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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230418, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187217

RESUMO

Paleopathological diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) essentially relies on the identification of macroscopic lesions in the skeleton that can be related to different manifestations of TB. Among these alterations, granular impressions (GIs) on the inner skull surface have been considered as pathognomonic features of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). GIs may be established by pressure atrophy of the tubercles formed on the outermost meningeal layer during later stages of TBM. Although GIs were used as diagnostic criteria for TBM in the paleopathological practice since the late 20th century, their diagnostic value has been questioned. To contribute to strengthening the diagnostic value of GIs, a macroscopic investigation-focusing on the macromorphological characteristics and frequency of GIs-was performed on skeletons of known cause of death from the Terry Collection. The χ2 analysis of our data revealed that GIs were significantly more common in individuals who died of TB than in individuals who died of non-TB causes. Furthermore, GIs were localized on the inner surface of the skull base and of the lower lateral skull vault. The localization pattern and distribution of GIs on the endocranial surface resemble that of the tubercles observed in the affected meninges during the pathogenesis of TBM. Our results strengthen the tuberculous origin of GIs and imply that they can be considered as specific signs of TBM. Therefore, GIs can be used as diagnostic criteria for TBM in the paleopathological practice, and the diagnosis of TBM can be established with a high certainty when GIs are present in ancient human bone remains.


Assuntos
Paleopatologia/métodos , Tuberculose Meníngea/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Esqueleto/microbiologia , Base do Crânio/microbiologia
2.
J Parasitol ; 105(5): 755-759, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599696

RESUMO

Pathoecology studies the environmental and cultural factors that contribute to the maintenance of infections or diseases in populations. Concerning parasites, it requires the evaluation of these factors based on the presence and life cycle of these organisms. For this reason, it is possible to apply this concept in the context of ancient populations in order to understand the parasite-host dynamic or even the health consequences faced by the members of the populations. This study aimed to apply the pathoecology concept in Pedra do Tubarão and Cemitério do Caboclo archaeological sites. Six coprolite samples were analyzed and 1 was positive for Spirometra sp. eggs. Spirometra is a cestode that has copepods as the first intermediate host; amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals as the second intermediate hosts; and felines and canines as definitive hosts. Humans can be infected by ingesting the first or second intermediate hosts and can develop sparganosis, which can cause health consequences depending on the location of the spargana. The presence of this parasite, of a water fount near the site, where the first intermediate host can live, and the findings of the bones of some of the second intermediate hosts in these sites, suggesting dietary purposes, indicate that this infection was probably present in this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cestoides/história , Paleopatologia , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/história , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , História Antiga , Humanos
3.
Homo ; 70(1): 57-62, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475288

RESUMO

Despite the high mortality that have been associated with pregnancy and childbirth in past populations, few cases of the remains of pregnant women burials are described in the bioarchaeological reports. This paper is focused on the case of a double inhumation found in the Medieval Muslim Necropolis (11th to 15th centuries) of Sahl ben Malik in Granada (Spain). A complete skeleton of a woman and the skeletal remains of a full-term fetus located under the mother's left femur, were discovered in this burial. None of the evidence for the mother was decisive in determining the cause of death. However, evidence of physiological stress in the woman and possible gynecological complications may have contributed to the death of both individuals. The link between the individuals and their cause of death is examined, discussed and compared with similar archaeological records.


Assuntos
Sepultamento/história , Islamismo/história , Morte Materna/história , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Morte Fetal , Feto/anatomia & histologia , História Medieval , Humanos , Paleopatologia , Gravidez , Espanha
4.
Homo ; 70(1): 45-56, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475291

RESUMO

In the pre-Hispanic necropolis of Juan Primo, northwest Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) a grave was found containing a 20-25 year-old woman with a foetus in her abdominal region, whose age at death was estimated at 33-35 weeks of gestation. The purpose of this study is to discuss the possible cause of death of the woman and foetus. Skeletons of both individuals were well preserved, permitting a good record of the bones found in the burial, which is compatible with a pregnancy at preterm. The age of the foetus and the position of the left upper limb raise the possibility that their death was the result of a difficult birth (dystocia). However, a number of alternative disorders can be put forward to explain this death in the third trimester of pregnancy, such as eclampsia and abruption placentae. In this case, pertinent ethnohistorical and osteoarchaeological information about the ancient canaries allows us to assess some of the stressors that would increase their maternal mortality. The lack of similar evidence in archaeological contexts makes this an important finding, providing a likely case of obstetric problems and their impact on pre-industrial societies.


