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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2019 coronavirus disease epidemic (Covid-19) is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to the labor market. The pandemic has a devastating and disproportionate effect on young workers, their interest in entrepreneurship, and their mental health. Research is needed to develop evidence-based strategies to improve coping and reduce adverse psychological problems. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact that Covid-19 pandemic perception and psychological need satisfaction have on university students and their self-employment intention. In addition, we also analyzed the role of moderation played by psychological aspects. These psychological factors (i.e., Optimism and Proactiveness) can also improve young people's mental health and well-being. METHODS: An explorative study (online survey) was conducted in March 2020 934 university students from Latin America. Regression analysis models were built to examine the relationships between Covid-19 pandemic perception, personality variables, and entrepreneurial intention. Mediation models, through the bootstrapping method, were performed to analyze the mediating role of proactiveness and optimism. RESULTS: Results indicate that students' perception of Covid-19 and psychological need satisfaction are associated with entrepreneurial intention. Additionally, the present study argues that proactiveness and optimism mediate these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies psychological factors associated with a lower level of Covid-19 impact and that can be used for psychological interventions that result in an improvement in the mental health of these vulnerable groups during and after the Covid-19 pandemic. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Intenção , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Economia , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(3): 267-278, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615740

RESUMO

The heterogeneity and complexity of malaria involves political and natural environments, socioeconomic development, cross-border movement, and vector biology; factors that cannot be changed in a short time. This study aimed to assess the impact of economic growth and cross-border movement, toward elimination of malaria in Yunnan Province during its pre-elimination phase. Malaria data during 2011-2016 were extracted from 18 counties of Yunnan and from 7 villages, 11 displaced person camps of the Kachin Special Region II of Myanmar. Data of per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) were obtained from Yunnan Bureau of Statistics. Data were analyzed and mapped to determine spatiotemporal heterogeneity at county and village levels. There were a total 2,117 malaria cases with 85.2% imported cases; most imported cases came from Myanmar (78.5%). Along the demarcation line, malaria incidence rates in villages/camps in Myanmar were significantly higher than those of the neighboring villages in China. The spatial and temporal trends suggested that increasing per-capita GDP may have an indirect effect on the reduction of malaria cases when observed at macro level; however, malaria persists owing to complex, multi-faceted factors including poverty at individual level and cross-border movement of the workforce. In moving toward malaria elimination, despite economic growth, cooperative efforts with neighboring countries are critical to interrupt local transmission and prevent reintroduction of malaria via imported cases. Cross-border workers should be educated in preventive measures through effective behavior change communication, and investment is needed in active surveillance systems and novel diagnostic and treatment services during the elimination phase.


Assuntos
Economia , Malária/epidemiologia , Migrantes , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Guanosina Difosfato , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the indicators affecting life expectancy at birth and life expectancy at age 65 by multiple regression analysis and principal component analysis, and examined the factors affecting the longevity. METHODS: We set indicators for health status, risk factors, access to care, quality of care and health care resources. Then, we conducted multiple regression analysis with life expectancy at birth and life expectancy at age 65 as the objective variables and 22 indicators as explanatory variables. Principal component analysis was also performed on the 22 indicators. RESULTS: Men's life expectancy at birth was positively affected by hospital admission ratio and national health insurance costs, and negatively by the rate of requirement of care certification and alcohol consumption. Men's life expectancy at age 65 was positively affected by income-to-medical expenses ratio and hospitalization treatment ratio, and negatively by requiring care certification rate, smoking rate and obesity rate. Women's life expectancy at birth was positively affected by population coverage and hospitalization treatment ratio, and negatively by women's heart disease mortality rate, requiring care certification rate and smoking rate. Women's life expectancy at age 65 was positively affected by late-stage elderly medical costs and the number of doctors, and negatively by requiring care certification rate and air pollution. Principal component 1 indicated "aging high-medical-resource society", principal component 2 indicated "high mortality from heart disease", and principal component 3 indicated the "degree of risk factor". CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the indicators found to affect life expectancy at birth and life expectancy at age 65, it is necessary to take measures to ensure a long life.


Assuntos
Economia , Análise Fatorial , Expectativa de Vida , Longevidade , Humanos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234621, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544207

RESUMO

Recent studies on water demand management show that providing visual information on water usage along with social comparisons with neighbouring households resulted in more efficient water usage. However, social comparisons can be discomforting for participants, especially in the case of downward or negative evaluations. To avoid this, some studies promote the use of social identity, a social norm approach that avoids comparisons. Past studies using social comparison used infographics, whereas other study types have used only textual (non-graphic) information. Therefore, in this study, we created a visualisation of water usage to highlight the importance of water as a shared resource, that is, as a public good, and feedback over six months according to the participants' water usage. A difference-in-difference analysis indicated that the feedback was marginally significant in decreasing water consumption immediately and continuously, especially for the middle and low use households, during the summer months, which is a period of perceived water shortage. From the questionnaire survey, we found that households felt that they determined their water usage based on their preference and were satisfied with the outcome.


