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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD013632, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic has been identified as a possible trigger for increases in loneliness and social isolation among older people due to the restrictions on movement that many countries have put in place. Loneliness and social isolation are consistently identified as risk factors for poor mental and physical health in older people. Video calls may help older people stay connected during the current crisis by widening the participant's social circle or by increasing the frequency of contact with existing acquaintances. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this rapid review is to assess the effectiveness of video calls for reducing social isolation and loneliness in older adults. The review also sought to address the effectiveness of video calls on reducing symptoms of depression and improving quality of life. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL from 1 January 2004 to 7 April 2020. We also searched the references of relevant systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs (including cluster designs) were eligible for inclusion. We excluded all other study designs. The samples in included studies needed to have a mean age of at least 65 years. We included studies that included participants whether or not they were experiencing symptoms of loneliness or social isolation at baseline. Any intervention in which a core component involved the use of the internet to facilitate video calls or video conferencing through computers, smartphones or tablets with the intention of reducing loneliness or social isolation, or both, in older adults was eligible for inclusion. We included studies in the review if they reported self-report measures of loneliness, social isolation, symptoms of depression or quality of life.  Two review authors screened 25% of abstracts; a third review author resolved conflicts. A single review author screened the remaining abstracts. The second review author screened all excluded abstracts and we resolved conflicts by consensus or by involving a third review author. We followed the same process for full-text articles. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author extracted data, which another review author checked. The primary outcomes were loneliness and social isolation and the secondary outcomes were symptoms of depression and quality of life. One review author rated the certainty of evidence for the primary outcomes according to the GRADE approach and another review author checked the ratings. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses for the primary outcome, loneliness, and the secondary outcome, symptoms of depression. MAIN RESULTS: We identified three cluster quasi-randomised trials, which together included 201 participants. The included studies compared video call interventions to usual care in nursing homes. None of these studies were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic.  Each study measured loneliness using the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Total scores range from 20 (least lonely) to 80 (most lonely). The evidence was very uncertain and suggests that video calls may result in little to no difference in scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale compared to usual care at three months (mean difference (MD) -0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.28 to 2.41; 3 studies; 201 participants), at six months (MD -0.34, 95% CI -3.41 to 2.72; 2 studies; 152 participants) and at 12 months (MD -2.40, 95% CI -7.20 to 2.40; 1 study; 90 participants). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. None of the included studies reported social isolation as an outcome. Each study measured symptoms of depression using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Total scores range from 0 (better) to 30 (worse). The evidence was very uncertain and suggests that video calls may result in little to no difference in scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale compared to usual care at three months' follow-up (MD 0.41, 95% CI -0.90 to 1.72; 3 studies; 201 participants) or six months' follow-up (MD -0.83, 95% CI -2.43 to 0.76; 2 studies, 152 participants). The evidence suggests that video calls may have a small effect on symptoms of depression at one-year follow-up, though this finding is imprecise (MD -2.04, 95% CI -3.98 to -0.10; 1 study; 90 participants). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. Only one study, with 62 participants, reported quality of life. The study measured quality of life using a Taiwanese adaptation of the Short-Form 36-question health survey (SF-36), which consists of eight subscales that measure different aspects of quality of life: physical function; physical role; emotional role; social function; pain: vitality; mental health; and physical health. Each subscale is scored from 0 (poor health) to 100 (good health). The evidence is very uncertain and suggests that there may be little to no difference between people allocated to usual care and those allocated to video calls in three-month scores in physical function (MD 2.88, 95% CI -5.01 to 10.77), physical role (MD -7.66, 95% CI -24.08 to 8.76), emotional role (MD -7.18, 95% CI -16.23 to 1.87), social function (MD 2.77, 95% CI -8.87 to 14.41), pain scores (MD -3.25, 95% CI -15.11 to 8.61), vitality scores (MD -3.60, 95% CI -9.01 to 1.81), mental health (MD 9.19, 95% CI 0.36 to 18.02) and physical health (MD 5.16, 95% CI -2.48 to 12.80). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on this review there is currently very uncertain evidence on the effectiveness of video call interventions to reduce loneliness in older adults. The review did not include any studies that reported evidence of the effectiveness of video call interventions to address social isolation in older adults. The evidence regarding the effectiveness of video calls for outcomes of symptoms of depression was very uncertain. Future research in this area needs to use more rigorous methods and more diverse and representative participants. Specifically, future studies should target older adults, who are demonstrably lonely or socially isolated, or both, across a range of settings to determine whether video call interventions are effective in a population in which these outcomes are in need of improvement.