, the Raymond A. Dart Collection of African Life and Death Masks. Housed within the School of Anatomical Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa), it comprises 1110 masks (397 life, 487 death, 226 unknown). Life masks represent populations throughout Africa; death masks predominately southern Africa. Males preponderate by 75%. Recorded ages are error prone, but suggest most life masks are those of <35 year-olds, death masks of 36+ year-olds. A total of 241 masks have associated skeletons, 209 presenting a complete skull. Life masks date between 1927 and c.1980s, death masks 1933 and 1963. This historical collection presents uncanny associations with outmoded typological and evolutionary theories. Once perceived an essential scientific resource, performed craniofacial superimpositions identify the nose as the only stable feature maintained, with the remaining face best preserved in young individuals with minimal body fat. The facemask collection is most viable for teaching and research within the history of science, specifically physical anthropology, and presents some value to craniofacial identification. Future research will have to be conducted with appropriate ethical considerations to science and medicine.


Assuntos
Craniologia/história , Face/anatomia & histologia , Máscaras/história , Cefalometria/história , Morte , História do Século XX , Humanos , África do Sul , Universidades/história
2.
J Anthropol Sci ; 95: 35-65, 2017 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28190005

RESUMO

Many aspects of human biology can be reconstructed from skeletal and fossil remains. The endocranial vasculature runs through cerebral, connective, and bone elements, where it is influenced by the functional and structural relationships among these different components of the endocranial system. The imprints and traces of these vessels can be used to analyze the craniovascular features of extinct species or historical samples. These traits can supply information about evolutionary adaptation, the mutual relationships between and within populations, and individual life history. In particular, bioarchaeology considers individual morphological variants as indicators of temporal and spatial relatedness and population structure, whereas paleoanthropology studies functional aspects to consider evolutionary changes and phylogenetic processes. Forensic science can investigate the cause of death associated with craniovascular pathologies by relying on morphological variations for individual identification. In this review, we consider the imprints of middle meningeal vessels, dural venous sinuses, emissary veins, and diploic veins. We summarize the most relevant morphological and functional information about craniovascular features and their applications in retrospective anthropological and medical fields, as well as describing the methodological issues associated with the sampling and quantitative evaluation of these elusive vascular remnants imprinted in the cranial bones.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Craniologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Criança , Fósseis , Humanos
3.
Cortex ; 86: 123-131, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27939397

RESUMO

Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) introduced a new theory of mind and brain at the end of the eighteenth century, which he referred to as organology, dealing with mental functions and their cortical localizations. Gall wrote that observations regarding the verbal learning capacities of his schoolmates brought about his new way of thinking. This widely accepted view, however, requires qualification. Although Gall's experiences and observations as a schoolboy were relevant, especially for his craniology, these childhood memories might have been recalled and reinterpreted after he had started to think about the faculties of mind-specifically after he had met Bianchi, a 5-year-old girl with a special talent for music.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/história , Craniologia/história , Psicofisiologia/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Música
4.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 158(4): 607-23, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26301877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nineteenth and twentieth century documents testify that four ethnic groups, generally classified as terrestrial hunters or canoe nomads, inhabited Fuego-Patagonia. Archaeologically, however, their presence and temporal depth remains unknown. This study analyzes the antiquity and geographic distribution of cranial modification, a highly visible symbol of social identity, in Fuego-Patagonia, Chile, to assess whether it expressed ethnic affiliation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 adult skulls from Southern Patagonia (n = 32; 53.3%) and Tierra del Fuego (n = 28; 46.7%) were examined for age-at-death, sex and cranial modification with standard methods. Individuals were further categorized as terrestrial (n = 26; 43.3%), marine (n = 21; 35%) or indetermined hunter-gatherers (n = 13; 21.7%) based on the archaeological site's characteristics, geographic location, and isotopic information. RESULTS: Thirty percent (n = 18) of the skulls in this study were modified, and most of the modified skulls (n = 15) presented a tabular-erect shape. No statistically significant differences were identified between Fuegians and Patagonians, males or females, or between the different types of adaptation and geographic locations. DISCUSSION: Thus, this Late Holocene, widely distributed practice, was not a reflection of ethnicity, but a material expression of information circulation and the complex social relations that these small-size groups had with one another. These results suggest that the emergence of modern ethnic identities in the region is a historic process that resulted from the interaction of local groups with European and Criollos.


