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1.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 131, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disabled people are particularly exposed to the risks of COVID-19, as well as to the measures taken to address it, and their impact. The aim of the study was to examine the disability-inclusiveness of government responses to COVID-19 in four South American Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru. METHODS: We conducted documentary research, using framework analysis to analyse reports, legislation, decrees, and other official documents that communicated measures taken in response to the pandemic, published from February 1st until May 22nd, 2020. We included documents reporting measures that affected disabled people either directly (measures specifically designed for disabled people) or indirectly (measures for the general population). We developed an analytical framework based on recommendations for disability-inclusive response to COVID-19 published by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Carribean, the World Health Organisation, and other international organisations. RESULTS: We analysed 72 documents. The findings highlight that while some positive measures were taken, the needs of disabled people were not fully considered. Several countries published recommendations for a disability-inclusive response to COVID-19, without ensuring their translation to practice. All countries took at least some steps to ensure access to financial support, health, and education for disabled people, but at the same time they also implemented policies that had a detrimental impact on disabled people. The populations that are most exposed to the impacts of COVID-19, including disabled people living in institutional care, were protected in several cases only by recommendations rather by legislation. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates how the official government responses taken by four countries in the region - while positive, in several aspects - do not fully address the needs of disabled people, thus further disadvantaging them. In order to ensure response to COVID - 19 is disability inclusive, it is necessary to translate recommendations to practice, consider disabled people both in mainstream policy and in disability-specific measures, and focus on the long-term reconstruction phase.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoas com Deficiência , Governo , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Políticas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia
2.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 59(3): 694-702, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609398

RESUMO

In this paper, we analyse the conditions under which the COVID-19 pandemic will lead either to social order (adherence to measures put in place by authorities to control the pandemic) or to social disorder (resistance to such measures and the emergence of open conflict). Using examples from different countries (principally the United Kingdom, the United States, and France), we first isolate three factors which determine whether people accept or reject control measures. These are the historical context of state-public relations, the nature of leadership during the pandemic and procedural justice in the development and operation of these measures. Second, we analyse the way the crisis is policed and how forms of policing determine whether dissent will escalate into open conflict. We conclude by considering the prospects for order/disorder as the pandemic unfolds.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Distúrbios Civis , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Distúrbios Civis/legislação & jurisprudência , Distúrbios Civis/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Conflito Psicológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , França/epidemiologia , Governo , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Justiça Social , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1164, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) that first occurred in Wuhan, China, is currently spreading throughout China. The majority of infected patients either traveled to Wuhan or came into contact with an infected person from Wuhan. Investigating members of the public with a travel history to Wuhan became the primary focus of the Chinese government's epidemic prevention and control measures, but several instances of withheld histories were uncovered as localized clusters of infections broke out. This study investigated the public's willingness and beliefs associated with reporting travel history to high-risk epidemic regions, to provide effective suggestions and measures for encouraging travel reporting. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted online between February 12 and 19, 2020. Descriptive analysis, chi-squared test, and Fisher's exact test were used to identify socio-demographic factors and beliefs associated with reporting, as well as their impact on the willingness to report on travel history to high-risk epidemic regions. RESULTS: Of the 1344 respondents, 91 (6.77%) expressed an inclination to deliberately withhold travel history. Those who understood the benefits of reporting and the legal consequences for deliberately withholding information, showed greater willingness to report their history (P < 0.05); conversely, those who believed reporting would stigmatize them and feared being quarantined after reporting showed less willingness to report (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: As any incident of withheld history can have unpredictable outcomes, the proportion of people who deliberately withhold information deserves attention. Appropriate public risk communication and public advocacy strategies should be implemented to strengthen the understanding that reporting on travel history facilitates infection screening and prompt treatment, and to decrease the fear of potentially becoming quarantined after reporting. Additionally, social support and policies should be established, and measures should be taken to alleviate stigmatization and discrimination against potential patients and reporters of travel history. Reinforcing the legal accountability of withholding travel history and strengthening systematic community monitoring are the measures that China is currently taking to encourage reporting on travel history to high-risk epidemic regions. These non-pharmaceutical interventions are relevant for countries that are currently facing the spread of the epidemic and those at risk of its potential spread.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Governo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
S Afr Med J ; 110(3): 188-191, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657694

