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1.
Wiad Lek ; 73(5): 1048-1052, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to analyze the legal framework regulating surrogacy relations in Ukraine, its main loopholes and collisions, and provide suggestions to improve the Ukrainian legislation on surrogacy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The methodological framework of the research consists of general methods of analysis and synthesis, formal logical method and formal legal method. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The procedure for the implementation of surrogacy in Ukraine is enshrined in several regulatory acts. Ukrainian legislation has some loopholes and collisions, representing the challenges that have to be addressed in the nearest future. It is necessary to reconsider the existing legal acts to strengthen state control and supervision in this area for proper protection of the rights and responsibilities of subjects entering surrogate agreements.


Assuntos
Jurisprudência , Ucrânia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817607

RESUMO

This work analyzes inter-parental revenge after a breakup process, as it relates to the dark triad of personality, moral disengagement, and sex role ideology. Our objective was to test a predictive model for revenge based on these variables. Additionally, a scale to measure revenge among parents was developed. A sample of 384 participants who had minor children, had broken up their relationship, and had undergone or were undergoing problematic judicial procedures regarding their children completed a survey. They answered to measures of the dark triad of personality (Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy); moral disengagement strategies; sex role ideology, and revenge. An instrument (the R scale), with adequate reliability and validity was developed to test revenge. Results show that revenge behaviors are perpetrated by 1 to 5% of participants. Revenge has three components: revenge through the child, revenge through economic manipulation, and revenge by cutting off communication. Results also show that for males, but not for females, sex role ideology mediates the relationship between the components of the dark triad, moral disengagement, and revenge. This paper aims at providing some insight for the protection of minors from manipulation by means of the Family Courts.


Assuntos
Jurisprudência , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Yale J Biol Med ; 92(4): 793-803, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866796

RESUMO

The Eighth Amendment to the US Constitution prohibits the infliction of cruel and unusual punishments. However, no method of executing prisoners has ever been deemed by the Supreme Court to constitute Cruel and Unusual Punishment. Constitutional challenges to the dominant mode of executing prisoners today - lethal injection - are hobbled by a lack of clinical data that would reveal the likelihood this method might inflict gratuitous pain. Here, we assess the contemporary Eighth Amendment jurisprudence, including its legal and scientific limitations, and suggest modifications.


Assuntos
Pena de Morte/legislação & jurisprudência , Jurisprudência , Decisões da Suprema Corte , Humanos , Estados Unidos
9.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(4): 297-301, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887735

RESUMO

A 65-year-old woman affected by chronic pruritus in both ears was referred by her family physician to a private laboratory to undergo an ear swab test for microbiological and cultural examination. During the procedure on the right side, the patient experienced sudden pain, immediately followed by auricular fullness and dizziness. The clinician performing the swab did not perform an otoscopy and did not administer any topical or general medications. A few days later, purulent discharge appeared. Follow-up showed tympanic membrane perforation and mixed severe hearing loss. Indications for ear swab tests are currently unclear, and complications deriving from this apparently simple procedure are seldom reported.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/complicações , Jurisprudência , Erros Médicos , Otite Média/complicações , Perfuração da Membrana Timpânica , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Ruptura Espontânea
10.
Health Hum Rights ; 21(2): 109-120, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885441

RESUMO

In 1983, voters inserted the Eighth Amendment into Ireland's constitution, equating the right to life of a fetus with that of a pregnant person. Hundreds of thousands of women were forced overseas to access basic health care and thousands more were forced underground, importing abortion pills and risking prosecution. The realities of life under the Eighth Amendment sparked a powerful feminist grassroots struggle for abortion access. This article charts the path to abortion law reform in the Republic of Ireland from the perspective of grassroots activists in the Abortion Rights Campaign (ARC). The first half highlights the national and international policy mechanisms that activists leveraged to bring Ireland's abortion regime to the point of reform, as well as the power of challenging abortion stigma to mobilize the public and politicians, culminating in a resounding vote in May 2018 to repeal the Eighth Amendment. The second half analyzes the legislation enacted in late 2018 in order to give effect to the vote. While the new law and its commitment to free abortion is a momentous step for Ireland, it also establishes a needlessly cumbersome regime that remains grounded in a criminal law framework and incorporates barriers that have no grounding in medical evidence.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , Saúde Reprodutiva , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Jurisprudência , Política , Gravidez
13.
Am J Law Med ; 45(2-3): 106-129, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722633