Assuntos
Modificação Corporal não Terapêutica/história , Crânio/patologia , Adulto , Chile , Craniologia , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(9): 2682-7, 2015 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25730861

RESUMO

Kenya National Museums Lukenya Hill Hominid 1 (KNM-LH 1) is a Homo sapiens partial calvaria from site GvJm-22 at Lukenya Hill, Kenya, associated with Later Stone Age (LSA) archaeological deposits. KNM-LH 1 is securely dated to the Late Pleistocene, and samples a time and region important for understanding the origins of modern human diversity. A revised chronology based on 26 accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates on ostrich eggshells indicates an age range of 23,576-22,887 y B.P. for KNM-LH 1, confirming prior attribution to the Last Glacial Maximum. Additional dates extend the maximum age for archaeological deposits at GvJm-22 to >46,000 y B.P. (>46 kya). These dates are consistent with new analyses identifying both Middle Stone Age and LSA lithic technologies at the site, making GvJm-22 a rare eastern African record of major human behavioral shifts during the Late Pleistocene. Comparative morphometric analyses of the KNM-LH 1 cranium document the temporal and spatial complexity of early modern human morphological variability. Features of cranial shape distinguish KNM-LH 1 and other Middle and Late Pleistocene African fossils from crania of recent Africans and samples from Holocene LSA and European Upper Paleolithic sites.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Crânio , Craniologia , Humanos , Quênia , Espectrometria de Massas
6.
J Neurosurg ; 115(6): 1126-30, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21905801

RESUMO

OBJECT: Communicating hydrocephalus is an uncommon complication in patients treated for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Its pathogenesis remains unclear. The authors evaluated the clinical and radiological factors associated with the onset of communicating hydrocephalus and the impact of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery on the outcome of these patients. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four patients harboring GBM, who had undergone craniotomy for tumor resection and adjuvant radiochemotherapy, were retrospectively assessed. Seven of them developed communicating hydrocephalus and were treated with VP shunt surgery. Clinical and radiological estimates included Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, previous surgery, overall survival (OS), CSF pressure and components, tumor location, and leptomeningeal dissemination. RESULTS: All 7 patients who developed communicating hydrocephalus had undergone at least 2 craniotomies for tumor resection before the onset of hydrocephalus (p = 0.0006; Fisher exact test). Six cases showed high levels of CSF proteins. There was a highly significant relationship between ventricular opening at surgery for tumor recurrence and onset of hydrocephalus (p = 0.0002; Fisher exact test). In these patients, VP shunt surgery was followed by a significant improvement of KPS score (p = 0.0180; Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The median OS after VP shunt insertion was 5 ± 2.9 months. CONCLUSIONS: Ventricular opening after radiochemotherapy and high CSF protein levels are significant predictors of communicating hydrocephalus in patients with GBM. The VP shunt surgery improves quality of life in these patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Glioblastoma , Hidrocefalia/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Derivações do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/mortalidade , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade , Craniologia , Dacarbazina/análogos & derivados , Dacarbazina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/cirurgia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Temozolomida
8.
Przegl Lek ; 67(3): 231-5, 2010.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20687392

RESUMO

In June 1963 the Bishop of Cracow Karol Wojtyla approached Professor Jan Olbrycht (Chair of the Department of Forensic Medicine, Cracow Medical Academy) with the request to examine the reliquary and skull of St. Stanislaus. The examination was carried out by J. Olbrycht and M. Kusiak and the results published. Included in this article are the interpretations of these opinions by a criminologist and two forensic physicians. One of the forensic physicians (Z. Marek) acknowledged that there was a case of unauthorized misinterpretation of Professor Olbrycht's statement.