RESUMO

Health promotion - keeping people healthy - is critical to ensuring that South Africa (SA)'s National Health Insurance (NHI) services and funding will not be overwhelmed by having to service and pay for large numbers of people with avoidable disease. Although the 2019 NHI Bill mentions health promotion, its lack of emphasis and the narrow approach proposed in the Bill make it unlikely that health promotion will have significant impact on population health or reducing healthcare need. Health promotion experts submit that there is in fact huge potential for carefully planned and researched health promotion to impact on population health. The establishment of a multisectoral National Health Commission or an independent Health Promotion and Development Foundation linked directly to the NHI Fund that includes several relevant government departments and civil society and researchers is proposed. Of the NHI Fund, 2% should be dedicated specifically to promoting health and preventing illness, which must support comprehensive, multisectoral health promotion interventions that go beyond awareness raising and health education. SA's specific realities and needs, including poverty and its related behavioural impacts and health consequences, must be taken into account.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Administração Financeira , Governo , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , África do Sul
6.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e039334, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study explored UK public perceptions and experiences of social distancing and social isolation related to the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: This qualitative study comprised five focus groups, carried out online during the early stages of the UK's stay at home order ('lockdown'), and analysed using a thematic approach. SETTING: Focus groups took place via online videoconferencing. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (n=27) were all UK residents aged 18 years and older, representing a range of gender, ethnic, age and occupational backgrounds. RESULTS: Qualitative analysis revealed four main themes: (1) loss-participants' loss of (in-person) social interaction, loss of income and loss of structure and routine led to psychological and emotional 'losses' such as loss of motivation, loss of meaning and loss of self-worth; (2) criticisms of government communication-participants reported a lack of trust in government and a lack of clarity in the guidelines around social distancing and isolation; (3) adherence-participants reported high self-adherence to social distancing guidelines but reported seeing or hearing of non-adherence in others; (4) uncertainty around social reintegration and the future-some participants felt they would have lingering concerns over social contact while others were eager to return to high levels of social activity.Most participants, and particularly those in low-paid or precarious employment, reported feeling that the social distancing and isolation associated with COVID-19 policy has had negative impacts on their mental health and well-being during the early stages of the UK's 'lockdown'. CONCLUSIONS: A rapid response is necessary in terms of public health programming to mitigate the mental health impacts of COVID-19 social distancing and isolation. Social distancing and isolation 'exit strategies' must account for the fact that, although some individuals will voluntarily or habitually continue to socially distance, others will seek high levels of social engagement as soon as possible.


Assuntos
Atitude , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Governo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Política Pública , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Emprego , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Renda , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Confiança , Reino Unido , Comunicação por Videoconferência , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003166, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread to nearly every country in the world since it first emerged in China in December 2019. Many countries have implemented social distancing as a measure to "flatten the curve" of the ongoing epidemics. Evaluation of the impact of government-imposed social distancing and of other measures to control further spread of COVID-19 is urgent, especially because of the large societal and economic impact of the former. The aim of this study was to compare the individual and combined effectiveness of self-imposed prevention measures and of short-term government-imposed social distancing in mitigating, delaying, or preventing a COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a deterministic compartmental transmission model of SARS-CoV-2 in a population stratified by disease status (susceptible, exposed, infectious with mild or severe disease, diagnosed, and recovered) and disease awareness status (aware and unaware) due to the spread of COVID-19. Self-imposed measures were assumed to be taken by disease-aware individuals and included handwashing, mask-wearing, and social distancing. Government-imposed social distancing reduced the contact rate of individuals irrespective of their disease or awareness status. The model was parameterized using current best estimates of key epidemiological parameters from COVID-19 clinical studies. The model outcomes included the peak number of diagnoses, attack rate, and time until the peak number of diagnoses. For fast awareness spread in the population, self-imposed measures can significantly reduce the attack rate and diminish and postpone the peak number of diagnoses. We estimate that a large epidemic can be prevented if the efficacy of these measures exceeds 50%. For slow awareness spread, self-imposed measures reduce the peak number of diagnoses and attack rate but do not affect the timing of the peak. Early implementation of short-term government-imposed social distancing alone is estimated to delay (by at most 7 months for a 3-month intervention) but not to reduce the peak. The delay can be even longer and the height of the peak can be additionally reduced if this intervention is combined with self-imposed measures that are continued after government-imposed social distancing has been lifted. Our analyses are limited in that they do not account for stochasticity, demographics, heterogeneities in contact patterns or mixing, spatial effects, imperfect isolation of individuals with severe disease, and reinfection with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that information dissemination about COVID-19, which causes individual adoption of handwashing, mask-wearing, and social distancing, can be an effective strategy to mitigate and delay the epidemic. Early initiated short-term government-imposed social distancing can buy time for healthcare systems to prepare for an increasing COVID-19 burden. We stress the importance of disease awareness in controlling the ongoing epidemic and recommend that, in addition to policies on social distancing, governments and public health institutions mobilize people to adopt self-imposed measures with proven efficacy in order to successfully tackle COVID-19.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Quarentena , Conscientização , Betacoronavirus , Participação da Comunidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Governo , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fatores de Tempo
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1038, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Institutions are a recommended setting for dietary interventions and nutrition policies as these provide an opportunity to improve health by creating healthy food environments. In Australia, state and territory governments encourage or mandate institutions in their jurisdiction to adopt nutrition policies. However, no work has analysed the policy design across settings and jurisdictions. This study aimed to compare the design and components of government-led institutional nutrition policies between Australian states and territories, determine gaps in existing policies, and assess the potential for developing stronger, more comprehensive policies. METHODS: Government-led institutional nutrition policies, in schools, workplaces, health facilities and other public settings, were identified by searching health and education department websites for each Australian state and territory government. This was supplemented by data from other relevant stakeholder websites and from the Food Policy Index Australia website. A framework for monitoring and evaluating nutrition policies in publicly-funded institutions was used to extract data and a qualitative analysis of the design and content of institutional nutrition policies was performed. Comparative analyses between the jurisdictions and institution types were conducted, and policies were assessed for comprehensiveness. RESULTS: Twenty-seven institutional nutrition policies were identified across eight states and territories in Australia. Most policies in health facilities and public schools were mandatory, though most workplace policies were voluntary. Twenty-four included nutrient criteria, and 22 included guidelines for catering/fundraising/advertising. While most included implementation guides or tools and additional supporting resources, less than half included tools/timelines for monitoring and evaluation. The policy design, components and nutrient criteria varied between jurisdictions and institution types, though all were based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition policies in institutions present an opportunity to create healthy eating environments and improve population health in Australia. However, the design of these policies, including lack of key components such as accountability mechanisms, and jurisdictional differences, may be a barrier to implementation and prevent the policies having their intended impact.


