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2.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 214(4): 727-735, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. As health care moves into a new era of increasing information vulnerability, radiologists should understand that they may be using systems that are exposed to altered data or data that contain malicious elements. This article explains the vulnerabilities of DICOM images and discusses requirements to properly secure these images from cyberattacks. CONCLUSION. There is an important need to properly secure DICOM images from attacks and tampering. The solutions described in this article will go a long way to achieving this goal.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia , Roubo , Confidencialidade , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação
3.
Health Care Manag (Frederick) ; 38(4): 331-342, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663872

RESUMO

Corporate espionage is a multifaceted problem causing hundreds of billions of dollars in losses to businesses each year. Health care managers have a wide variety of options available to prevent theft of their organizations' trade secrets and other proprietary information. Organizations should protect their confidential and trade secret information by taking various security measures to limit access to protected material and by using appropriate types of restrictive covenants such as nondisclosure, noncompetition, and nonsolicitation agreements. This article provides helpful guidance for managers to maximize protection against theft of proprietary information.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Propriedade Intelectual , Roubo/legislação & jurisprudência , Roubo/prevenção & controle , Humanos
4.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(3): 301-303, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513766

RESUMO

Because Drosophila larvae do not possess intestinal stem cells, it is unknown how damaged gut cells are replenished. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Houtz et al. (2019) show that larvae have a unique gut repair mechanism that involves borrowing stem cells originally reserved for adult gut formation.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Roubo , Animais , Intestinos , Larva , Células-Tronco
5.
Health Policy Plan ; 34(7): 529-543, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377775

RESUMO

West African countries are ranked especially low in global corruption perception indexes. The health sector is often singled out for particular concern given the role of corruption in hampering access to, and utilization of health services, representing a major barrier to progress to universal health coverage and to achieving the health-related Sustainable Development Goals. The first step in tackling corruption systematically is to understand its scale and nature. We present a systematic review of literature that explores corruption involving front-line healthcare providers, their managers and other stakeholders in health sectors in the five Anglophone West African (AWA) countries: Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone, identifying motivators and drivers of corrupt practices and interventions that have been adopted or proposed. Boolean operators were adopted to optimize search outputs and identify relevant studies. Both grey and published literature were identified from Research Gate, Yahoo, Google Scholar, Google and PubMed, and reviewed and synthesized around key domains, with 61 publications meeting our inclusion criteria. The top five most prevalent/frequently reported corrupt practices were (1) absenteeism; (2) diversion of patients to private facilities; (3) inappropriate procurement; (4) informal payments; and (5) theft of drugs and supplies. Incentives for corrupt practices and other manifestations of corruption in the AWA health sector were also highlighted, while poor working conditions and low wages fuel malpractice. Primary research on anti-corruption strategies in health sectors in AWA remains scarce, with recommendations to curb corrupt practices often drawn from personal views and experience rather that of rigorous studies. We argue that a nuanced understanding of all types of corruption and their impacts is an important precondition to designing viable contextually appropriate anti-corruption strategies. It is a particular challenge to identify and tackle corruption in settings where formal rules are fluid or insufficiently enforced.


Assuntos
Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Absenteísmo , África Ocidental , Fraude/economia , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/economia , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/ética , Pessoal de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Roubo/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Science ; 365(6448): 70-73, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221770

RESUMO

Civic honesty is essential to social capital and economic development but is often in conflict with material self-interest. We examine the trade-off between honesty and self-interest using field experiments in 355 cities spanning 40 countries around the globe. In these experiments, we turned in more than 17,000 lost wallets containing varying amounts of money at public and private institutions and measured whether recipients contacted the owners to return the wallets. In virtually all countries, citizens were more likely to return wallets that contained more money. Neither nonexperts nor professional economists were able to predict this result. Additional data suggest that our main findings can be explained by a combination of altruistic concerns and an aversion to viewing oneself as a thief, both of which increase with the material benefits of dishonesty.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Roubo/psicologia , Humanos
9.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 63(13): 2338-2355, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043101