Assuntos
Craniologia/história , Antropologia Forense , Causas de Morte , História Medieval , Humanos , Polônia , Religião e Medicina
9.
J Hum Evol ; 59(2): 168-87, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20633924

RESUMO

There has been a protracted debate over the evidence for intentional cranial modification in the terminal Pleistocene Australian crania from Kow Swamp and Coobool Creek. Resolution of this debate is crucial to interpretations of the significance of morphological variation within terminal Pleistocene-early Holocene Australian skeletal materials and claims of a regional evolutionary sequence linking Javan Homo erectus and Australian Homo sapiens. However, morphological comparisons of terminal Pleistocene and recent Australian crania are complicated by the significantly greater average body mass in the former. Raw and size-adjusted metric comparisons of the terminal Pleistocene skeleton from Nacurrie, south-eastern Australia, with modified and unmodified H. sapiens and H. erectus, identified a suite of traits in the frontal, parietal, and occipital bones associated with intentional modification of a neonate's skull. These traits are also present in some of the crania from Kow Swamp and Coobool Creek, which are in close geographic proximity to Nacurrie, but not in unmodified H. sapiens or Javan H. erectus. Frontal bone morphology in H. erectus was distinct from all of the Australian H. sapiens samples. During the first six months of life, Nacurrie's vault may have been shaped by his mother's hands, rather than though the application of fixed bandages. Whether this behaviour persisted only for several generations, or hundreds of years, remains unknown. The reasons behind the shaping of Nacurrie's head, aesthetics or otherwise, and why this cultural practice was adopted and subsequently discontinued, will always remain a matter of speculation.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Craniologia/história , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Austrália , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , Humanos , Indonésia , Radiografia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 141(4): 526-49, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19927280

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanical features of cortical bone and their changes with growth and adaptation to function plays an important role in our ability to interpret the morphology and evolution of craniofacial skeletons. We assessed the elastic properties of cortical bone of juvenile and adult baboon mandibles using ultrasonic techniques. Results showed that, overall, cortical bone from baboon mandibles could be modeled as an orthotropic elastic solid. There were significant differences in the directions of maximum stiffness, thickness, density, and elastic stiffness among different functional areas, indicating regional adaptations. After maturity, the cortical bone becomes thicker, denser, and stiffer, but less anisotropic. There were differences in elastic properties of the corpus and ramus between male and female mandibles which are not observed in human mandibles. There were correlations between cortical thicknesses and densities, between bone elastic properties and microstructural configuration, and between the directions of maximum stiffness and bone anatomical axes in some areas. The relationships between bone extrinsic and intrinsic properties bring us insights into the integration of form and function in craniofacial skeletons and suggest that we need to consider both macroscopic form, microstructural variation, and the material properties of bone matrix when studying the functional properties and adaptive nature of the craniofacial skeleton in primates. The differences between baboon and human mandibles is at variance to the pattern of differences in crania, suggesting differences in bone adaption to varying skeletal geometries and loading regimes at both phylogenetic and ontogenetic levels.


Assuntos
Mandíbula/fisiologia , Papio/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anatomia Comparada , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Craniologia , Elasticidade/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Caracteres Sexuais
11.
J Evol Biol ; 23(2): 237-48, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20002248

RESUMO

Understanding the importance of environmental dimensions behind the morphological variation among populations has long been a central goal of evolutionary biology. The main objective of this study was to review the spatial regression techniques employed to test the association between morphological and environmental variables. In addition, we show empirically how spatial regression techniques can be used to test the association of cranial form variation among worldwide human populations with a set of ecological variables, taking into account the spatial autocorrelation in data. We suggest that spatial autocorrelation must be studied to explore the spatial structure underlying morphological variation and incorporated in regression models to provide more accurate statistical estimates of the relationships between morphological and ecological variables. Finally, we discuss the statistical properties of these techniques and the underlying reasons for using the spatial approach in population studies.


Assuntos
Altitude , Evolução Biológica , Análise de Regressão , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Craniologia , Humanos
12.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 40(3): 156-67, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19720324

RESUMO

Beginning in 1868, the United States Army Medical Museum issued a request to Army medical personnel situated in 'Indian country' for specimens of skulls from Native Americans. The purpose of this collection was to promote the study of craniometry, a branch of racial science commonly used to delineate the different varieties of mankind and to rank them according to their perceived intellectual attributes. Yet, as this paper argues, the efforts of Army surgeons in amassing hundreds of crania for the Army Medical Museum were not matched by a similar level of commitment on the part of racial researchers. In examining why this seemingly impressive collection fell rapidly into disuse, this paper explores the creation and abandonment of one of the largest craniological collections formed in the United States in relation to the trajectory of craniometrical studies during this period. It also questions the link between the interests of racial researchers in the late nineteenth century and those of government policy makers, arguing that the two might not have been particularly closely aligned in the case of craniological research in Washington.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/história , Craniologia/história , Índios Norte-Americanos/história , Medicina Militar/história , Antropologia Física/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Museus/história , Estados Unidos
13.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 291(11): 1446-54, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18951488