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Solidão/psicologia , Redes Sociais Online , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD013632, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic has been identified as a possible trigger for increases in loneliness and social isolation among older people due to the restrictions on movement that many countries have put in place. Loneliness and social isolation are consistently identified as risk factors for poor mental and physical health in older people. Video calls may help older people stay connected during the current crisis by widening the participant's social circle or by increasing the frequency of contact with existing acquaintances. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this rapid review is to assess the effectiveness of video calls for reducing social isolation and loneliness in older adults. The review also sought to address the effectiveness of video calls on reducing symptoms of depression and improving quality of life. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL from 1 January 2004 to 7 April 2020. We also searched the references of relevant systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs (including cluster designs) were eligible for inclusion. We excluded all other study designs. The samples in included studies needed to have a mean age of at least 65 years. We included studies that included participants whether or not they were experiencing symptoms of loneliness or social isolation at baseline. Any intervention in which a core component involved the use of the internet to facilitate video calls or video conferencing through computers, smartphones or tablets with the intention of reducing loneliness or social isolation, or both, in older adults was eligible for inclusion. We included studies in the review if they reported self-report measures of loneliness, social isolation, symptoms of depression or quality of life.  Two review authors screened 25% of abstracts; a third review author resolved conflicts. A single review author screened the remaining abstracts. The second review author screened all excluded abstracts and we resolved conflicts by consensus or by involving a third review author. We followed the same process for full-text articles. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author extracted data, which another review author checked. The primary outcomes were loneliness and social isolation and the secondary outcomes were symptoms of depression and quality of life. One review author rated the certainty of evidence for the primary outcomes according to the GRADE approach and another review author checked the ratings. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses for the primary outcome, loneliness, and the secondary outcome, symptoms of depression. MAIN RESULTS: We identified three cluster quasi-randomised trials, which together included 201 participants. The included studies compared video call interventions to usual care in nursing homes. None of these studies were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic.  Each study measured loneliness using the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Total scores range from 20 (least lonely) to 80 (most lonely). The evidence was very uncertain and suggests that video calls may result in little to no difference in scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale compared to usual care at three months (mean difference (MD) -0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.28 to 2.41; 3 studies; 201 participants), at six months (MD -0.34, 95% CI -3.41 to 2.72; 2 studies; 152 participants) and at 12 months (MD -2.40, 95% CI -7.20 to 2.40; 1 study; 90 participants). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. None of the included studies reported social isolation as an outcome. Each study measured symptoms of depression using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Total scores range from 0 (better) to 30 (worse). The evidence was very uncertain and suggests that video calls may result in little to no difference in scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale compared to usual care at three months' follow-up (MD 0.41, 95% CI -0.90 to 1.72; 3 studies; 201 participants) or six months' follow-up (MD -0.83, 95% CI -2.43 to 0.76; 2 studies, 152 participants). The evidence suggests that video calls may have a small effect on symptoms of depression at one-year follow-up, though this finding is imprecise (MD -2.04, 95% CI -3.98 to -0.10; 1 study; 90 participants). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. Only one study, with 62 participants, reported quality of life. The study measured quality of life using a Taiwanese adaptation of the Short-Form 36-question health survey (SF-36), which consists of eight subscales that measure different aspects of quality of life: physical function; physical role; emotional role; social function; pain: vitality; mental health; and physical health. Each subscale is scored from 0 (poor health) to 100 (good health). The evidence is very uncertain and suggests that there may be little to no difference between people allocated to usual care and those allocated to video calls in three-month scores in physical function (MD 2.88, 95% CI -5.01 to 10.77), physical role (MD -7.66, 95% CI -24.08 to 8.76), emotional role (MD -7.18, 95% CI -16.23 to 1.87), social function (MD 2.77, 95% CI -8.87 to 14.41), pain scores (MD -3.25, 95% CI -15.11 to 8.61), vitality scores (MD -3.60, 95% CI -9.01 to 1.81), mental health (MD 9.19, 95% CI 0.36 to 18.02) and physical health (MD 5.16, 95% CI -2.48 to 12.80). We downgraded the certainty of this evidence by three levels for study limitations, imprecision and indirectness. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on this review there is currently very uncertain evidence on the effectiveness of video call interventions to reduce loneliness in older adults. The review did not include any studies that reported evidence of the effectiveness of video call interventions to address social isolation in older adults. The evidence regarding the effectiveness of video calls for outcomes of symptoms of depression was very uncertain. Future research in this area needs to use more rigorous methods and more diverse and representative participants. Specifically, future studies should target older adults, who are demonstrably lonely or socially isolated, or both, across a range of settings to determine whether video call interventions are effective in a population in which these outcomes are in need of improvement.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Solidão/psicologia , Redes Sociais Online , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228961, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053665