Assuntos
Governo , Política Nutricional , Austrália , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Local de Trabalho
10.
S Afr Med J ; 110(4): 274-283, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past 18 years, the South African (SA) Ministry of Health has committed to allocate 2% of the national health budget to research, while the National Health Research Policy (2001) proposed that the health research budget should be 2% of total public sector health expenditure. A review was conducted by the National Health Research Committee (NHRC) in 2014 to determine whether these goals had been met, using available data up to 2009/10. It revealed that public sector health research funding remained below 2% of the national health budget, supporting the perception of reduced public sector health research funding. OBJECTIVES: To provide an update on the previous review to investigate changes in the health research landscape since 2009/10 and whether goals have been met. METHODS: Various publicly available sources of information on public and private expenditure on health research in SA were used to investigate health research funding and expenditure. In addition, questionnaires were sent to 35 major national and international funders of health research in SA to obtain data on the level of funding provided and the fields of research funded. RESULTS: Total health research expenditure in SA was ZAR6.9 billion in 2016/17, or 19.2% of gross expenditure on research and development, with 1.7% of the ZAR38.6 billion National Department of Health budget from National Treasury being spent on health research through the South African Medical Research Council (ZAR658 million), corresponding to 0.4% of the consolidated government expenditure on health. However, although the total government plus science council spend on health research in 2016/17 was ZAR1.45 billion, this represents just 0.033% of the gross domestic product (GDP), thus remaining well below the aspirational target of 0.15% of the GDP set by the NHRC in 2014. Based on feedback from the funders, the estimated baseline health research funding in 2016/17 was in excess of ZAR4.1 billion, which is considerably higher than many researchers may realise. Three-quarters of this funding originated from foreign sources, suggesting both strengths and opportunities for health research in SA, but also highlighting increasing dependence on foreign funding. Notably, the majority of funders approached were not able to readily break down expenditure according to disease area. CONCLUSIONS: Health research funding has changed significantly since our previous review, although the government's own commitments to it remain unmet. Improved mechanisms to track health research expenditure are urgently required for better alignment of funding priorities and increased co-ordination between science councils in health research funding.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Governo , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Orçamentos , Educação/economia , Humanos , Organizações/economia , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos/economia , Setor Privado/economia , Setor Público/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/tendências , África do Sul
11.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003240, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692743

RESUMO

Yuming Guo and colleagues discuss the research by Teslya et al that highlights the importance of personal preventative measures in avoiding a second wave of the COVID-19 epidemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Controle de Infecções , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Governo , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Quarentena
12.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(7): e00101920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725084

