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1.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1_suppl): 128S-137S, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735195

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Law is an important factor in the diffusion of syringe services programs (SSPs). This study measures the current status of, and 5-year change in, state laws governing SSP operations and possession of syringes by participants. METHODS: Legal researchers developed a cross-sectional data set measuring key features of state laws and regulations governing the possession and distribution of syringes across the 50 US states and the District of Columbia in effect on August 1, 2019. We compared these data with previously collected data on laws as of August 1, 2014. RESULTS: Thirty-nine states (including the District of Columbia) had laws in effect on August 1, 2019, that removed legal impediments to, explicitly authorized, and/or regulated SSPs. Thirty-three states had 1 or more laws consistent with legal possession of syringes by SSP participants under at least some circumstances. Changes from 2014 to 2019 included an increase of 14 states explicitly authorizing SSPs by law and an increase of 12 states with at least 1 provision reducing legal barriers to SSPs. Since 2014, the number of states explicitly authorizing SSPs nearly doubled, and the new states included many rural, southern, or midwestern states that had been identified as having poor access to SSPs, as well as states at high risk for HIV and hepatitis C virus outbreaks. Substantial legal barriers to SSP operation and participant syringe possession remained in >20% of US states. CONCLUSION: Legal barriers to effective operation of SSPs have declined but continue to hinder the prevention and reduction of drug-related harm.


Assuntos
Programas de Troca de Agulhas/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo Estadual , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Hepatite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Características de Residência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Serviço Social/organização & administração , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos
2.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 51: 102165, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732175

RESUMO

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic offers many medical, economic, societal, and cultural challenges. The response by individual states in the United States of America varies, but with the common initial impetus for all being to "flatten the curve," which was intended to delay infections and spread the burden and impact on hospitals and medical systems. Starting with that intention, the responses by states has included many major steps not taken in prior pandemics. Those steps have significantly adversely affected hospitals rather than support them, and the overall impact has been to "flatten the economy" rather than just to "flatten the curve." Many state governors have stated that their decisions are "science-led" and "data driven" but the reality is that there is not relevant experimental data. The progression of decisions during the early pandemic decisions is traced, and the basis of decisions based in science or herd mentality is discussed. Experiences are not experiments, and experiences are not founded in the scientific process. Medical and government leaders must be vigilant to recognize the limitations of available data in responding to unique circumstances.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Recessão Econômica , Economia Médica , Política de Saúde , Controle de Infecções , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Governo Estadual , Humanos , Estados Unidos
4.
N Engl J Med ; 383(6): 558-566, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specialty drugs are used to treat complex or life-threatening conditions, often at high financial costs to both patients and health plans. Three states - Delaware, Louisiana, and Maryland - passed legislation to cap out-of-pocket payments for specialty drugs at $150 per prescription. A concern is that these caps could shift costs to health plans, increasing insurance premiums. Estimates of the effect of the caps on patient and health-plan spending could inform future policies. METHODS: We analyzed a sample that included 27,161 persons under 65 years of age who had rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, hepatitis C, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis and who were in commercial health plans from 2011 through 2016 that were administered by three large nationwide insurers. The primary outcome was the change in out-of-pocket spending among specialty-drug users who were in the 95th percentile for spending on specialty drugs. Other outcomes were changes in mean out-of-pocket and health-plan spending for specialty drugs, nonspecialty drugs, and nondrug health care and utilization of specialty drugs. We compared outcomes in the three states that enacted caps with neighboring control states that did not, 3 years before and up to 3 years after enactment of the spending cap. RESULTS: Caps were associated with an adjusted change in out-of-pocket costs of -$351 (95% confidence interval, -554 to -148) per specialty-drug user per month, representing a 32% reduction in spending, among users in the 95th percentile of spending on specialty drugs. This finding was supported by multiple sensitivity analyses. Caps were not associated with changes in other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Caps for spending on specialty drugs were associated with substantial reductions in spending on specialty drugs among patients with the highest out-of-pocket costs, without detectable increases in health-plan spending, a proxy for future insurance premiums. (Funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Data for Action Program.).