RESUMO

Simple instructions have been shown to robustly influence individual creativity, which is key to solve local problems. Building on social labeling theory, we examine the possibility of nudging individual's creativity using "creative" and "not creative" labels. Study 1 showed that subjects labeled as "creative" or "not creative" performed better in a creative task than unlabeled subjects and established the moderating effect of self-perceived creativity. Among subjects scoring low on self-perceived creativity, those labeled as "creative" performed better than those labeled as "not creative". Conversely, among subjects scoring high on self-perceived creativity, those labeled as "not creative" tend to perform better than those labeled as "creative". Study 2 and Study 3 further explored the psychological mechanisms at play in both cases: specifically, Study 2 showed that applying a "creative" label has the ability to increase creative self-efficacy through self-perceived creativity, whereas Study 3 demonstrated that applying a "not creative" label has the ability to increase individual creativity performance through a higher involvement in the creative task.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Autoeficácia , Identificação Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775387

RESUMO

Adolescents actively use social media, which engages them cognitively, emotionally, and behaviorally. However, the underlying psychological mechanisms of engagement have not been adequately addressed. The present study examined adolescents' psychological processes as these develop in their everyday interactions via social media. The sample comprised six focus groups with 42 adolescents from UK-based schools. Data were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory. The resulting concepts related to individual, social, and structurally related processes, highlighting a synergy between the processes underlying use and a gradual reduction of control as individual, social, and structurally led processes emerge, conceptualized as the 'control model' of social media engagement. The findings highlight a controlling aspect in engagement and a dynamic interplay between the processes as mutually determining the quality and the intensity of the interaction. Recommendations are provided for examining control as a main emotional, cognitive, and behavioral mechanism in problematic and/or addictive social media and smartphone use.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Teoria Fundamentada , Smartphone , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
J Bioeth Inq ; 16(3): 353-364, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273601

RESUMO

Although "you are what you eat" is a well-worn cliché, personal identity does not figure prominently in many debates about the ethics of eating interventions. This paper contributes to a growing philosophical literature theorizing the connection between eating and identity and exploring its implications for eating interventions. I explore how "identity-policing," a key mechanism for the social constitution and maintenance of identity, applies to eating and trace its ethical implications for eating interventions. I argue that identity policing can be harmful and that eating interventions can subject people to these harms by invoking identity policing qua intervention strategy or by encouraging people to eat in ways that subject them to policing from others. While these harms may be outweighed by the benefits of the intervention being promoted, they should nonetheless be acknowledged and accounted for. To aid in these evaluations, I consider factors that modulate the presence and severity of identity-policing and discuss strategies for developing less harmful eating interventions. I conclude by considering the relationship between identity-policing and identity loss caused by long-term diet change. This paper contributes to the centering of identity in food ethics and to a more comprehensive picture of identity's ethical importance for eating interventions.


