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1.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 27-46, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638598

RESUMO

The article is the first step of a research project aimed at investigating new perspectives and aspects of Morgagni's role and work. His activities as a medical examiner and forensic doctor are yet to be truly discovered. Manuscripts, written by Morgagni when he was a forensic expert for the Health Magistrate of Venice, currently preserved at the City Library in Forli (Italy), shed light on a new aspect of his cultural background. As a forensic doctor, he also helped push an increase in "social medicine" in Italy, when physicians began to collaborate with the administrative and political institutions in order to plan environmental and urban regulations to control air quality. While reading his reports, his contribution to the primordial medical Hygiene and Public Health emerges. Among his reports, the authors focused on the one concerning the Beatification of Gregorio Barbarigo, which clearly highlights his pathological approach, as well as his knowledge and application of embalming systems and mummiology. Moreover, this report could be considered as an issue in the history of paleopathology.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Medicina Legal/história , Patologia/história , Santos/história , Anatomia/história , Exumação/história , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Itália , Múmias/história , Odorantes
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084197

RESUMO

Although Ancient Egyptians mummified millions of animals over the course of one millennium, many details of these mummification protocols remain unknown. Multi-scale propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography was used to visualise an ancient Egyptian crocodile mummy housed at the Musée des Confluences (Lyon, France). This state-of-the-art non-destructive imaging technique revealed the complete interior anatomy of the mummy in three dimensions. Here, we present detailed insight into the complex post-mortem treatment of a decaying crocodile cadaver in preparation for mummification. Except for the head and the extremities of the limbs, everything beneath the skin of the crocodile (i.e. organs, muscles, and even most of the skeleton) was removed to cease further putrefaction. This unexpected finding demonstrates that earlier knowledge obtained from textual and other archaeological sources does not sufficiently reflect the diversity of mummification protocols implemented by Ancient Egyptians.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Embalsamamento/métodos , Múmias/diagnóstico por imagem , Síncrotrons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/instrumentação , Animais , Cadáver , Antigo Egito , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Interface Usuário-Computador
5.
Anthropol Anz ; 77(1): 75-82, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939989

RESUMO

In the course of a scientific cooperation between the German Mummy Project at the Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen, Mannheim (Germany) and the Musée National d'Histoire et d'Art Luxembourg (Luxembourg), an ancient Egyptian mummy head was analyzed using a multidisciplinary approach including radiocarbon dating, ultra-high resolution computed tomography, physical anthropology, forensic medicine and Egyptology. Dated to the Roman Period, the mummy head belonged to an upper-class woman between 25 and 35 years of age. Computed tomography revealed a lethal blunt force trauma affecting the dorsal parts of the parietal bones, below the intact overlaying soft tissue. Moreover, ancient medical treatment was evidenced through localized shaving of the hair on the affected area, which indicates that efforts have been made to keep the woman alive. This astonishing example of homicide demonstrates the enormous scientific benefit brought by the multidisciplinary investigation of mummified bodies and body parts, and sheds light on life, death and medical care of a woman from Roman Period Egypt.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Múmias , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Adulto , Antigo Egito , Feminino , Cabeça , História Antiga , Humanos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227446, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945091

RESUMO

Two ancient Egyptian child mummies at the University of Tartu Art Museum (Estonia) were, according to museum records, brought to Estonia by the young Baltic-German scholar Otto Friedrich von Richter, who had travelled in Egypt during the early 19th century. Although some studies of the mummies were conducted, a thorough investigation has never been made. Thus, an interdisciplinary team of experts studied the remains using the most recent analytical methods in order to provide an exhaustive analysis of the remains. The bodies were submitted for osteological and archaeothanatological study, radiological investigation, AMS radiocarbon dating, chemical and textile analyses, 3D modelling, entomological as well as aDNA investigation. Here we synthesize the results of one of the most extensive multidisciplinary analyses of ancient Egyptian child mummies, adding significantly to our knowledge of such examples of ancient funerary practices.