Assuntos
Morte Fetal , Morte Materna , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Sepultamento/história , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Paleopatologia , Gravidez , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pol J Pathol ; 70(1): 44-48, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556551

RESUMO

Paleopathology is a science located in a crossroad between history, archaeology, anthropology, and medicine an can offer unique historical knowledge by using techniques of traditional pathology as well as other branches of Medicine, which is especially fruitful when applied to ancient subjects in which soft tissues are preserved: mummies.


Assuntos
Múmias , Paleopatologia
6.
Homo ; 70(2): 105-118, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486822

RESUMO

Orosháza site no. 10 (Southeast Hungary) contains the partially excavated archaeological remains of an 11-13th century CE Muslim merchant village and its cemetery located in close proximity to Christian villages of the same era. The skeleton of a young woman (grave no. 16) from the last phase of the cemetery use was identified with rhinomaxillary lesions associated with lepromatous leprosy. The right parietal bone also exhibited signs of cranial trauma, possibly caused by symbolic trepanation, a well-known ritual practice in the 9-11th century CE Carpathian Basin. The retrospective diagnosis of the disease was supported by ancient DNA analysis, as the samples were positive for Mycobacterium leprae aDNA, shown to be of genotype 3. Contrary to the general practice of the era, the body of the young female with severe signs of leprosy was interred among the regular graves of the Muslim cemetery in Orosháza, which may reflect the unique cultural background of the community.


Assuntos
Cemitérios/história , Islamismo/história , Hanseníase/história , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/microbiologia , Osso e Ossos/patologia , DNA Antigo/análise , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , História Medieval , Humanos , Hungria , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Paleopatologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Paleopathol ; 26: 84-92, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349131

RESUMO

We carried out a differential diagnosis of a large frontoparietal lesion on a human skull from a Late Bronze Age archaeological site located on the Central Plain of China, dating to between 771 and 476 BC. The head of this individual was covered in cinnabar, a mercury-based pigment that later was used for medicinal purposes in China. The lesion was well-circumscribed and involved the outer and inner tables of the skull, slight diploë thickening, and coarsening of bone trabeculae with expansion of intertrabecular spaces. We show that the observed changes are most consistent with cavernous hemangioma of the skull, a benign vascular malformation that preferentially affects older adults. Hemangiomas are often neglected in the paleopathological literature because of their benign nature - they tend to be asymptomatic and do not affect quality of life to a significant degree. Nevertheless, they produce characteristic lesions that can be confused with several other conditions with unrelated etiologies, including congenital hemoglabinopathies, traumas, malignant or benign neoplasms, and Paget's disease. We outline the diagnostic criteria that distinguish cavernous hemangioma from other conditions affecting the skull.