RESUMO

Despite the damaging effects of shoplifting on individuals, the current literature offers little guidance for changing shoplifting behavior. One limitation in this area of research has been the failure to use empirically and theoretically sound methodologies to identify individuals' diverse characteristics and motivations. The present study addressed these limitations by developing an empirically and theoretically supported typology of the varied individuals who shoplift. Participants included 202 community individuals who reported repeated shoplifting and provided information about their shoplifting behavior, motivations, mental health, ethical attitudes, personal histories, and life circumstances. Cluster analyses revealed that the sample could be divided into six discrete groups. These clusters comprise a typology of shoplifting, including Loss-Reactive (28% of the sample), Impulsive (20%), Depressed (18%), Hobbyist (18%), Addictive-Compulsive (9%), and Economically Disadvantaged (7%) types. Each type comprises a unique pattern of shoplifting with unique needs. This research establishes a promising foundation for treating the diverse individuals who shoplift.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/classificação , Comportamento Impulsivo/classificação , Autoimagem , Roubo/classificação , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/psicologia , Roubo/psicologia
10.
Australas Emerg Care ; 22(2): 92-96, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the nature and extent of misappropriation of medications and equipment from the ED. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective audit of medications procured and administered, and equipment replaced, in 2016, within a tertiary referral ED. Medication procurement and administration data were obtained from our MERLIN® pharmacy system and CERNER® electronic prescribing system, respectively. A medication 'discrepancy rate' was defined as the percentage of a medication procured that could not be accounted for by electronic administrations. The study also comprised a nested intervention sub-study where, from July 1, 2016, all Panadeine Forte tablets were stored in a locked facility. Victorian Hospital Healthcare Equipment invoices were audited to determine which major non-disposable equipment items most commonly needed resupply. RESULTS: Discrepancy rates for paracetamol 500mg and 665mg tablets were 23.3% and 54.9%, respectively. Following the Panadeine Forte intervention, the discrepancy rate for this medication fell from 70.5% to 8.8%. Orally administered medications with the potential for misappropriation had high discrepancy rates: caffeine (90.6%), cephalexin (62.9%), ondansetron (50.1%), pantoprazole (42.9%), amoxicillin (41.1%), metoclopramide (41.0%) and the 'morning after pill' (levonorgestrel) (36.4%). Parenterally administered medications had lower discrepancy rates: ceftriaxone (7.9%) and ampicillin (3.4%). The largest equipment replacement rates were for tourniquets and crutches. CONCLUSION: Discrepancy rates for many medications, especially those administered orally, are high. Further research is required to determine how these medications 'go missing'. Placing a medication with a high discrepancy rate in a locked facility with a 'logbook' substantially reduces this rate. Misappropriation of non-disposable equipment items is uncommon.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões/provisão & distribução , Roubo/estatística & dados numéricos , Documentação/normas , Documentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamentos e Provisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Auditoria Administrativa/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Estudos Retrospectivos , Texas
12.
Psychogeriatrics ; 19(6): 605-608, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883996

RESUMO

We experienced a case involving a 67-year-old man with Alzheimer's disease who exhibited criminal behaviour. Although his behaviour improved after admission to a long-term care facility, he was not able to return to his home because he was suspected of theft. At 62 years of age, he developed slowly progressive memory loss and had difficulty managing money. He was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and began taking galantamine. He was placed in police custody after he had tried to take another person's fuel tank early one morning. However, he was not charged with theft because he did not remember his actions. Because it was difficult for his sister to constantly monitor him, he was admitted to a long-term care facility. He displayed high emotional insecurity and continually asked when he could return home. His physical function was good, enabling him to perform various activities alone, but he experienced the delusion of theft during these activities. He appealed the decision prohibiting him from going home. However, the staff suggested that he would exhibit problematic behaviours at home, and it was decided that he should not live at home. After living at the long-term care facility for 3 years, he died of acute cardiac infarction. When a person goes to jail for committing a crime, that person can return to society after completing a jail term. That was not the case with this man with Alzheimer's disease. As such, guidelines and standards to evaluate the criminal responsibility of dementia patients need to be established.