RESUMO

Beginning on inauguration day, President Trump has attempted an executive repeal of the Affordable Care Act. In doing so, he has tested the limits of presidential power. He has challenged the force of institutional and non-institutional constraints. And, ironically, he has helped boost public support for the ACA's central features. The first two sections of this article respectively consider the use of the President's tools to advance and to subvert health reform. The final two sections consider the forces constraining the administration's attempted executive repeal. I argue that the most important institutional constraint, thus far, is found in multifaceted actions by states - and not only blue states. I also highlight the force of public voices. Personal stories, public opinion, and 2018 election results - bolstered by presidential messaging - reflect growing support for government-grounded options and statutory coverage protections. Indeed, in a polarized time, "refine and revise" seems poised to supplant "repeal and replace" as the conservative focus countering liberal pressure for a common option grounded in Medicare.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/legislação & jurisprudência , Política , Governo Federal , Financiamento Governamental/legislação & jurisprudência , Financiamento Governamental/organização & administração , Regulamentação Governamental , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Jurisprudência , Medicaid/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicaid/organização & administração , Medicare/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicare/organização & administração , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/organização & administração , Cobertura de Condição Pré-Existente , Opinião Pública , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos
16.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 101(20): 1806-1811, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections complicate a minority of orthopaedic arthroplasties but are the leading cause of malpractice claims. The basis for the claims is unclear. The objective of this study was to identify the main deviations from current recommendations by reviewing patient files recorded by a major French medical liability-specialized insurance company for private practitioners (MACSF [Mutuelle d'Assurance du Corps de Santé Français]) and to analyze legal claims and outcomes of litigation. METHODS: All claims data for periprosthetic joint infections were analyzed retrospectively from 2010 to 2014. Treatment strategies were compared with therapeutic guidelines published by medical societies. RESULTS: Forty-five claims for periprosthetic joint infection were recorded; 82% of patients were men and the mean patient age was 63 years. Twenty-one patients (47%) had a knee arthroplasty, 21 had a hip arthroplasty, 2 had a shoulder arthroplasty, and 1 had an ankle arthroplasty. Twenty-three infections (51%) occurred within 1 month postoperatively. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from intraoperative samples in 36% of the cases (including 25% of these with methicillin-resistant strains), and coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated in 51% (44% methicillin-resistant strains) of the cases. Treatment lasted for a median of 9.5 months (range, 1.5 to 96 months), with a median of 6 months (range, 1.5 to 20 months) of antibiotics and 3 surgical procedures (range, 0 to 7 surgical procedures). A total of 18% of patients had antibiotic-related side effects, 2% of patients died, and 76% of patients had persistent sequelae. An infectious disease specialist's advice was required for 56% of the patients. Discordances with therapeutic guidelines were found in 76% of the patient files, including delay in diagnosis (44%) and inadequate medical treatment (18%) or medico-surgical treatment (13%). CONCLUSIONS: Late diagnosis of early postoperative infections appears to be the major cause of inappropriate management and malpractice litigation. Discordance with current guidelines was identified. Early consultation with an infectious disease specialist may help to reduce malpractice claims. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Substituição/legislação & jurisprudência , Prótese Articular/efeitos adversos , Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/estatística & dados numéricos , Artroplastia de Substituição/instrumentação , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Jurisprudência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Athl Train ; 54(12): 1237-1240, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642711

RESUMO

Educational institutions sponsoring competitive athletics may use an athletics model, academic model, or medical model for delivery of sports medicine to student-athletes. Four types of legal risk are considered for these 3 models: litigation, contract, regulatory, and structural. The athletics model presents the greatest legal risk to institutions, whereas the medical model presents the least legal risk. Institutional administrators should consider these risks when selecting or maintaining a delivery model for sports medicine.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina Esportiva/legislação & jurisprudência , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Jurisprudência , Competência Profissional/normas , Papel Profissional , Medição de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Responsabilidade Social , Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Esportiva/organização & administração , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 19(2): e99-e102, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538006

RESUMO

Photography in the medical profession is an asset that may help during patients' follow-up, monitoring the progression of diseases, getting a second opinion and in medical educational activities. Advances in technology, specifically smartphones, have enabled medical professionals to obtain high-quality photographs with minimal effort and photography experience. This article discusses the ethics and legality of using personal smartphones in a medical professional setting for medical photography. Written informed consent should always be obtained from the patient and should include details about how the photographs will be used.


Assuntos
Documentação/métodos , Fotografação/ética , Fotografação/legislação & jurisprudência , Smartphone/normas , Documentação/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Jurisprudência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 74(4): 416-439, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553441

RESUMO

This essay explores the uses of phrenological theory in the realm of jurisprudence between the mid-1830s and 1850s, focusing in particular on the adoption and circulation of phrenological language within medico-legal circles through this period. The article begins by contextualizing medical jurisprudence in early America; at the same time that phrenology was gaining ground in the United States, theories of medical jurisprudence were in flux. I next turn to the concept of the propensities in phrenological theory and their relationship to theories of moral insanity developed in the same period. This article concludes with an exploration of explicit and implicit uses of phrenology, focusing on court cases featuring phrenological expertise or language. The article thus suggests both the uses of phrenology for the building of medico-legal expertise and the extent to which phrenological language around the propensities inflected lay and medico-legal discourse around criminal responsibility and insanity.


Assuntos
Defesa por Insanidade/história , Jurisprudência/história , Frenologia/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Defesa por Insanidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
20.
Med Leg J ; 87(3): 135-139, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507246

RESUMO

During recent years, arguments supporting and opposing the legalisation of assisted dying have greatly intensified. The issue is a matter for society to decide, but physicians and psychiatrists have an essential role in informing public and parliamentary opinion on the contributions and limitations of medical knowledge related to the assessment of patients who request assisted dying and the necessity for strict safeguards should it be legalised. Some of the more important aspects of assessment and safeguards are discussed in this paper.


Assuntos
Jurisprudência , Suicídio Assistido/legislação & jurisprudência , Ética Médica , Humanos , Padrão de Cuidado/legislação & jurisprudência , Padrão de Cuidado/tendências
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