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1.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(6): e20369, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501802

RESUMO

We discuss the concept of a participatory digital contact notification approach to assist tracing of contacts who are exposed to confirmed cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19); the approach is simple and affordable for countries with limited access to health care resources and advanced technology. The proposed tool serves as a supplemental contract tracing approach to counteract the shortage of health care staff while providing privacy protection for both cases and contacts. This tool can be deployed on the internet or as a plugin for a smartphone app. Confirmed cases with COVID-19 can use this tool to provide contact information (either email addresses or mobile phone numbers) of close contacts. The system will then automatically send a message to the contacts informing them of their contact status, what this status means, the actions that should follow (eg, self-quarantine, respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette), and advice for receiving early care if they develop symptoms. The name of the sender of the notification message by email or mobile phone can be anonymous or not. The message received by the contact contains no disease information but contains a security code for the contact to log on the platform to retrieve the information.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças , Humanos , Aplicativos Móveis , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Privacidade
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 1): 2487-2492, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520293

RESUMO

Data has become increasingly important and valuable for both scientists and health authorities searching for answers to the COVID-19 crisis. Due to difficulties in diagnosing this infection in populations around the world, initiatives supported by digital technologies are being developed by governments and private companies to enable the tracking of the public's symptoms, contacts and movements. Considering the current scenario, initiatives designed to support infection surveillance and monitoring are essential and necessary. Nonetheless, ethical, legal and technical questions abound regarding the amount and types of personal data being collected, processed, shared and used in the name of public health, as well as the concomitant or posterior use of this data. These challenges demonstrate the need for new models of responsible and transparent data and technology governance in efforts to control SARS-COV2, as well as in future public health emergencies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Registros de Saúde Pessoal , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Privacidade , Confidencialidade , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Anonimização de Dados , Humanos , Mídias Sociais
3.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 270: 262-266, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570387

RESUMO

The IT- and data protection concept of the FAmiliäres Risiko für das KOloRektale Karzinom (FARKOR) project will be presented. FARKOR is a risk adapted screening-project in Bavaria, Germany focusing on young adults with familial colorectal cancer (CRC). For each participant, data from different sources have to be integrated: Treatment records centrally administered by the resident doctors association (KVB), data from health insurance companies (HIC), and patient reported lifestyle data. Patient privacy rights must be observed. Record Linkage is performed by a central independent trust center. Data are decrypted, integrated and analyzed in a secure part of the scientific evaluation center with no connection to the internet (SECSP). The presented concept guarantees participants privacy through different identifiers, separation of responsibilities, data pseudonymization, public-private key encryption of medical data and encrypted data transfer.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Confidencialidade , Registro Médico Coordenado , Sistemas Computadorizados de Registros Médicos , Privacidade , Alemanha , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Registro Médico Coordenado/métodos , Direitos do Paciente
4.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(6): e19457, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499212

RESUMO

The current pandemic of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has highlighted the importance of rapid control of the transmission of infectious diseases. This is particularly important for COVID-19, where many individuals are asymptomatic or have only mild symptoms but can still spread the disease. Current systems for controlling transmission rely on patients to report their symptoms to medical professionals and be able to recall and trace all their contacts from the previous few days. This is unrealistic in the modern world. However, existing smartphone-based GPS and social media technology may provide a suitable alternative. We, therefore, developed a mini-program within the app WeChat. This analyzes data from all users and traces close contacts of all patients. This permits early tracing and quarantine of potential sources of infection. Data from the mini-program can also be merged with other data to predict epidemic trends, calculate individual and population risks, and provide recommendations for individual and population protection action. It may also improve our understanding of how the disease spreads. However, there are a number of unresolved questions about the use of smartphone data for health surveillance, including how to protect individual privacy and provide safeguards against data breaches.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Inteligência Artificial , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Aplicativos Móveis , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Privacidade , Quarentena , Smartphone , Mídias Sociais , Análise Espaço-Temporal
5.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20282, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418194

RESUMO

As COVID-19 spreads across the globe, crowdsourced digital technology harbours the potential to improve surveillance and epidemic control, primarily through increased information coverage, higher information speed, fast case tracking and improved proximity tracing. Targeting those aims, COVID-19-related smartphone and web-based health applications are continuously emerging, leading to a multitude of options, raising ethical and legal challenges and potentially overwhelming end users. Building on an existing trustworthiness checklist for digital health applications, we searched the literature and developed a framework to guide the assessment of smartphone and web-based applications that aim to contribute to controlling the current epidemic or mitigating its effects. It further integrates epidemiological subject knowledge and a legal analysis, outlining the mechanisms through which new applications can support the fight against COVID-19. The resulting framework includes 40 questions across 8 domains on “purpose”, “usability”, “information accuracy”, “organisational attributes / reputation”, “transparency”, “privacy” and “user control / self-determination”. All questions should be primarily answerable from publicly available data, as provided by application manufacturers. The framework aims to guide end users in choosing a transparent, safe and valuable application and suggests a set of information items that developers ideally make available to allow a balanced judgement and facilitate the trustworthiness of their products.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Aplicativos Móveis , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral , Smartphone , Telemedicina , Betacoronavirus , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Aplicações da Informática Médica , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Privacidade
8.
NASN Sch Nurse ; 35(4): 198-202, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413270