Assuntos
Dieta/ética , Dieta/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/ética , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Identificação Social , Humanos , Motivação , Marginalização Social , Normas Sociais
6.
Health Care Women Int ; 40(10): 1101-1116, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335306

RESUMO

Our aim was to develop a framework-based weight control behavior questionnaire (Weight-CuRB) and test its psychometric properties among a non-probability sample of 240 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Appropriate validity, simplicity, functionality and reliability were observed for the Weight-CuRB. The explanatory model fits the data well (χ2 [139] = 245.835, p < .001, CFI = 0.950, NFI = 0.901, IFI = 0.950, RMSEA = 0.057[(0.045-0.068]). To our knowledge, this was the first study to develop and validate a framework-based instrument aiming at cognitive needs assessment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The weight-CuRB may be useful in addressing the core cognitive determinants of weight control among the patients.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Motivação , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/psicologia , Pós-Menopausa , Psicometria/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Ganho de Peso
7.
Am J Community Psychol ; 63(1-2): 168-178, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801733

RESUMO

Collective efficacy is a widely studied theoretical framework. Originally operationalized as the combination of social cohesion and informal social control, collective efficacy theory is a predictor of multiple positive outcomes. Conceptual and empirical critiques of collective efficacy theory suggest that social cohesion and informal social control should be modeled as unique constructs. Further, the current model of collective efficacy theory does not include an explicit measure of efficacy. Mutual efficacy, defined as community members' beliefs that collective action will be successful at attaining group goals, will be developed in this manuscript. The purpose of mutual efficacy was to make efficacy an explicit component within collective efficacy theory. Three models of collective efficacy theory are compared in this study: (a) a one-factor model of collective efficacy that combines social cohesion and informal social control, (b) a two-factor model of collective efficacy that models social cohesion as a predictor of informal social control, and (c) a mutual efficacy model where the relationship between social cohesion and informal social control is mediated by mutual efficacy. Results suggest that the two-factor model and the mutual efficacy model both fit the data better than the current model of collective efficacy.


Assuntos
Teoria Psicológica , Comportamento Social , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Meio Social , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Autoeficácia , Washington
8.
J Nurs Manag ; 27(1): 103-108, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29993153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between informal leaders, i.e., highly competent individuals who have influence over peers without holding formal leadership positions, and organisational outcomes has not been adequately assessed in health care. AIMS: We evaluated the relationships between informal leaders and experience, job satisfaction and patient satisfaction, among hospital nurses. METHODS: Floor nurses in non-leadership positions participated in an online survey and rated colleagues' leadership behaviours. Nurses identified as informal leaders took an additional survey to determine their leadership styles via the Multifactor Leadership QuestionnaireTM . Six months of patient satisfaction data were linked to the nursing units. RESULTS: A total of 3,456 (91%) nurses received peer ratings and 628 (18%) were identified as informal leaders. Informal leaders had more experience (13.2 ± 10.9 vs. 8.4 ± 9.7 years, p < 0.001) and higher job satisfaction than their counterparts (4.8 ± 1.2 vs. 4.5 ± 1.1, p = 0.007). Neither the proportion of informal leaders on a unit nor leadership style was associated with patient satisfaction (p = 0.53, 0.46, respectively). CONCLUSION: While significant relationships were not detected between patient satisfaction and styles/proportion of informal leaders, we found that informal leaders had more years of experience and higher job satisfaction. More work is needed to understand the informal leaders' roles in achieving organisational outcomes. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Nurse informal leaders are unique resources and health care organisations should utilise them for optimal outcomes.


Assuntos
Liderança , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/normas , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas
9.
Bioethics ; 33(4): 495-501, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480821

RESUMO

Collaborations in global health research are on the rise because they enhance productivity, facilitate capacity building, accelerate output and make tackling big, multifactorial research questions possible. In this paper, I examine the concepts of trust and reliance in scientific collaborations in general, but also in the particular context of collaborations in global health research between high-income countries and low-and-middle income countries (LMIC). I propose and defend the argument that given the particular characteristics of collaborations and demands of trust relationships, reliance is a better relational mode for successful collaborations. Although reliance can be difficult to establish in situations where asymmetry of power exists, trust should not be the only relational mode available to LMIC researchers because of the type of vulnerability it introduces to the relationship. I conclude that the promotion of good collaborations requires addressing the power imbalances between partners, and establishing an even playing field in global health research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Confiança , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Poder Psicológico , Pesquisadores , Controles Informais da Sociedade
10.
Salud Colect ; 14(2): 273-288, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281755

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to understand the meanings of religious work in the prevention of violence and in the recovery of people involved in illicit acts in a complex of shantytowns in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The activities of religious entities in the territory, the view of religious leaders regarding their role and that of their church, and the representations of the territory and of the people who commit violent acts were analyzed. Using a qualitative approach, participant observation and interviews of religious leaders and "converts" were conducted between 2010 and 2012. The resulting narratives were treated using enunciation analysis. The leaders emphasize the importance of their churches' actions in violent and precarious areas, while the "converts" highlight the role of evangelization in their religious conversion. However, the relationships between religion and violence are complex, involving various types of trajectories and behaviors; in this way, the strength of religious support in the conversion process is both highlighted and questioned. The text concludes that churches' actions tend to be palliative and focused on the individual and therefore do little to transform reality, with the church potentially taking on roles of social control and pacification.