Assuntos
Hemangioma Cavernoso do Sistema Nervoso Central/história , Meningioma/história , Paleopatologia , Crânio/patologia , China , Fósseis/patologia , Hemangioma Cavernoso do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Hemangioma Cavernoso do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Meningioma/diagnóstico , Meningioma/patologia , Compostos de Mercúrio/história , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Múmias/patologia
8.
Int J Paleopathol ; 26: 122-134, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop and provide recommendations for computed tomography (CT) examinations of human mummies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on theoretical considerations and examples, recommendations for use are provided for scanning and image reconstruction parameters. Four examples are presented to illustrate the effect of different CT parameters on image quality. RESULTS: The use of appropriate scanning parameters (detector collimation, pitch factor, rotation time) is known to improve image quality; technical considerations favor using lower tube voltage and higher tube current values for the purposes of scanning of human mummies. The use of appropriate image reconstruction parameters (slice thickness, increment, field of view, reconstruction filters) are the basis for individual reconstructions for the purpose of evaluation, documentation, illustration and data storage. CONCLUSIONS: Downsizing the field of view to the region of interest as done in the clinical radiological routine represents one major tool to improve image quality. SIGNIFICANCE: The provided recommendations should improve CT image quality in mummy studies as well as the handling of image data for reconstructions and storage. LIMITATIONS: The recommendations for CT scanning parameters and image reconstructions were written with relatively new generation CT scanners in mind. Only a few examples of use were chosen and image quality assessment was performed subjectively and not by quantitative measurements.


Assuntos
Múmias/diagnóstico por imagem , Paleopatologia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , História Antiga , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos
10.
Int J Paleopathol ; 26: 93-103, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To document sacral spina bifida occulta (SSB0) prevalence in a population sample from the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt, and address methodological issues in recording and quantifying SSBO variations. MATERIALS: 442 adult sacra from two temporally disjunct samples from the same deme traversing the 3rd intermediate (TIP) and the Roman Periods. METHODS: Sacra were scored for SSBO, excluding the sacral hiatus. Risk of SSBO was calculated with the common odds ratio and statistical significance by X2. Data were compared to other archaeological SSBO data. RESULTS: SSBO was present in 15.6% of the sample with a slight, but not significant, temporal increase (TIP to Roman Period) in males, and a significant age-correlated increase in both sexes. Most open sacra occurred in young adults. CONCLUSIONS: Data support that SSBO can be considered as a morphogenetic variant. Dakhleh data fall within the prevalence range for most populations, however inter-population comparisons are complicated by methodological inconsistencies. SIGNIFICANCE: SSBO can be used in paleogenetic research. LIMITATIONS: Methodological differences in scoring SSBO prevent effective comparative study. SUGGESTED FUTURE RESEARCH: Future studies require more rigorous and standardized scoring methods. aDNA may be used to corroborate the morphogenetic value of SSBO and determine its clinical significance.


Assuntos
Paleopatologia , Espinha Bífida Oculta/epidemiologia , Espinha Bífida Oculta/história , Adulto , Egito , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Região Sacrococcígea , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Paleopathol ; 26: 8-13, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to discuss the differential diagnosis for the pathological alterations displayed on an infant skeleton from Romania. MATERIALS: One infant skeleton retrieved form the bathhouse of an abandoned Roman fort and dated between the 2nd and the 4th centuries AD. METHODS: All available skeletal elements were analyzed macroscopically. In addition, the isotopic signatures (δ13C and δ15N) and the control region of the human mitochondrial genome for this archaeological sample were analyzed. RESULTS: Based on dental development and long bone length, the skeleton was aged between birth and 2 months of age. Pathological lesions were noted on the mandible and diaphyses of long bones, but spared the metaphyses. CONCLUSIONS: The perinatal age of the individual, along with lesion morphology and location, suggests a diagnosis of infantile cortical hyperostosis. LIMITATIONS: The analysis would benefit from further stable isotope and mitochondrial genome analyses, which was limited due to the absence of comparative human and faunal remains from the site. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Further multidisciplinary research on human archaeological remains from Romania would provide a clearer image of past disease and life histories in this geographic area.