Assuntos
Gestão da Saúde da População , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Economia , Humanos , Identificação Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233549, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484807

RESUMO

The literature on growth convergence has focused to a great extent on the role of initial incomes as a primary determinant of long-term growth outcomes. Expanded versions of growth models have used other explanators to unpack the growth process. In this paper we add to the literature in two significant ways: (a) we use socioeconomic variables that are sometimes overlooked in explaining growth (such as, political stability and political alliance, social heterogeneity, and demographic distribution), and (b) we demonstrate that earlier analyses may be overlooking the problem of normality and endogeneity in regression models (and we provide alternate methods like instrumental variable and distribution dynamics to control for these). In this paper we analyze the per capita income growth at the subnational level in India for the period 1981-82 to 2010-11 using an expanded growth framework. We find that initial incomes, the ratio of working age group to total population, political stability and alliance, and the extent of development expenditure play a positive and significant role in predicting growth. We also find that, contrary to popular belief, the presence of marginalized groups-namely Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes-have not been a hindrance to growth of per capita incomes in states. Our findings on the influence of social institutions may have significant implications for a public policy of affirmative action in India. The results on the impact of development expenditure on growth is also important for states seeking to increase their growth rates through policy intervention.


Assuntos
Economia/tendências , Renda/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos/história , Demografia , Economia/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Política Pública , Classe Social
8.
Med Leg J ; 88(2): 57-64, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515258

RESUMO

This is a personal view from London as the Covid-19 pandemic continues to spread here and the situation changes from day to day. As such it can only be a snapshot caught in time; it is not a diary of events. The Coronavirus Act 2020 gives Government enormous powers and was passed by Parliament in one day of debate immediately before it closed early for the Easter break. In March, the government imposed a "lockdown: the closure of all" but "essential" businesses and people other than essential workers must work from home but are allowed out for exercise and food shopping but must maintain 2 m apart, the "social distancing rule". The aim is to suppress the spread of the virus, reduce the death toll and "protect the National Health Service (NHS)" which needed time to empty wards and expand its intensive care unit (ICU) capability to deal with an expected influx of thousands of very sick patients. I discuss whether this strategy is working, how and why it has rapidly been altered to respond to criticism. Why was the Government so slow to seek the help of private laboratories to assist with testing? Why was the personal protective equipment (PPE) guidance altered only after criticism? I look at the impact of the lockdown on the UK economy, the changes to practice of medicine and speeding of scientific research. Cooperating with the lockdown has its price; is it harming the health and mental health of children, people living in households with potentially abusive partners or parents and those who are disabled or financially desperate? Is the cure worse than the disease? The Economy is being devastated by the lockdown and each day of lockdown it is worse. Is litigation being seeded even now by the pandemic? Notwithstanding unprecedented Government financial help many businesses are on the edge of collapse, people will lose their jobs and pensioners income. The winners include pharmacies, supermarkets, online food retailers, Amazon, online apps, providers of video games, services, streaming and scientific research laboratories, manufacturers of testing kits, ventilators, hand sanitisers, coffins, undertakers, etc. The British public is cooperating with lockdown but are we less productive at home? Parents with babies and children often child minders, school, grandparents or paid help which is not now available. Will current reliance on video-conferencing and video calls permanently change the way we work and will we need smaller city offices? Will we travel less? Will medical and legal practice and civil and criminal trials be generally carried out remotely? Will social distancing with self-isolation and job losses and business failures fuel depression? Is Covid-19 comparable to past epidemics like the Plague and Spanish flu?


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Direito Penal , Depressão/epidemiologia , Economia , Previsões , Liberdade , Regulamentação Governamental , Habitação/economia , Humanos , Internet , Londres/epidemiologia , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/provisão & distribução , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/provisão & distribução , Pandemias , Pânico , Autonomia Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Administração em Saúde Pública , Quarentena , Instituições Acadêmicas , Políticas de Controle Social , Isolamento Social , Telemedicina , Viagem , Triagem
9.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 26(3): 219-227, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-303118