Assuntos
Pobreza , Religião , Violência , Brasil , Organizações Religiosas , Humanos , Liderança , Controles Informais da Sociedade , População Urbana , Violência/prevenção & controle , Trabalho
11.
Dev Psychopathol ; 30(5): 1797-1815, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106356

RESUMO

The present study extends prior research on the link between neighborhood disadvantage and chronic illness by testing an integrated model in which neighborhood characteristics exert effects on health conditions through accelerated cardiometabolic aging. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 408 African Americans from the Family and Community Health Study. Using four waves of data spanning young adulthood (ages 18-29), we first found durable effects of neighborhood disadvantage on accelerated cardiometabolic aging and chronic illness. Then, we used marginal structural modeling to adjust for potential neighborhood selection effects. As expected, accelerated cardiometabolic aging was the biopsychosocial mechanism that mediated much of the association between neighborhood disadvantage and chronic illness. This finding provides additional support for the view that neighborhood disadvantage can influence morbidity and mortality by creating social contexts that becomes biologically embedded. Perceived neighborhood collective efficacy served to buffer the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and biological aging, identifying neighborhood-level resilience factor. Overall, our results indicate that neighborhood context serves as a fundamental cause of weathering and accelerated biological aging. Residing in a disadvantaged neighborhood increases biological wear and tear that ultimately leads to onset of chronic illness, but access to perceived collective efficacy buffers the impact of these neighborhood effects. From an intervention standpoint, identifying such an integrated model may help inform future health-promoting interventions.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doença Crônica/etnologia , Cardiopatias/etnologia , Doenças Metabólicas/etnologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Adolescente , Adulto , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Fam Community Health ; 41(4): 214-224, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134336

RESUMO

Despite the knowledge that children in low-income neighborhoods are particularly vulnerable to asthma, few studies of child asthma focus on variation among low-income neighborhoods. We examined the relationship between child asthma and features associated with neighborhood poverty including safety, social cohesion, informal social control, collective efficacy, and disorder, across a sample of children from low-income neighborhoods (N = 3010; 2005-2007). Results show that the relationship between asthma and poverty is accounted for by family-level characteristics, but informal social control remains significantly and positively related to asthma after accounting for family-level characteristics. We discuss the importance of neighborhood environmental features for children's asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pobreza
13.
Nutrients ; 10(7)2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018221