Assuntos
Hiperostose Cortical Congênita/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Paleopatologia/métodos , Romênia
12.
Int J Paleopathol ; 26: 14-21, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Re-evaluate the pathological lesions found on a gomphothere recovered from Quebrada Quereo (Late Pleistocene), Coquimbo region, Chile (31º55'41" S, 71º34'43" W, 20 masl). MATERIALS: 227 axial and appendicular specimens from a young adult male individual (SGO.PV.267). METHODS: Macroscopic and radiographic analysis. RESULTS: Pathological conditions identified included asymmetries of a cervical vertebra and of thoracic vertebra 16, degenerative joint disease in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, possible evidence of neoplastic lesions within the bodies of three thoracic vertebrae (possibly hemangiomas), and fusion at thoracic vertebrae 15 and 16, suggesting the presence of spondyloarthropathy. CONCLUSIONS: The original diagnosis of traumatic lesions on this specimen is unsupported. The re-evaluation identified the presence of developmental defects, degenerative joint disease, possible neoplastic lesions, and spondyloartropathy. SIGNIFICANCE: The present analysis adds data to the sparse paleopathological record of South American gomphotheres. LIMITATIONS: Taphonomic alteration of some skeletal elements, as well as the presence of an incomplete individual, limits the ability to determine the etiology of some of the lesions identified. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Researchers are encouraged to re-examine specimens curated in museums in order to identify pathological conditions that might have been overlooked or might benefit from re-evaluation.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/história , Doenças Ósseas/veterinária , Mamífero Proboscídeo , Animais , Chile , História Antiga , Paleopatologia
13.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 116: 35-36, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153516

RESUMO

The authors present a case of a probable Pott disease from central/southern Mexico, dated 300 BC to 500 AD. This case highlights the importance of iconotopsy/iconodiagnosis for a better description of the natural history of diseases, especially as a complement to morphological analyses of human remains (paleopathology) and laboratory exams (DNA or immunology testing).


Assuntos
Paleopatologia , Postura , Escultura/história , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/história , História Antiga , Humanos , México , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/microbiologia , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia
14.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 170(1): 116-130, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Intersectionality theory argues that various categories of identity and forms of systemic oppression interact and produce inequalities in resource access, economic opportunities, and health outcomes. However, there has been little explicit engagement with this theory by bioarchaeologists examining disparate health outcomes in the past. This study examines the associations among frailty, age at death, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES) in 18th- and 19th-century England. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample for this study comes from four industrial-era cemeteries from England, ca. 1711-1857. The associations among adult age (18+ years), SES, sex, and three skeletal indicators of stress (dental enamel hypoplasia [DEH, n = 293], cribra orbitalia [CO, n = 457], periosteal lesions [PNB, n = 436]) are examined using hierarchical log-linear analysis. RESULTS: Significant interactions existed among the variables examined for two skeletal indicators: high SES females had lower frequencies of CO relative to other groups and males between ages 30-45 years exhibited higher frequencies of PNB compared to females or males of older or younger ages, regardless of SES. Additionally, sex and SES were consistently associated with age at death. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that patterns of stress indicators cannot be examined solely across unilateral axes of age, SES, or sex. Intersecting axes of privilege, marginalization, and structural oppression may have buffered high SES females from some negative health outcomes (CO) while predisposing them to others (risk of maternal mortality). Likewise, the hazardous working conditions relegated to adult males may have heightened the risk of injury, infection, and death for middle-aged men in industrial-era England.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Desenvolvimento Industrial/história , Paleopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto , Idoso , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/patologia , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Inglaterra/etnologia , Feminino , Fragilidade/etnologia , Fragilidade/história , Fragilidade/patologia , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Dente/patologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Paleopathol ; 26: 27-36, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate processes causing two types of mastoid hypocellularity (Type 1 and Type 3), and to provide histomorphological criteria for a differential diagnosis in archaeological human bone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight human crania from the early medieval cemetery in Dirmstein (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany) displaying secondary obliteration of mastoid air cells were analyzed using light-microscopy and backscattered electron imaging. RESULTS: In Type 1 hypocellularity, obliteration starts in the non-pneumatized portion of the mastoid process and extends into the pneumatized portion. The findings could represent a chronic, maybe recurrent condition related to a pathologically altered middle ear mucosa in early childhood. In Type 3, a sequence of resorptive and proliferative processes are present and are consistent with a healing stage of mastoiditis. CONCLUSIONS: Using histomorphology, in vivo processes resulting in different types of mastoid hypocellularity can be assessed, even in bones that have undergone some degree of diagenesis. SIGNIFICANCE: The study provides methods to evaluate the etiology of histomorphological changes of the mastoid process, which potentially provides insight into the presence of infection and inflammation in past populations. LIMITATIONS: Diagenetic modifications of archaeological bone can hinder assessment of histomorphological change, requiring careful evaluation during analysis. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Including histomorphology in future studies on archaeological human crania can contribute to an improved differential diagnosis of pathological conditions in the middle ear region.