RESUMO

The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 is the federal law that protects the privacy of personally identifiable information from student education records and applies to all education entities that receive funding under any program administered by the U.S. Department of Education. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 is the federal law that establishes privacy requirements for patients' protected health information. Together these privacy laws establish rules that guide school nurses in the sharing of student information, even in times of public health emergencies. The U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services have issued special updates to privacy laws in response to the Novel Coronavirus Disease providing certain waivers of typical privacy requirements and direction to allow the sharing of information during this public health emergency. The purpose of this article is to briefly review the privacy laws as they relate to schools, as well as to provide an overview of the recent waivers to assist school nurses, school administrators, healthcare professionals, and public health agencies in protecting the health and safety of students during this current public health emergency.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Confidencialidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus , Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Privacidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Enfermagem Escolar/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Enfermagem Escolar/normas , Emergências , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/normas , Estados Unidos
10.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(4): e18936, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an urgent public health crisis, with epidemiologic models predicting severe consequences, including high death rates, if the virus is permitted to run its course without any intervention or response. Contact tracing using smartphone technology is a powerful tool that may be employed to limit disease transmission during an epidemic or pandemic; yet, contact tracing apps present significant privacy concerns regarding the collection of personal data such as location. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop an effective contact tracing smartphone app that respects user privacy by not collecting location information or other personal data. METHODS: We propose the use of an anonymized graph of interpersonal interactions to conduct a novel form of contact tracing and have developed a proof-of-concept smartphone app that implements this approach. Additionally, we developed a computer simulation model that demonstrates the impact of our proposal on epidemic or pandemic outbreak trajectories across multiple rates of adoption. RESULTS: Our proof-of-concept smartphone app allows users to create "checkpoints" for contact tracing, check their risk level based on their past interactions, and anonymously self-report a positive status to their peer network. Our simulation results suggest that higher adoption rates of such an app may result in a better controlled epidemic or pandemic outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Our proposed smartphone-based contact tracing method presents a novel solution that preserves privacy while demonstrating the potential to suppress an epidemic or pandemic outbreak. This app could potentially be applied to the current COVID-19 pandemic as well as other epidemics or pandemics in the future to achieve a middle ground between drastic isolation measures and unmitigated disease spread.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Aplicativos Móveis , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Autorrelato , Smartphone , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Grupo Associado , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Privacidade , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco
13.
Am J Nurs ; 120(4): 19-20, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218037

RESUMO

Partnerships between tech companies and health systems challenge privacy expectations and laws.


Assuntos
Confidencialidade/normas , Registros de Saúde Pessoal/ética , Privacidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Confidencialidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Governo Estadual
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229201, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163423

RESUMO

The dissemination of information on networks involves many important practical issues, such as the spread and containment of rumors in social networks, the spread of infectious diseases among the population, commercial propaganda and promotion, the expansion of political influence and so on. One of the most important problems is the influence-maximization problem which is to find out k most influential nodes under a certain propagate mechanism. Since the problem was proposed in 2001, many works have focused on maximizing the influence in a single network. It is a NP-hard problem and the state-of-art algorithm IMM proposed by Youze Tang et al. achieves a ratio of 63.2% of the optimum with nearly linear time complexity. In recent years, there have been some works of maximizing influence on multilayer networks, either in the situation of single or multiple influences. But most of them study seed selection strategies to maximize their own influence from the perspective of participants. In fact, the problem from the perspective of network owners is also worthy of attention. Since network participants have not had access to all information of the network for reasons such as privacy protection and corporate interests, they may have access to only part of the social network. The owners of networks can get the whole picture of the networks, and they need not only to maximize the overall influence, but also to consider allocating seeds to their customers fairly, i.e., the Fair Seed Allocation (FSA) problem. As far as we know, FSA problem has been studied on a single network, but not on multilayer networks yet. From the perspective of network owners, we propose a multiple-influence diffusion model MMIC on multilayer networks and its FSA problem. Two solutions of FSA problem are given in this paper, and we prove theoretically that our seed allocation schemes are greedy. Subsequent experiments also validate the effectiveness of our approaches.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Rede Social , Algoritmos , Modelos Teóricos , Privacidade
15.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229044, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160204