Assuntos
Múmias , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Egito , Antigo Egito , Estônia , Humanos , Masculino , Museus
7.
Ophthalmology ; 127(1): e5, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864481

Assuntos
Olho , Múmias
10.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(42): 6289-6298, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754290

RESUMO

The bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects the stomachs of approximately 50% of all humans. With its universal occurrence, high infectivity and virulence properties it is considered as one of the most severe global burdens of modern humankind. It has accompanied humans for many thousands of years, and due to its high genetic variability and vertical transmission, its population genetics reflects the history of human migrations. However, especially complex demographic events such as the colonisation of Europe cannot be resolved with population genetic analysis of modern H. pylori strains alone. This is best exemplified with the reconstruction of the 5300-year-old H. pylori genome of the Iceman, a European Copper Age mummy. Our analysis provided precious insights into the ancestry and evolution of the pathogen and underlined the high complexity of ancient European population history. In this review we will provide an overview on the molecular analysis of H. pylori in mummified human remains that were done so far and we will outline methodological advancements in the field of ancient DNA research that support the reconstruction and authentication of ancient H. pylori genome sequences.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/microbiologia , DNA Antigo/análise , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Múmias , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Genoma Bacteriano , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Estômago/microbiologia , Virulência
11.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0223964, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721774

RESUMO

The ancient catacombs of Egypt harbor millions of well-preserved mummified Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) dating from ~600BC. Although it is known that a very large number of these 'votive' mummies were sacrificed to the Egyptian God Thoth, how the ancient Egyptians obtained millions of these birds for mummification remains unresolved. Ancient Egyptian textual evidences suggest they may have been raised in dedicated large-scale farms. To investigate the most likely method used by the priests to secure birds for mummification, we report the first study of complete mitochondrial genomes of 14 Sacred Ibis mummies interred ~2500 years ago. We analysed and compared the mitogenomic diversity among Sacred Ibis mummies to that found in modern Sacred Ibis populations from throughout Africa. The ancient birds show a high level of genetic variation comparable to that identified in modern African populations, contrary to the suggestion in ancient hieroglyphics (or ancient writings) of centralized industrial scale farming of sacrificial birds. This suggests a sustained short-term taming of the wild migratory Sacred Ibis for the ritual yearly demand.


Assuntos
Aves/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Múmias , África , Criação de Animais Domésticos/história , Animais , Aves/classificação , DNA Antigo , DNA Mitocondrial/sangue , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/história , Antigo Egito , Variação Genética , História Antiga , Filogenia , Religião/história
14.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635425

RESUMO

When the imagination conjures up an image of an Egyptian mummy, it is normally one of a human body wrapped with undyed linen bandages. However, the reality was much more colourful, as shown by the set of red mummy shrouds and textile fragments from Pharaonic Egypt considered in this work. The textiles were subjected to scientific investigation with the main aim of shedding light on the sources of red colour and on the possible reasons for the different levels of colour fading. The red colourants were investigated using various non-invasive and micro-invasive approaches. The results pointed towards the presence of three sources of red colour, which, in increasing order of lightfastness, are safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), madder (Rubia spp.), and red ochre. Micro-morphological observations and elemental analyses also enabled some hypotheses to be formulated regarding the application of these colourants to the textiles. The results not only deepen our knowledge of dyeing technologies in ancient Egypt and shed new light on the function of red shrouds and textiles as part of the funerary practices of Pharaonic Egypt, but are also essential in planning the display and future preservation of these mummies and their associated textiles.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius/química , Corantes/análise , Rubia/química , Têxteis/história , Argila/química , Corantes/classificação , Antigo Egito , História Antiga , Humanos , Múmias , Têxteis/análise
15.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 128(12): 1165-1169, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the context of a joint Mummy Research Project of the National Archaeological Museum, the Hellenic Institute of Egyptology and the Athens Medical Centre, an Egyptian mummy of the mid-Ptolemaic Period was transferred to our hospital and was thoroughly investigated with Computed Tomography. METHODS: The mummy was carefully removed from its coffin and scanned in a 64-detector row computed tomographic scanner. Multiplanar and anthropometric measurements were obtained using advanced software. RESULTS: The mummy appeared to be well-preserved and belonged to a young male adult. Among the findings, the most interesting and uncommon one was the asymmetry of the maxillary sinuses and the orbits. There were no signs of trauma. CONCLUSIONS: Computed Tomography revealed in a non-destructive way a rare, based on the published data, facial deformity in an Egyptian mummy attributed to chronic maxillary atelectasis.


Assuntos
Seio Maxilar , Múmias/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Seios Paranasais/diagnóstico por imagem , Egito , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pol J Pathol ; 70(1): 44-48, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556551

RESUMO

Paleopathology is a science located in a crossroad between history, archaeology, anthropology, and medicine an can offer unique historical knowledge by using techniques of traditional pathology as well as other branches of Medicine, which is especially fruitful when applied to ancient subjects in which soft tissues are preserved: mummies.