RESUMO

The interpretation of patterns of cranial pneumatization in terms of evolution, development, and function is controversial, because these structures exhibit extreme diversity and variability among and within taxa. However, there is general consensus that air-filled spaces are formed by invasion of mucous epithelial tissue from the nasopharyngeal cavity into the surrounding cranial bones. This investigation presents a morphogenetic model of pneumatization, which combines empirical data about epithelial growth with physical concepts of surface growth. The study develops a model that defines growth equations with a minimum number of system parameters to simulate the invasion of mucous tissue and air-filled spaces into the cancellous compartment of cranial bones. Computer simulations show that tuning a small set of model parameters permits generation of a wide diversity of morphologies mimicking natural air-filled spaces. Comparison of virtual with actual morphologies yields new insights into possible factors controlling the process of cranial pneumatization.


Assuntos
Morfogênese , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Simulação por Computador , Craniologia , Variação Genética , Hominidae , Humanos , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Anatômicos , Modelos Biológicos , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Temporal/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 51(4): 8-12, 2008.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18756757

RESUMO

Skull measurements differ in terms of discriminative and taxonomic value. Facial signs carry much more taxonomic information than neurocranial structures. Differences in the informative value of selected craniological complexes provide a rationale for differential approach to the interpretation of the results of ethno-racial studies.


Assuntos
Cefalometria , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Etnologia/métodos , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria/métodos , Cefalometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Classificação , Craniologia , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Etnologia/classificação , Etnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Antropologia Forense/classificação , Antropologia Forense/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Clin Anat ; 21(6): 471-8, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18698654

RESUMO

Metopism, which is defined as a condition in which the two pieces of the frontal bone fail to merge in early childhood, displays varying degrees of incidence. In this study, the variation of the frequency of metopism across historical periods is investigated on the skulls of 487 adults from 12 different Ancient Anatolian populations dated to various periods of history ranging from the Neolithic to the first quarter of the 20th century. In addition, the study also examines the relationship of metopism to sex and cranial form. It is revealed that the frequency of metopism showed a relative increase across time periods in Anatolia after the Neolithic Period, with the exception of the Cevizcioglu Ciftligi population. However, no significant relationship was found between metopism and cranial form or sex. It is found that the frequency of metopism in Ancient Anatolia had a distribution range of 3.3-14.9%. This distribution shows that the inhabitants of Anatolia have a heterogeneous genetic make-up due to the geographical situation of Anatolia, which has been open to gene flow both in the past and at present.


Assuntos
Osso Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Craniologia , Epigênese Genética , Fluxo Gênico , Humanos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Turquia
16.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 137(1): 30-40, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18398846

RESUMO

The cranial base is one of the major foci of interest in functional craniology. The evolution and morphogenesis of this structure are still poorly known and rather controversial because of multifactorial influences and polyphasic stages. Endocranial dynamics are associated anteriorly with the upper facial structures, laterally with the mandibular system and midsagittally with brain development. In the present study, we investigated the endocranial morphology of modern humans using 3D landmark-based approaches, i.e. geometric morphometrics and Euclidean distance matrix analysis. The structure of endocranial variation is poorly integrated, with only weak reciprocal influences among the three fossae. Some major variations are associated with changes in the posterior fossa, with possible consequences on the anterior areas. These main patterns of integration are hypothesized to be influenced by the connective tensors of the dura layers. Static allometry and sex differences are largely related to the ontogenetic sequences, characterized by early maturation of the anterior fossa with respect to the middle and posterior regions (i.e., relatively shorter posterior part of the planum sphenoideum and vertical lengthening of the clivus in males). The relative independence between the endocranial fossae, as well as their structural connection through the meningeal tensors, must be carefully considered in studies on the evolutionary dynamics, since they lead to mosaic changes through phylogeny.