RESUMO

We report results from a large survey of public attitudes regarding genomic database governance. Prior surveys focused on the context of academic-sponsored biobanks, framing data provision as altruistic donation; our survey is designed to reflect four growing trends: genomic databases are found across many sectors; they are used for more than academic biomedical research; their value is reflected in corporate transactions; and additional related privacy risks are coming to light. To examine how attitudes may evolve in response to these trends, we provided survey respondents with information from mainstream media coverage of them. We then found only 11.7% of respondents willing to altruistically donate their data, versus 50.6% willing to provide data if financially compensated, and 37.8% unwilling to provide data regardless of compensation. Because providing one's genomic data is sometimes bundled with receipt of a personalized genomic report, we also asked respondents what price they would be willing to pay for a personalized report. Subtracting that response value from one's expected compensation for providing data (if any) yields a net expected payment. For the altruistic donors, median net expected payment was -$75 (i.e. they expected to pay $75 for the bundle). For respondents wanting compensation for their data, however, median net expected payment was +$95 (i.e. they expected to receive $95). When asked about different genomic database governance policies, most respondents preferred options that allowed them more control over their data. In particular, they favored policies restricting data sharing or reuse unless permission is specifically granted by the individual. Policy preferences were also relatively consistent regardless of the sector in which the genomic database was located. Together these findings offer a forward-looking window on individual preferences that can be useful for institutions of all types as they develop governance approaches in this area of large-scale data sharing.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Disseminação de Informação , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Opinião Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude , Compensação e Reparação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Privacidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226603, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940367

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to gain information from egg donors in South Africa (SA) which could be pertinent to policy development on egg donation. The study was conducted on egg donors in the database of a Cape Town-based egg donation agency who donated within a year preceding the study. 150 egg donors from the population of 226 participated in an online survey. The main results are: 95% of respondents experienced egg donation as being positive. However, 7% of respondents report not giving proper informed consent, and a similar percentage of respondents also report not knowing whether any medical risks actually materialised as sequelae to their donations. This is a cause for concern and should be investigated further. Regarding donor anonymity, which is currently the legal position in SA, 79% of respondents indicated that they would still have donated had they been legally required to release their identities. Accordingly, possible legal reform away from the current system of donor anonymity seems unlikely to significantly impact the supply of donated eggs. Regarding motivation, respondents report being primarily motivated by wanting to help infertile women. However, respondents believe that a fair and realistic amount of compensation would be about 60% higher than what is currently paid as the national standard fixed amount. This fixed-amount compensation system should be further investigated in terms of its legality, impact on donor profile, and its current amount.


Assuntos
Motivação , Doação de Oócitos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Demografia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Doação de Oócitos/efeitos adversos , Privacidade , Risco , África do Sul
19.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228142, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of clinical providers and mothers on young women's ability to have confidential, candid reproductive health conversations with their providers. METHODS: We conducted 14 focus groups with 48 women aged 15-28 years (n = 9), and 32 reproductive healthcare workers (n = 5). Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. Data were analyzed using inductive coding and thematic analyses. We examined findings through the lens of paternalism, a theory that illustrates adults' role in children's autonomy and wellbeing. RESULTS: Mothers have a substantial impact on young women's health values, knowledge, and empowerment. Young women reported bringing information from their mothers into patient-provider health discussions. Clinical best practices included intermingled components of office policies, state laws, and clinical guidelines, which supported health workers' actions to have confidential conversations. There were variations in how health workers engaged young women in a confidential conversation within the exam room. CONCLUSIONS: Both young women and health workers benefit from situations in which health workers firmly ask the parent to leave the exam room for a private conversation with the patient. Young women reported this improves their comfort in asking the questions they need to make the best decision for themselves. Clinic leadership needs to ensure that confidentiality surrounding young women's reproductive health is uniform throughout their practice and integrated into patient flow.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicação , Confidencialidade , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Privacidade , Saúde Reprodutiva/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227800, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978096

RESUMO

The Internet of Things (IoT) brings internet connectivity to everyday electronic devices (e.g. security cameras and smart TVs) to improve their functionality and efficiency. However, serious security and privacy concerns have been raised about the IoT which impact upon consumer trust and purchasing. Moreover, devices vary considerably in terms of the security they provide, and it is difficult for consumers to differentiate between more and less secure devices. One proposal to address this is for devices to carry a security label to help consumers navigate the market and know which devices to trust, and to encourage manufacturers to improve security. Using a discrete choice experiment, we estimate the potential impact of such labels on participant's purchase decision making, along with device functionality and price. With the exception of a label that implied weak security, participants were significantly more likely to select a device that carried a label than one that did not. While they were generally willing to pay the most for premium functionality, for two of the labels tested, they were prepared to pay the same for security and functionality. Qualitative responses suggested that participants would use a label to inform purchasing decisions, and that the labels did not generate a false sense of security. Our findings suggest that the use of a security label represents a policy option that could influence behaviour and that should be seriously considered.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Tomada de Decisões , Internet das Coisas/economia , Privacidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Internet das Coisas/legislação & jurisprudência , Internet das Coisas/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Políticas , Privacidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/economia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/psicologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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