RESUMO

The goal of this column is to help mental health care professionals understand coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) so that they can better explain the complexities of the current crisis to their patients. The bottom-line of this column is that, while COVID-19 can infect virtually everyone in the human population, only about 5% are susceptible to severe infection requiring admission to an intensive care unit and/or causing a fatal outcome and this population can be identified on the basis of comorbid medical illness and/or age. These numbers are based on experience in China, the United States, and Europe. Table 1 presents an analysis conducted by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which is further supported by several other sources reviewed in the article. The population at risk for severe infection are individuals with comorbid medical illness and those 85 years of age and older. The comorbid medical illnesses identified as risk factors are preexisting respiratory and cardiovascular disease, immunocompromised status, morbid obesity (ie, body mass index ≥40), diabetes mellitus, and possibly significant kidney or liver impairment. Parenthetically, news reports and the literature sometimes cite age 60 years and older as a risk factor but age between 60 and 85 years is likely a surrogate for having 1 or more of these comorbid medical conditions. While 5% may initially seem like a small number, it nevertheless potentially represents 16.5 million people, given the United States population of 330 million. That is a tremendous number of people requiring intensive care unit admission and/or potentially dying, and individuals in this population have overwhelmed the US health care system in some hotspots. For this reason, this column suggests taking this at-risk population into account in mitigation strategies when attempting to open the US economy. The column addresses the following questions: (1) What are the 3 aspects of the race to minimize the damage caused by COVID-19? (2) What data are currently available to help guide decisions to be made? (3) What strategies have been employed to date and how successful have they been? and (4) Might risk stratification of exposure be a viable strategy to minimize the damage caused by the virus? The race to minimize the damage caused by COVID-19 requires that we obtain knowledge about the disease and its treatment or prevention, how to best safeguard public health and avoid overwhelming the health care system, and how to minimize the societal damage caused by substantial disruption of the economy. Data gathered over the past 4 months since the COVID-19 virus emerged as a human pathogen have provided guidance for our decisions going forward. The most widely adopted strategies for dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic to date have involved the epidemiological approach of encouraging good hygiene practices and social distancing, including orders to "shelter in place," quarantine of high-risk individuals, and isolation of infected individuals. The goal of this epidemiological approach has been to "flatten the curve" by reducing the height of the peak of the infection to avoid overwhelming the health care system and society in general, while buying time to learn more about the disease and find more effective ways to deal with it. However, now that more is known about COVID-19 and the portion of the population that is most at risk for serious adverse outcomes including death, it may be possible to move from a shelter-in-place approach for the entire population to focus on those at most risk and thus facilitate a gradual and rational phased reduction of social restrictions to reopen the economy. Such a graduated opening would be based on regions of countries meeting specific criteria in terms of being able to contain the virus, coupled with vigorous monitoring to look for outbreaks, followed by case monitoring, isolation of infected individuals and quarantine of exposed individuals, and increased use of testing for active disease as well as for immunity. Taking the data on high-risk individuals into account would allow for a gradual lifting of restrictions on the majority of the population while maintaining more stringent safeguards to protect the vulnerable portion of the population. Nevertheless, the entire population would need to continue to practice good hygiene and social distancing while simultaneously-and perhaps even more vigorously-focusing on sheltering the vulnerable population until adequate community immunity has been achieved to prevent the spread of the virus, whether that is accomplished through natural exposure alone or with the addition of safe and effective vaccine(s) which may not be available for a year. Continued widespread testing for antibodies will help determine how far or close this country is-and other countries are-from developing effective community immunity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Economia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Medição de Risco , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Comércio , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Quarentena , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Rev Med Virol ; 30(4): e2113, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420674

RESUMO

The pandemic of 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2019), reminiscent of the 2002-SARS-CoV outbreak, has completely isolated countries, disrupted health systems and partially paralyzed international trade and travel. In order to be better equipped to anticipate transmission of this virus to new regions, it is imperative to track the progress of the virus over time. This review analyses information on progression of the pandemic in the past 3 months and systematically discusses the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2019 virus including its epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, and clinical manifestations. Furthermore, the review also encompasses some recently proposed conceptual models that estimate the spread of this disease based on the basic reproductive number for better prevention and control procedures. Finally, we shed light on how the virus has endangered the global economy, impacting it both from the supply and demand side.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Imunidade Adaptativa , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Número Básico de Reprodução , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Comércio , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Economia , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Replicação Viral
14.
Vaccine ; 38(26): 4170-4182, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376108