RESUMO

This study evaluated the impact of a 6-month school nutrition intervention on changes in dietary knowledge, attitude, behavior (KAB) and nutritional status of Syrian refugee children. A quasi-experimental design was followed; Syrian refuge children in grades 4 to 6 were recruited from three informal primary schools (two intervention and one control) located in the rural Bekaa region of Lebanon. The intervention consisted of two main components: classroom-based education sessions and provision of locally-prepared healthy snacks. Data on household socio-demographic characteristics, KAB, anthropometric measures and dietary intake of children were collected by trained field workers at baseline and post-intervention. Of the 296 school children enrolled, 203 (68.6%) completed post-intervention measures. Significant increases in dietary knowledge (ß = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.89), attitude (ß = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.08, 1.30), and body mass index-for-age-z-scores (ß = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.10, 0.41) were observed among intervention vs. control groups, adjusting for covariates (p < 0.05). Compared to the control, the intervention group had, on average, significantly larger increases in daily intakes of total energy, dietary fiber, protein, saturated fat, and several key micronutrients, p < 0.05. Findings suggest a positive impact of this school-based nutrition intervention on dietary knowledge, attitude, and nutritional status of Syrian refugee children. Further studies are needed to test the feasibility and long-term impact of scaling-up such interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/dietoterapia , Ciências da Nutrição Infantil/educação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Dieta Saudável , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estado Nutricional , Refugiados , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/etnologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil/etnologia , Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Estado Nutricional/etnologia , Projetos Piloto , Campos de Refugiados , Refugiados/educação , Saúde da População Rural/etnologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Lanches/etnologia , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Aprendizado Social , Síria/etnologia
14.
BMC Med Ethics ; 19(1): 53, 2018 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual Use Research of Concern (DURC) constitutes a major challenge for research practice and oversight on the local, national and international level. The situation in Germany is shaped by two partly competing suggestions of how to regulate security-related research: The German Ethics Council, as an independent political advisory body, recommended a series of measures, including national legislation on DURC. Competing with that, the German National Academy of Sciences and the German Research Foundation, as two major professional bodies, presented a strategy which draws on the self-control of science and, inter alia, suggests expanding the scope of research ethics committees (RECs) to an evaluation of DURC. MAIN BODY: This situation is taken as an occasion to further discuss the scope and limits of professional self-control with respect to security-related research. The role of RECs as professional bodies of science is particularly analyzed, referring to the theoretical backgrounds of professionalism. Two key sociological features of professionalism - ethical orientation and professional self-control - are discussed with respect to the practice of biomedical science. Both attributes are then analyzed with respect to the assessment of DURC by RECs. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, it is stated that issues of biosecurity transcend the boundaries of the scientific community and that a more comprehensive strategy should be implemented encompassing both professional self-control and legal oversight.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Pesquisa de Uso Dual/ética , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Regulamentação Governamental , Pesquisadores/ética , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisa de Uso Dual/legislação & jurisprudência , Ética em Pesquisa , Alemanha , Humanos , Profissionalismo
15.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196852, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723255

RESUMO

Because punishments are expected to give offenders what they deserve proportionally to the severity of their offenses, the punishment of an entire group because of the misdeed of a few of its members is generally considered as unfair. Group entitativity might increase support for such collective punishment, because members of highly entitative groups are perceived as more similar and interchangeable. We designed three experiments comparing support for third-party collective punishment of low versus high entitative groups. As comparison base-rate, we included conditions in which participants punish an individual wrongdoer (Experiments 1 & 2). Results show that although support for individual punishment is higher than support for collective punishment, this difference was reduced (Experiment 1) or absent (Experiment 2) when the group was highly entitative. Experiment 3 replicated the increasing effect of group entitativity on support for collective punishment. We conclude that group entitativity increases the likelihood of an entire group being treated as a single unit, facilitating collective punishment when a few group members commit an offense.


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Culpa , Punição/psicologia , Percepção Social , Responsabilidade Social , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/ética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/ética , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Países Baixos , Organizações , Plágio , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Justiça Social
16.
Int J Drug Policy ; 55: 256-262, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intentional use of illicit drugs for sexual purposes (also known as 'chemsex') is well known within the MSM communities in Malaysia although research in this population is scarce primarily because both drug use and homosexuality are illegal and stigmatised in Malaysia. METHODS: From April to December 2014, interviews were conducted with twenty men (age range 21-43) living in Greater Kuala Lumpur who had sexual intercourse with other men in the past 6 months and who used illicit drugs at least monthly in the past 3 months. Fourteen men were recruited via gay social networking smartphone applications or websites while six were referred by the participants. Data were analsed using thematic analytic approach. FINDINGS: The average duration of illicit drug use was 6.4 years (range 1-21) and all participants were using methamphetamine ("ice" or crystal meth) with frequency of use ranged from daily to once a month. Participants came from diverse ethnic, economic, and occupational backgrounds. Most participants used an inhalation apparatus ("bong") to consume methamphetamine and injection was rare in the sample. The primary motivation of methamphetamine use was to increase sexual capacity, heighten sexual pleasure and enhance sexual exploration and adventurism. Socializing with friends ("chilling"), and increased energy for work were secondary motivations. Participants emphasized the need to control the use of methamphetamine and some have established rules to control the amount and duration of use and a minority of men have maintained condom use during anal sex while under the influence of methamphetamine. Participants who professed to be in control of their drug use characterized themselves as functional users regardless of the health and social consequences from continuing use. Overall, participants perceived themselves differently from the traditional opioid users and reported limited access to sexual health and substance use treatment services. CONCLUSION: There is a need to increase access to HIV prevention services such as PrEP and PEP, professional support, and substance abuse treatment for drug-using MSM. A more open and friendly environment towards drug-using MSM may help them access and engage with the health services.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina/farmacologia , Automedicação/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Metanfetamina/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Public Health ; 159: 1-3, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: One strategy to prevent the onset of non-communicable diseases is to motivate healthy lifestyles through health media messages. In Peru, the food industry is currently implementing such strategy with health message cues, in the form of a small icon of a walking person or a healthy dish, appearing on televised food and beverage advertisements. Yet the extent of this practice is unknown. Thus, the objective of this study was three-fold: to identify (1) the food and beverage advertisements showing health cues, (2) the types of health cues, and (3) their length in time. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of televised food and beverage advertisements that children and adolescents encounter on Peruvian television. METHODS: Content analysis of the presence of a health cue, type of health cue (physical activity and healthy diets), and the length in time of the health cue appearing on televised food and beverage advertisements in Peru. RESULTS: Health cues appeared on over 70% of advertisements for sugary drinks and tended to promote healthy diets more so than physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the food industry is currently advertising their products along with health message cues, and children and adolescents are exposed to this practice. Thus, we call for further testing of the effect of these health cues on children's and adolescents' food preferences and behaviors.