Assuntos
Antropologia Física/métodos , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Craniologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Base do Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fossa Craniana Anterior/anatomia & histologia , Fossa Craniana Anterior/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fossa Craniana Média/anatomia & histologia , Fossa Craniana Média/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fossa Craniana Posterior/anatomia & histologia , Fossa Craniana Posterior/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho do Órgão , Caracteres Sexuais , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Base do Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
J Hum Evol ; 54(3): 296-308, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18022673

RESUMO

In a recent study we found that crania from South Amerindian populations on each side of the Andes differ significantly in terms of craniofacial shape. Western populations formed one morphological group, distributed continuously over 14,000km from the Fuegian archipelago (southern Chile) to the Zulia region (northwestern Venezuela). Easterners formed another group, distributed from the Atlantic Coast up to the eastern foothills of the Andes. This differentiation is further supported by several genetic studies, and indirectly by ecological and archaeological studies. Some authors suggest that this dual biological pattern is consistent with differential rates of gene flow and genetic drift operating on both sides of the Cordillera due to historical reasons. Here we show that such East-West patterning is also observable in North America. We suggest that the "ecological zones model" proposed by Dixon, explaining the spread of the early Americans along a Pacific dispersal corridor, combined with the evolution of different population dynamics in both regions, is the most parsimonious mechanism to explain the observed patterns of within- and between-group craniofacial variability.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Dinâmica Populacional , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , América Central , Craniologia , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , História Antiga , Humanos , América do Norte , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal
19.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 23(12): 1367-77, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17968558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper discusses how the evolving hominid architecture of the arteriovenous system through the cranial base diverted foreseeable pathology in the human brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bipedal upright posture was an early adaptation in mosaic morphological pattern changes in hominid evolution; a key feature, the ability of blood to flow either to vertebral or internal jugular venous systems. Encephalization punctuated hominid evolution, its vulnerable feature, a lower threshold for thermal damage. Comparative analysis of ape and human skulls show "fingerprint" structures, revealing big changes in pattern complexity of the cranial vascular tree. Clues to structural/functional changes span data for apes, humans, and hominid fossils. Here, the increasing vascular network, Australopithecus to Homo sapiens, necessitated changes in the blood flow patterns. The transverse-sigmoid (T/S) and occipital-marginal (O/M) venous networks accommodated hydrostatic changes of blood flow, regulating temperature uniquely: the O/M system enlarged, allowing blood to flow straight down into the vertebral plexus without cooling, and added a vast network of emissary/diploic veins, acting as a brain cooling "radiator." This O/M system was fixed in the Australopithecus robustus lineage, p = 0.000001; high frequencies of emissary foramen were selected for over time. Ontologically, the human neonatal O/M system is fully developed; emissary/diploic veins are established by age 5, setting conditions for selective brain cooling. CONCLUSION: The Radiator Theory is the evolution of the functionally efficient brain cooling system, fixed in the A. robustus lineage, tying hydrostatic consequences of bipedalism with release of a "thermal constraint" on the encephalizing brain, and reflected in our own ontogeny.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Craniossinostoses/patologia , Base do Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cavidades Cranianas/anatomia & histologia , Craniologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Artérias Meníngeas/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/irrigação sanguínea , Base do Crânio/irrigação sanguínea
20.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 23(12): 1357-65, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17680251

RESUMO

A GLIMPSE INTO MODERN PALEOANTHROPOLOGY: In the last decades, paleoanthropology has been deeply modified, changing from a descriptive and historical science to a more quantitative and analytical discipline. The covariation of multiple traits is investigated to study the evolutionary changes of the underlying anatomical models, mostly through the introduction of digital biomedical imaging procedures and of computed geometrical analyses supported by multivariate statistics. FUNCTIONAL CRANIOLOGY: The evolution of the human cranium is consequently considered in terms of functional and structural relationships between its components, largely influenced by the allometric variations associated with the increase in the relative cranial capacity. In the human genus, the changes in the face, base, and neurocranium are characterised by a mosaic variation, in which adaptations, secondary consequences, and stochastic factors concur to generate a set of anatomical possibilities and constraints. SYSTEMIC PERSPECTIVES TO THE EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN CRANIAL MORPHOLOGY: Concepts like morphological modularity, anatomical integration, and heterochrony represent key issues in the development of the current human evolutionary studies.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Craniologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Hominidae/classificação , Humanos , Tamanho do Órgão
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