Assuntos
Processo Mastoide/patologia , Mastoidite/história , Mastoidite/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Alemanha , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paleopatologia
16.
Int J Paleopathol ; 26: 37-47, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective is to re-visit the tuberculosis and leprosy cross-immunity. hypothesis through the careful integration of immunology and paleopathology. METHODS: Using an integrated theoretical analysis that evaluates clinical literature on human innate immunological responses, paleomicrobiology, bioarchaeology, and paleopathology, we develop a multifactorial model. RESULTS: Past populations do not represent homogeneous immunological landscapes, and therefore it is likely that leprosy in Medieval Europe did not uniformly decline due to cross-immunity. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that bioarchaeological reconstructions of past disease experience take into consideration models that include variation in immune function based on past environments and social contexts. This provides a unique opportunity to conduct comprehensive analyses on complex immunological processes. SIGNIFICANCE: Extrapolating results from experimental immunology to larger populations elucidates complexities of disease cross-immunity and highlights the importance of synthesizing archaeological, social, paleopathological and biological data as a means of understanding disease in the past. LIMITATIONS: All extrapolations from data produced from in vitro studies to past populations, using living donors, pose significant limitations where, among other factors, the full reconstruction of past environmental and social contexts can frequently be sparse or incomplete. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: To reduce the limitations of integrating experimental immunology with bioarchaeological reconstructions (i.e. how to use skeletal samples to reconstruct inflammatory phenotypes), we propose that osteoimmunology, or the study of the interplay between immune cells and bone cells, should be considered a vital discipline and perhaps the foundation for the expansion of paleoimmunology.


Assuntos
Alergia e Imunologia , Hanseníase/imunologia , Modelos Imunológicos , Paleopatologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Arqueologia , Reações Cruzadas , História Medieval , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Tuberculose/história
17.
Int J Paleopathol ; 26: 61-74, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252199

RESUMO

Endocranial lesions were recognized on eight out of the 31 juveniles (25.8%) that were recovered from three Neolithic archaeological sites in Henan province. The remains of juveniles were recovered from urn burials at the Jiazhuang site (2200-2030 BCE) and graves at the Pingliangtai (2300-2100 BCE) and Haojiatai sites (2448-1700 BCE). The presence of endocranial lesions on all eight of these juvenile skulls was associated with a range of lesions on other bones, including areas of abnormal porosity and subperiosteal new bone deposition on either the sphenoid, maxilla, mandibular ramus, or orbit, as well as subperiosteal lesions on the postcranial bones. Several plausible explanations for the formation of these endocranial lesions in our eight cases include scurvy, shaken baby syndrome, and intrathoracic disease (such as tuberculosis or pulmonary infection). We show that the presence of endocranial lesions had a strong correspondence with skeletal markers of dietary deficiency, i.e. scurvy, and in one case, anemia. Millet was a key component of the Longshan subsistence in the area, while paleobotanical evidence of fruit and leafy vegetables appears to be limited, likely resulting in a nutrient deficient diet. The coupling of endocranial lesions with skeletal signs of dietary deficiency can be direct, as scurvy favors hemorrhaging, or mediated by physiological or sociocultural factors, and thereby represents comorbidity.