Assuntos
Crime , Delusões/psicologia , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/psicologia , Roubo/psicologia , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Science ; 363(6430): 914-915, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819943
15.
Burns ; 45(4): 905-913, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808527

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oil tanker truck disasters have been reported worldwide; however, the circumstances, causes, and health effects of these disasters have not been described. To address this gap, we performed a systematic review using PRISMA criteria to better understand this public health problem and identify prevention targets. METHODS: The academic and lay literatures were systematically searched for terms related to oil tanker truck disasters. Reports about civilian oil tanker truck disasters that occurred from 1997-2017 were included. Details about the disasters were summarized, including circumstances, identifiable causes, and health effects. RESULTS: The search yielded 4713 Nexis Uni articles, 199 Google results, and one PubMed article; 951 records met inclusion criteria, describing 224 oil tanker truck explosions or fires. At least 2909 people died as a result of these disasters, and 3038 additional people were hospitalized. Almost all deaths (94%) occurred in low- and low-middle-income countries (LMIC). This may largely be due to scooping - the practice of collecting spilled oil from disabled tanker trucks for use or resale. Using the Haddon matrix, potential targets for future disaster prevention were identified. CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight the circumstances, causes, and health burden related to oil tanker truck disasters. Most began as collisions or rollovers, but nearly half of the fatalities involved scooping. The findings suggest opportunities to promote road safety, improve scene safety and security protocols used by drivers and first responders, and promote public understanding of the dangers of scooping to prevent mass casualty disasters from disabled tanker trucks, particularly in LMIC.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/prevenção & controle , Explosões/prevenção & controle , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/prevenção & controle , Veículos Automotores , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Acidentes de Trânsito , Humanos , Poluição por Petróleo , Roubo
17.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 25(1): 293-321, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905258

RESUMO

Authors endure considerable hardship carrying out biomedical research, from generating ideas to completing their manuscripts and submitting their findings and data (as is increasingly required) to a journal. When researchers submit to journals, they entrust their findings and ideas to editors and peer reviewers who are expected to respect the confidentiality of peer review. Inherent trust in peer review is built on the ethical conduct of authors, editors and reviewers, and on the respect of this confidentiality. If such confidentiality is breached by unethical reviewers who might steal or plagiarize the authors' ideas, researchers will lose trust in peer review and may resist submitting their findings to that journal. Science loses as a result, scientific and medical advances slow down, knowledge may become scarce, and it is unlikely that increasing bias in the literature will be detected or eliminated. In such a climate, society will ultimately be deprived from scientific and medical advances. Despite a rise in documented cases of abused peer review, there is still a relative lack of qualitative and quantitative studies on reviewer-related misconduct, most likely because evidence is difficult to come by. Our paper presents an assessment of editors' and reviewers' responsibilities in preserving the confidentiality of manuscripts during the peer review process, in response to a 2016 case of intellectual property theft by a reviewer. Our main objectives are to propose additional measures that would offer protection of authors' intellectual ideas from predatory reviewers, and increase researchers' awareness of the responsible reviewing of journal articles and reporting of biomedical research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Confidencialidade , Políticas Editoriais , Propriedade Intelectual , Obrigações Morais , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares/ética , Má Conduta Científica , Autoria , Viés , Ética em Pesquisa , Humanos , Manuscritos como Assunto , Propriedade , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares/legislação & jurisprudência , Editoração/ética , Roubo
18.
Phytomedicine ; 53: 308-312, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since over thirty years, I work on the unclear legal situation of in which indigenous peoples find themselves today in the beginning mainly in the USA and later also in Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The status of indigenous people and native nations is characterized as a mixture of national and international law. Hypothesis/Purpose: To clarify the status of indigenous people it is necessary to analyze and interpret carefully hundreds of old treaties, international declarations and covenants, national statutes and jurisprudence, especially the old leading decisions of the US-Supreme Court. Such an analysis and interpretation should prove that indigenous people have the defensive right of self determination. RESULTS: The study outlines the old decisions of the US-Supreme Court with its inherent contradictions which highly influenced the status of indigenous people in all other countries until now. It clarifies the important new developments in international law especially the non binding Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and its effects on the interpretation of international and national law in regard to biopiracy. For this purpose it is necessary to use the methods of judgmental comparative law, historical and teleological interpretation. CONCLUSION: By expressly stating that indigenous peoples have a right to self-determination, the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples of 2007 complements the protection stipulated in the Charter and the Covenants of 1966. Although the declaration itself is not legally binding as it is a resolution of the UN General Assembly, it can serve as a blueprint to show the rights that indigenous peoples can derive from international law as well as rights which should ideally be granted to them by the states even though they are not yet binding customary or treaty law. Self-determination means exactly that, it is up to the bearers of the right to decide how they want to utilize this right and then work together with the state in which they live in defining a joint framework.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Autonomia Pessoal , Grupos Populacionais , Roubo , Austrália , Canadá , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Nova Zelândia , Grupos Populacionais/legislação & jurisprudência , Nações Unidas , Estados Unidos
19.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(2): 721-728, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30229359