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro/legislação & jurisprudência , Custos de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos/economia , Governo Estadual , Adulto , Doença Crônica/economia , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro/economia , Delaware , Humanos , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Louisiana , Maryland , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Honorários por Prescrição de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
5.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 71: 101579, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768113

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, as with other countries across the world, the Central and State Governments of India initiated several measures to slow down the spread of the virus and to 'flatten the curve'. One such measure was a 'total lockdown' for several weeks across the country. A complex and unexpected outcome of the lockdown which has medical, ethical, economic, and social dimensions is related to alcohol consumption. The lockdown and consequent acute non-availability of alcohol resulted in people with alcohol dependence going into withdrawals, black marketing of alcohol, and in extreme cases suicide resulting from the alleged frustration of not having access to alcohol. The health dilemmas around this situation are biological (e.g. pushing people into risky situations-potentially fatal alcohol withdrawal, consumption of illicit or other non-consumable alcohol) and psychosocial (e.g. isolation increasing the risk of relapses, loss of control over the decision to abstain which can be detrimental to recovery, restriction of access to services for alcohol problems). The legal and rights-related dilemmas are centred around whether States have the right to impinge on individual autonomy on the grounds of public health, the capacity of the health systems to provide appropriate services to cope with those who will struggle with the unavailability of alcohol, the constitutionality of the Central government's impinging on jurisdiction of states under the guise of a health emergency caused by the pandemic, and the ability of the State to make unbiased decisions about this issue when it is highly dependent on the revenue from the sale of alcohol and associated industries. The way forward could be a pragmatic and utilitarian approach involving continued access to alcohol, while observing all physical distancing norms necessary during the pandemic, for those who want to continue drinking; and implementing innovative measures such as tele-counselling for those who wish not to return back to drinking.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool/ética , Abstinência de Álcool/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Direitos Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus , Governo Federal , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Quarentena , Governo Estadual , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/epidemiologia
9.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 28(1): 44, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631385

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic led to unprecedented changes, as many state and local governments enacted stay-at-home orders and non-essential businesses were closed. State chiropractic licensing boards play an important role in protecting the public via regulation of licensure and provision of guidance regarding standards of practice, especially during times of change or uncertainty. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to summarize the guidance provided in each of the 50 United States, related to chiropractic practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A review of the public facing websites of governors and state chiropractic licensing boards was conducted in the United States. Data were collected regarding the official guidance provided by each state's chiropractic licensing board as well as the issuance of stay-at-home orders and designations of essential personnel by state governors. Descriptive statistics were used to report the findings from this project. RESULTS: Each of the 50 state governor's websites and individual state chiropractic licensing board's websites were surveyed. Stay-at-home or shelter-in-place orders were issued in 86% of all states. Chiropractors were classified as essential providers in 54% of states, non-essential in one state (2%), and no guidance was provided in the remaining 44% of all states. Fourteen states (28%) recommended restricting visits to only urgent cases and the remaining states (72%) provided no guidance. Twenty-seven states (54%) provided information regarding protecting against infectious disease and the remaining states (46%) provided no guidance. Twenty-two states (44%) provided recommendations regarding chiropractic telehealth and the remaining states (56%) provided no guidance. Seventeen states (34%) altered license renewal requirements and eight states (16%) issued warnings against advertising misleading or false information regarding spinal manipulation and protection from COVID-19. CONCLUSION: State guidance during the COVID-19 pandemic was heterogenous, widely variability in accessibility, and often no guidance was provided by state chiropractic licensing boards. Some state chiropractic licensing boards chose to assemble guidance for licensees into a single location, which we identified as a best practice for future situations where changes in chiropractic practice must be quickly communicated.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Quiroprática/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo Estadual , Quiroprática/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estados Unidos
10.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661191

RESUMO

Most US states have now legalized medical marijuana (MMJ) use, giving new hope to families dealing with chronic illness, despite only limited data showing efficacy. Access to MMJ has presented several challenges for patients and families, providers, and pediatric hospitals, including the discrepancy between state and federal law, potential patient safety issues, and drug interaction concerns. Colorado was one of the first states to legalize MMJ and has remained at the forefront in addressing these challenges. Children's Hospital Colorado has created and evolved its MMJ inpatient use policy and has developed a unique consultative service consisting of a clinical pharmacist and social worker. This service supports patients and families and primary clinical services in situations in which MMJ is actively being used or considered by a pediatric patient. The first 50 patients seen by this consultative service are reported. Eighty percent of patients seen had an oncologic diagnosis. Symptoms to be ameliorated by active or potential MMJ use included nausea and vomiting, appetite stimulation, seizures, and pain. In 64% of patients, MMJ use was determined to be potentially unsafe, most often because of potential drug-drug interactions. In 68% of patients, a recommendation was made to either avoid MMJ use or adjust its administration schedule. As pediatric hospitals address the topic of MMJ use in their patients, development of institutional policy and clinical support services with specific expertise in MMJ is a recommended step to support patient and families and hospital team members.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos , Hospitais Pediátricos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Política Organizacional , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colorado , Governo Federal , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Legislação de Medicamentos , Masculino , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Governo Estadual , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Public Health ; 110(S2): S194-S196, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663084