RESUMO

The global population of adults over 65 years of age is growing rapidly and is expected to double by 2050. Countries will face substantial health, economic and social burden deriving from vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) such as influenza, pneumonia and herpes zoster in older adults. It will be essential that countries utilize several public health strategies, including immunization. Understanding the different approaches countries have taken on adult immunization could help provide future learnings and technical support for adult vaccines within life-course immunization strategies. In this study, we describe the priorities and approaches that underlie adult immunization decision-making and implementation processes in 32 high-and-middle-income countries and two territories ("34 countries") who recommend adult vaccines in their national schedule. We conducted an archetype analysis based on a subset of two dozen indicators abstracted from a larger database. The analysis was based on a mixed-methods study, including results from 120 key informant interviews in six countries and a landscape review of secondary data from 34 countries. We found four distinct archetypes: disease prevention-focused; health security-focused; evolving adult focus; and, child-focused and cost-sensitive. The highest performing countries belonged to the disease prevention-focused and health security archetypes, although there was a range of performance within each archetype. Considering common barriers and facilitators of decision-making and implementation of adult vaccines within a primary archetype could help provide a framework for strategies to support countries with similar needs and approaches. It can also help in developing context-specific policies and guidance, including for countries prioritizing adult immunization programs in light of COVID-19. Further research may be beneficial to further refine archetypes and expand the understanding of what influences success within them. This can help advance policies and action that will improve vaccine access for older adults and build a stronger appreciation of the value of immunization amongst a variety of stakeholders.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Esquemas de Imunização , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Economia , Humanos , Política
16.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 26(3): 219-227, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421292

RESUMO

The goal of this column is to help mental health care professionals understand coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) so that they can better explain the complexities of the current crisis to their patients. The bottom-line of this column is that, while COVID-19 can infect virtually everyone in the human population, only about 5% are susceptible to severe infection requiring admission to an intensive care unit and/or causing a fatal outcome and this population can be identified on the basis of comorbid medical illness and/or age. These numbers are based on experience in China, the United States, and Europe. Table 1 presents an analysis conducted by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which is further supported by several other sources reviewed in the article. The population at risk for severe infection are individuals with comorbid medical illness and those 85 years of age and older. The comorbid medical illnesses identified as risk factors are preexisting respiratory and cardiovascular disease, immunocompromised status, morbid obesity (ie, body mass index ≥40), diabetes mellitus, and possibly significant kidney or liver impairment. Parenthetically, news reports and the literature sometimes cite age 60 years and older as a risk factor but age between 60 and 85 years is likely a surrogate for having 1 or more of these comorbid medical conditions. While 5% may initially seem like a small number, it nevertheless potentially represents 16.5 million people, given the United States population of 330 million. That is a tremendous number of people requiring intensive care unit admission and/or potentially dying, and individuals in this population have overwhelmed the US health care system in some hotspots. For this reason, this column suggests taking this at-risk population into account in mitigation strategies when attempting to open the US economy. The column addresses the following questions: (1) What are the 3 aspects of the race to minimize the damage caused by COVID-19? (2) What data are currently available to help guide decisions to be made? (3) What strategies have been employed to date and how successful have they been? and (4) Might risk stratification of exposure be a viable strategy to minimize the damage caused by the virus? The race to minimize the damage caused by COVID-19 requires that we obtain knowledge about the disease and its treatment or prevention, how to best safeguard public health and avoid overwhelming the health care system, and how to minimize the societal damage caused by substantial disruption of the economy. Data gathered over the past 4 months since the COVID-19 virus emerged as a human pathogen have provided guidance for our decisions going forward. The most widely adopted strategies for dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic to date have involved the epidemiological approach of encouraging good hygiene practices and social distancing, including orders to "shelter in place," quarantine of high-risk individuals, and isolation of infected individuals. The goal of this epidemiological approach has been to "flatten the curve" by reducing the height of the peak of the infection to avoid overwhelming the health care system and society in general, while buying time to learn more about the disease and find more effective ways to deal with it. However, now that more is known about COVID-19 and the portion of the population that is most at risk for serious adverse outcomes including death, it may be possible to move from a shelter-in-place approach for the entire population to focus on those at most risk and thus facilitate a gradual and rational phased reduction of social restrictions to reopen the economy. Such a graduated opening would be based on regions of countries meeting specific criteria in terms of being able to contain the virus, coupled with vigorous monitoring to look for outbreaks, followed by case monitoring, isolation of infected individuals and quarantine of exposed individuals, and increased use of testing for active disease as well as for immunity. Taking the data on high-risk individuals into account would allow for a gradual lifting of restrictions on the majority of the population while maintaining more stringent safeguards to protect the vulnerable portion of the population. Nevertheless, the entire population would need to continue to practice good hygiene and social distancing while simultaneously-and perhaps even more vigorously-focusing on sheltering the vulnerable population until adequate community immunity has been achieved to prevent the spread of the virus, whether that is accomplished through natural exposure alone or with the addition of safe and effective vaccine(s) which may not be available for a year. Continued widespread testing for antibodies will help determine how far or close this country is-and other countries are-from developing effective community immunity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Economia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Medição de Risco , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Comércio , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Quarentena , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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