Assuntos
Múmias , Paleopatologia
17.
Forensic Sci Int ; 303: 109948, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557717

RESUMO

The general process and pattern of decomposition is well-documented and understood. However, specific environmental conditions may alter this pattern and prematurely terminate the decay process. An example of this is natural mummification - a preservative process characterized by desiccation, brittleness and shrinkage of the skin and body tissues. It is important to understand how, when, and where such variations may occur, and for this reason environmentally-specific studies of decay are required. The aim of the present study was the establish baseline data on soft-tissue decomposition in two terrestrial habitats in the Western Cape. A total of 16 pig carcasses serving as analogues for humans were deployed in these habitats during two successive winters and summers between 2014 and 2016. The rate and pattern of decomposition were assessed via measurement of weight loss over time and scoring the decomposition process using Megyesi et al. (2005) Total Body Score system and study-specific criteria for mummification. Carcasses typically followed the expected pattern of decay with a few exceptions, most notably instances of rapid natural mummification. Natural mummification, as defined by Megyesi et al. (2005), was observed to occur as early as 17 days postmortem, with five carcasses mummifying in less than one month. The timing of natural mummification varies widely, from a few days to several years, averaging around three months in temperate regions. Natural mummification occurring in less than one month is termed precocious mummification and is rarely observed in temperate regions. With only three reports globally, this study's findings are globally significant, highlighting the importance of regionally-specific decomposition studies. Two local forensic cases wherein precocious mummification has been observed are also presented and, considered together with the study's results, a possible mechanism driving this process is proposed.


Assuntos
Múmias , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Clima , Patologia Legal , Modelos Animais , África do Sul , Suínos , Temperatura
18.
Gerontology ; 65(6): 699-706, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505504

RESUMO

The Tyrolean Iceman, commonly known as Ötzi, is the world's oldest glacier mummy and one of the best investigated ancient human remains in the world. Since the discovery of the 5,300-year-old Copper Age individual in 1991, in a glacier in the Eastern Italian Alps, a variety of morphological, biochemical, and molecular analyses have been performed that revealed important insights into his origin, his life habits, and the circumstances surrounding his demise. In more recent research, the mummy was subjected to cutting-edge modern research methodologies currently focusing on high-throughput sequence analysis of ancient biomolecules (DNA, proteins, lipids) that are still preserved in the mummified tissues. This application of innovative "-omics" technologies revealed novel insights on the ancestry, disease predisposition, diet, and the presence of pathogens in the glacier mummy. In this review, the most important and actual results of the molecular studies will be highlighted.


Assuntos
Múmias , Cromossomos Humanos Y , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Dieta , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Genoma Humano , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , História Antiga , Humanos , Camada de Gelo , Ílio/química , Múmias/história , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Estômago/microbiologia , Estômago/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Am Heart J ; 216: 113-116, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422195

RESUMO

Computed tomography has been used previously in mummies to detect arterial calcification, which is a marker of later-stage atherosclerosis. Here, using the novel approach of near-infrared spectroscopy, we detected cholesterol-rich atherosclerotic plaques in arterial samples from ancient mummies. In this proof-of-concept study, we are the first to noninvasively detect these earlier-stage lesions in mummies from different geographical areas, suggesting that atherosclerosis has been present in humans since ancient times.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Colesterol/sangue , Múmias/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aterosclerose/história , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Múmias/história , Placa Aterosclerótica/história , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Artéria Subclávia/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Subclávia/patologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Paleopathol ; 26: 122-134, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop and provide recommendations for computed tomography (CT) examinations of human mummies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on theoretical considerations and examples, recommendations for use are provided for scanning and image reconstruction parameters. Four examples are presented to illustrate the effect of different CT parameters on image quality. RESULTS: The use of appropriate scanning parameters (detector collimation, pitch factor, rotation time) is known to improve image quality; technical considerations favor using lower tube voltage and higher tube current values for the purposes of scanning of human mummies. The use of appropriate image reconstruction parameters (slice thickness, increment, field of view, reconstruction filters) are the basis for individual reconstructions for the purpose of evaluation, documentation, illustration and data storage. CONCLUSIONS: Downsizing the field of view to the region of interest as done in the clinical radiological routine represents one major tool to improve image quality. SIGNIFICANCE: The provided recommendations should improve CT image quality in mummy studies as well as the handling of image data for reconstructions and storage. LIMITATIONS: The recommendations for CT scanning parameters and image reconstructions were written with relatively new generation CT scanners in mind. Only a few examples of use were chosen and image quality assessment was performed subjectively and not by quantitative measurements.


Assuntos
Múmias/diagnóstico por imagem , Paleopatologia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , História Antiga , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos
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