RESUMO

Challenging behaviors involving food are common for individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and often lead to obesity and other chronic health conditions. Efforts to decrease these behaviors, such as isolation during meals and strict monitoring of food consumption, can be stigmatizing. To decrease the food stealing of a 7 year-old girl with PWS, therapists conducted a latency-based functional analysis in a clinic setting before implementing a function-based intervention to facilitate her inclusion at the family dinner table. Intervention components entailed differential reinforcement procedures which incorporated a token board and schedule thinning. The intervention successfully generalized to the home setting and across food preferences and implementers.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/reabilitação , Reforço Psicológico , Roubo/prevenção & controle , Criança , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/psicologia , Roubo/psicologia
20.
Phytomedicine ; 53: 319-331, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Practices of biopiracy to use genetic resources and indigenous knowledge by Western companies without benefit-sharing of those, who generated the traditional knowledge, can be understood as form of neocolonialism. HYPOTHESIS: The One-World Medicine concept attempts to merge the best of traditional medicine from developing countries and conventional Western medicine for the sake of patients around the globe. STUDY DESIGN: Based on literature searches in several databases, a concept paper has been written. Legislative initiatives of the United Nations culminated in the Nagoya protocol aim to protect traditional knowledge and regulate benefit-sharing with indigenous communities. The European community adopted the Nagoya protocol, and the corresponding regulations will be implemented into national legislation among the member states. Despite pleasing progress, infrastructural problems of the health care systems in developing countries still remain. Current approaches to secure primary health care offer only fragmentary solutions at best. Conventional medicine from industrialized countries cannot be afforded by the impoverished population in the Third World. Confronted with exploding costs, even health systems in Western countries are endangered to burst. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is popular among the general public in industrialized countries, although the efficacy is not sufficiently proven according to the standards of evidence-based medicine. CAM is often available without prescription as over-the-counter products with non-calculated risks concerning erroneous self-medication and safety/toxicity issues. The concept of integrative medicine attempts to combine holistic CAM approaches with evidence-based principles of conventional medicine. CONCLUSION: To realize the concept of One-World Medicine, a number of standards have to be set to assure safety, efficacy and applicability of traditional medicine, e.g. sustainable production and quality control of herbal products, performance of placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trials, phytovigilance, as well as education of health professionals and patients.


Assuntos
Cooperação Internacional , Medicina Tradicional , Plantas Medicinais , Roubo , Biodiversidade , Colonialismo , Terapias Complementares , Países em Desenvolvimento , Método Duplo-Cego , União Europeia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/normas , Naturopatia , Patentes como Assunto , Controle de Qualidade , Automedicação
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