RESUMO

Objectives. To examine the accuracy of official estimates of governmental health spending in the United States.Methods. We coded approximately 2.7 million administrative spending records from 2000 to 2018 for public health activities according to a standardized Uniform Chart of Accounts produced by the Public Health Activities and Services Tracking project. The official US Public Health Activity estimate was recalculated using updated estimates from the data coding.Results. Although official estimates place governmental public health spending at more than $93 billion (2.5% of total spending on health), detailed examination of spending records from state governments shows that official estimates include substantial spending on individual health care services (e.g., behavioral health) and that actual spending on population-level public health activities is more likely between $35 billion and $64 billion (approximately 1.5% of total health spending).Conclusions. Clarity in understanding of public health spending is critical for characterizing its value proposition. Official estimates are likely tens of billions of dollars greater than actual spending.Public Health Implications. Precise and clear spending estimates are material for policymakers to accurately understand the effect of their resource allocation decisions.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública/economia , Governo Estadual , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
12.
J Appl Psychol ; 105(8): 771-783, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614203

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease that emerged in 2019 (COVID-19) spotlights the need for effective leadership in a crisis. Leadership research in applied psychology suggests that women tend to be preferred over men as leaders during uncertain times. We contribute to this literature by examining, in the context of COVID-19, whether states with women governors had fewer deaths than states with men governors, and why. We tested this research question with publicly available data on COVID-19 deaths in the United States as of May 5, 2020 and found that states with women governors had fewer COVID-19 deaths compared to states with men governors. Governor sex also interacted with early stay-at-home orders; states with women governors who issued these orders early had fewer deaths compared to states with men governors who did the same. To provide insight into psychological mechanisms of this relationship, we conducted a qualitative analysis of governor briefings that took place between April 1, 2020 and May 5, 2020 (251 briefings, 38 governors, 1.2 million words). Compared to men, women governors expressed more empathy and confidence in their briefings. Practical implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Liderança , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Governo Estadual , Mulheres , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20033, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481373

RESUMO

Though overall death from opioid overdose are increasing in the United States, the death rate in some states and population groups is stabilizing or even decreasing. Several states have enacted a Naloxone Accessibility Laws to increase naloxone availability as an opioid antidote. The extent to which these laws permit layperson distribution and possession varies. The aim of this study is to investigate differences in provisions of Naloxone Accessibility Laws by states mainly in the Northeast and West regions, and the impact of naloxone availability on the rates of drug overdose deaths.This cross-sectional study was based on the National Vital Statistics System multiple cause-of-death mortality files. The average changes in drug overdose death rates between 2013 and 2017 in relevant states of the Northeast and West regions were compared according to availability of naloxone to laypersons.Seven states in the Northeast region and 10 states in the Western region allowed layperson distribution of naloxone. Layperson possession of naloxone was allowed in 3 states each in the Northeast and the Western regions. The average drug overdose death rates increased in many states in the both regions regardless of legalization of layperson naloxone distribution. The average death rates of 3 states that legalized layperson possession in the West region decreased (-0.33 per 100,000 person); however, in states in the West region that did not allow layperson possession and states in the Northeast region regardless of layperson possession increased between 2013 and 2017.The provision to legalize layperson possession of naloxone was associated with decreased average opioid overdose death rates in 3 states of the West region.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Naloxona/provisão & distribução , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/provisão & distribução , Estudos Transversais , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos
14.
Am J Public Health ; 110(8): 1184-1190, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552020