Assuntos
Fósseis/patologia , Paleopatologia , Crânio/patologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Humanos , Lactente
18.
Int J Paleopathol ; 26: 48-60, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To carefully assess skeletal lesions in close environment context in order to evaluate whether skeletal fluorosis was present in individuals living in the prehistoric Midwest, USA. MATERIALS: Skeletal remains from minimally 117 individuals recovered from the Ray Site, located in western Illinois (USA) and dated to the Middle/early Late Woodland periods (50 BC-AD 400). METHODS: Macroscopic evaluation of all recovered skeletal elements. RESULTS: Eight individuals display a constellation of abnormal bony changes, including osteosclerosis, a high frequency of fractures, and dental abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: The osteosclerotic changes along with the naturally high fluoride content of west central Illinois soil and water suggests the presence of skeletal fluorosis. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of skeletal fluorosis from archaeologically recovered human remains from North America. LIMITATIONS: The ambiguous nature of the skeletal changes associated with fluorosis, especially in the less severe stages of the disease, renders determination of the etiology difficult. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: The continuation of paleopathological investigations of fluoride toxicity within archaeological communities recovered from this region with emphasis on the incorporation of biomedical and environmental data. Furthermore, complementary analyses of the chemical composition and the histological presentation of the skeletons could provide support for this diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/etiologia , Doenças Ósseas/história , Exposição Ambiental/história , Intoxicação por Flúor/história , Doenças Ósseas/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Intoxicação por Flúor/patologia , Fluorose Dentária/história , Fluorose Dentária/patologia , História Antiga , Humanos , Illinois , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paleopatologia
19.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 57(1): 36-41, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071253

RESUMO

Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a childhood orthopedic pathology that affects the development of the hip. It is a rare disease with a huge variation in annual incidence. It occurs approximately five times more often in boys than in girls. The objective of this article was to formulate a hypothesis about the possible origin of LCPD, from the paleopathological findings of this disease reported until 2017, and to highlight the importance of anthropology, history, paleontology and paleopathology to the study of the origins of disease. By using eight web-based search engines, we performed a review of articles focused on the history, genetics and paleopathological findings of LCPD; we evaluated in total 133 articles published between 1910 and 2017. Out of these, 20 articles belonging to the same publication period were included in this analysis. LCPD was described for the first time approximately 100 years ago and without knowing it was a new disease. In the last years, human remains have been found in which LCPD has been identified, providing relevant information about the origin of this pathology. These data and their historical context can be a basis to propose the Asian continent as the site of origin of LCPD; however, new anthropological, genetic and paleopathological studies are needed to reinforce or refute this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Doença de Legg-Calve-Perthes/história , América , Antropologia Médica , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Doença de Legg-Calve-Perthes/genética , Doença de Legg-Calve-Perthes/patologia , Paleopatologia
20.
Ann Hum Biol ; 46(2): 120-128, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137975

RESUMO

Context: Tuberculosis and leprosy are readily recognised in human remains due to their typical palaeopathology. Both Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and Mycobacterium leprae (ML) are obligate pathogens and have been detected in ancient human populations. Objective: To demonstrate historical tuberculosis and leprosy cases in Europe and beyond using molecular methods, as human populations are associated with different mycobacterial genotypes. Methods: MTB and ML ancient DNA (aDNA) has been detected by DNA amplification using PCR, or by whole genome sequencing. Mycobacterial cell wall lipids also provide specific markers for identification. Results: In 18th century Hungary, the European indigenous MTB genotype 4 strains have been found. However, many individuals were co-infected with up to three MTB sub-genotypes. In 8th-14th century Europe significant differences in ML genotypes were found between northwest Europe compared with central, southern, or eastern Europe. In addition, several co-infections of MTB and ML were detected in historical samples. Conclusion: Both MTB and ML strain types differ between geographically separate populations. This is associated with ancient human migration after an evolutionary bottleneck and clonal expansion. The absence of indigenous leprosy in Europe today may be due to the greater mortality of tuberculosis in individuals who are co-infected with both organisms.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo/análise , Migração Humana/história , Hanseníase/história , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/história , Europa (Continente) , Genótipo , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História Medieval , Humanos , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Paleopatologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
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