RESUMO

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, the world has witnessed growing tension from the pandemic dimension of a disease with severe epidemiological impacts and wide-reaching sociocultural and political spinoffs. In ideal conditions of public communication, the authorities would be aligned with a totally transparent system supplying abundant information and ease of understanding to generate credibility, confidence, and partnership with the media. In the hiatuses of acceptable versions and in the midst of indeterminations, individuals become their own experts, consuming fake news and reproducing fallacious risk narratives with disastrous consequences. The article discusses various aspects of fake news and the use of communicative reason by public authorities, citing the case of Iran and drawing parallels with the antivaccination movement and its consequences. The authors address the challenge of coordinated orientation of society with information, competing with pseudo-scientific pastiches that proliferate at breakneck speed in the absence of official data. All this raises the following question: which communication models should back the official narrative to create the conditions for collaboration and partnership with the media? What impacts would such models have on the proliferation of misleading narratives that citizens turn to during crises of appropriate orientation? The authors conclude that it is also the government's role to use its broad visibility to create references of safety under the primacy of communicative reason, sensitive to society's genuine questions and concerns. In short, government should produce responsible references on a monumental scale, oriented by the ethics of accountability in line with the common good.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Julgamento , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Governo , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pandemias , Risco
13.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 59(3): 686-693, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543713

RESUMO

Notions of psychological frailty have been at the forefront of debates around the public response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, there is the argument that collective selfishness, thoughtless behaviour, and over-reaction would make the effects of COVID-19 much worse. The same kinds of claims have been made in relation to other kinds of emergencies, such as fires, earthquakes, and sinking ships. We argue that in these cases as well as in the case of the COVID-19 pandemic, other factors are better explanations for fatalities - namely under-reaction to threat, systemic or structural factors, and mismanagement. Psychologizing disasters serves to distract from the real causes and thus from who might be held responsible. Far from being the problem, collective behaviour in emergencies - including the solidarity and cooperation so commonly witnessed among survivors - is the solution, one that should be harnessed more effectively in policy and practice.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Emergências/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Governo , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Distância Social
14.
Nat Med ; 26(7): 1005-1008, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528155
15.
Am Psychol ; 75(5): 618-630, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496074

RESUMO

The contagiousness and deadliness of COVID-19 have necessitated drastic social management to halt transmission. The immediate effects of a nationwide lockdown were investigated by comparing matched samples of New Zealanders assessed before (Nprelockdown = 1,003) and during the first 18 days of lockdown (Nlockdown = 1,003). Two categories of outcomes were examined: (a) institutional trust and attitudes toward the nation and government and (b) health and well-being. Applying propensity score matching to approximate the conditions of a randomized controlled experiment, the study found that people in the pandemic/lockdown group reported higher trust in science, politicians, and police, higher levels of patriotism, and higher rates of mental distress compared to people in the prelockdown prepandemic group. Results were confirmed in within-subjects analyses. The study highlights social connectedness, resilience, and vulnerability in the face of adversity and has applied implications for how countries face this global challenge. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atitude , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Governo , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Confiança , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
16.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(7): 756-768, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576982

RESUMO

Governments worldwide have implemented countless policies in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We present an initial public release of a large hand-coded dataset of over 13,000 such policy announcements across more than 195 countries. The dataset is updated daily, with a 5-day lag for validity checking. We document policies across numerous dimensions, including the type of policy, national versus subnational enforcement, the specific human group and geographical region targeted by the policy, and the time frame within which each policy is implemented. We further analyse the dataset using a Bayesian measurement model, which shows the quick acceleration of the adoption of costly policies across countries beginning in mid-March 2020 through 24 May 2020. We believe that these data will be instrumental for helping policymakers and researchers assess, among other objectives, how effective different policies are in addressing the spread and health outcomes of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Governo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Política Pública , Pessoal Administrativo , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Educação , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Viagem
17.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(7): 677-687, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581299

RESUMO

Governments around the world have implemented measures to manage the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While the majority of these measures are proving effective, they have a high social and economic cost, and response strategies are being adjusted. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that communities should have a voice, be informed and engaged, and participate in this transition phase. We propose ten considerations to support this principle: (1) implement a phased approach to a 'new normal'; (2) balance individual rights with the social good; (3) prioritise people at highest risk of negative consequences; (4) provide special support for healthcare workers and care staff; (5) build, strengthen and maintain trust; (6) enlist existing social norms and foster healthy new norms; (7) increase resilience and self-efficacy; (8) use clear and positive language; (9) anticipate and manage misinformation; and (10) engage with media outlets. The transition phase should also be informed by real-time data according to which governmental responses should be updated.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Participação da Comunidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Governo , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Autoeficácia , Normas Sociais , Estigma Social , Confiança
18.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(2): 144-147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573753

RESUMO

Nongovernment organizations (NGOs) have become increasingly common in conflict zones throughout the world. They provide services that have been the responsibility of understaffed, undersupplied, and undertrained local nations and communities. However, these organizations face many difficulties. They are walking a thin line between militaries, governments, and local politics. They must find ways to stay supplied and staffed. The research presented in this article focuses on three NGOs and the impact they are making throughout the world. By understanding the role these organizations play in providing medical relief to conflict zones without the help of government agencies, one can see the importance of their work and the struggles they face.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Organizações/organização & administração , Países em Desenvolvimento , Governo , Humanos , Militares , Política
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