RESUMO

Objectives. To determine if and how state and local public health departments present information about climate change on their Web sites, their most public-facing platform.Methods. We collected data from every functioning state (n = 50), county (n = 2090), and city (n = 585) public health department Web site in the United States in 2019 and 2020. We analyzed data for presence and type of climate-related content and to determine whether there existed clear ways to find climate change information. We analyzed Web sites providing original content about climate change for explanatory or attributional language.Results. Fewer than half (40%) of state health department Web sites, and only 1.6% of county and 3.9% of city Web sites, provided clear ways to find climate change information, whether through provision of original content or links to external agencies' Web sites. Among Web sites providing original content, 48% provided no explanation of climate change causes.Conclusions. National and global public health associations have identified climate change as a public health emergency, but most state and local public health departments are not delivering that message. These departments must be better supported to facilitate dissemination of reliable, scientific information about climate change and its effects on health.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Disseminação de Informação , Governo Local , Saúde Pública , Mídias Sociais , Governo Estadual , Humanos , Internet , Saúde Pública/tendências , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/tendências , Estados Unidos
16.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 46(6): 19-23, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378289

RESUMO

This article reviews recent federal and state policy changes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic that affect health care and quality of life for older adults. Specific regulations and guidelines issued at the state and federal level have increased access and provided additional funding for essential services and supports. Many of these changes are temporary and have the potential to improve care beyond the immediate crisis. This period of greater flexibility offers the opportunity to accrue evidence on quality and access to influence sustained change. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 46(6), 19-23.].


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Enfermagem Geriátrica , Política de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Governo Federal , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 46(6): 19-23, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453436

RESUMO

This article reviews recent federal and state policy changes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic that affect health care and quality of life for older adults. Specific regulations and guidelines issued at the state and federal level have increased access and provided additional funding for essential services and supports. Many of these changes are temporary and have the potential to improve care beyond the immediate crisis. This period of greater flexibility offers the opportunity to accrue evidence on quality and access to influence sustained change. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 46(6), 19-23.].


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Enfermagem Geriátrica , Política de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Governo Federal , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Am J Public Health ; 110(7): 1002-1005, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437272

RESUMO

Objectives. To estimate the combined effect of California's Tobacco 21 law (enacted June 2016) and $2-per-pack cigarette excise tax increase (enacted April 2017) on cigarette prices and sales, compared with matched comparator states.Methods. We used synthetic control methods to compare cigarette prices and sales after the policies were enacted, relative to what we would have expected without the policy reforms. To estimate the counterfactual, we matched pre-reform covariate and outcome trends between California and control states to construct a "synthetic" California.Results. Compared with the synthetic control in 2018, cigarette prices in California were $1.89 higher ($7.86 vs $5.97; P < .001), and cigarette sales were 16.6% lower (19.9 vs 16.6 packs per capita; P < .001). This reduction in sales equates to 153.9 million fewer packs being sold between 2017 and 2018.Conclusions. California's new cigarette tax was largely passed on to consumers. The new cigarette tax, combined with the Tobacco 21 law, have contributed to a rapid and substantial reduction in cigarette consumption in California.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Pública , Impostos , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , California , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Humanos , Fumar/economia , Governo Estadual , Indústria do Tabaco/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Am J Public Health ; 110(7): 1039-1045, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437276

RESUMO

Objectives. To describe perceptions of access to abortion among women of reproductive age and their associations with state abortion policy contexts.Methods. We used data from the 2018 Survey of Family Planning and Women's Lives, a probability-based sample of 2115 adult women aged 18 to 44 years in US households.Results. We found that 27.6% of women (95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.3%, 32.7%) believed that access to medical abortion was difficult and 30.1% of women (95% CI = 25.6%, 35.1%) believed that access to surgical abortion was difficult. Adjusted for covariates, women were significantly more likely to perceive access to both surgical and medical abortions as difficult when they lived in states with 4 or more restrictive abortion policies compared with states with fewer restrictions (surgical adjusted odds ratio [AORsurgical] = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.21; AORmedical = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.95). Specific restrictive abortion policies (e.g., public funding restrictions, mandatory counseling or waiting periods, and targeted regulation of abortion providers) were also associated with greater perceived difficulty accessing both surgical and medical abortions.Conclusions. State policies restricting abortion access are associated with perceptions of reduced access to both medical and surgical abortions among women of reproductive age.


Assuntos
Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , Aborto Legal/economia , Adulto , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Percepção , Gravidez , Governo Estadual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
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