Assuntos
Publicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Indústria Alimentícia , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Adolescente , Bebidas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Alimentos , Humanos , Peru , Televisão
18.
Child Abuse Negl ; 80: 90-98, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579549

RESUMO

Children exposed to negative neighborhood conditions and parental spanking are at higher risk of experiencing maltreatment. We conducted prospective analyses of secondary data to determine the effects of neighborhood collective efficacy and parental spanking on household Child Protective Services (CPS) involvement, and whether spanking mediates the relationship between neighborhood collective efficacy and CPS involvement. The sample (N = 2,267) was drawn from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), a stratified random sample of 4,789 births between 1998-2000 in 20 large U.S. cities. Logistic regression models were employed to test the effects of neighborhood collective efficacy and spanking at child age 3 on mother's report of CPS contact during the subsequent two years. The product-of-coefficient approach was used to test the mediation hypothesis. One aspect of neighborhood collective efficacy (i.e., Social Cohesion/Trust) is associated with lower odds of CPS involvement (OR = .80, 95% CI 0.670-0.951) after controlling for Informal Social Control, parental spanking, and the covariates. Parental spanking predicts increased odds of CPS involvement during the next two years (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.001-1.898), net of neighborhood collective efficacy and the covariates. The mediation hypothesis is not supported. Promoting both cohesive and trusting relationships between neighbors and non-physical discipline practices is likely to reduce the incidence of household CPS involvement.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Serviços de Proteção Infantil , Educação Infantil , Relações Interpessoais , Punição , Bem-Estar da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mães , Abuso Físico , Estudos Prospectivos , Características de Residência , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
19.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 57(3): 524-546, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29468703

RESUMO

This research examined the personality characteristics of individuals who 'speak up' and confront perpetrators of norm transgressions. We tested whether those who intervene tend to be 'bitter complainers' or 'well-adjusted leaders'. In four studies (total N = 1,003), we measured several individual differences that are directly implicated by at least one of the two concepts. We also presented participants with uncivil, discriminatory, and immoral behaviours and asked them how likely they would be to intervene if they were to witness each of these behaviours as a bystander. The results confirmed the well-adjusted leader hypothesis: Participants' self-reported tendency to confront perpetrators correlated positively with altruism, extraversion, social responsibility, acceptance by peers, independent self-construal, emotion regulation, persistence, self-directedness, age, occupation, and monthly salary, but not with aggressiveness or low self-esteem. Individuals who confront prejudice also speak up against other immoral and uncivil behaviours. We discuss the implications of these findings for the perpetuation and change of social norms.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Comportamento Social , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Normas Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Am Coll Health ; 66(3): 209-218, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We explored the potential mediating role of willingness to experience drinking consequences and other traditional alcohol outcome predictors (descriptive norms, injunctive norms, positive alcohol expectancies) in explaining the association between college alcohol beliefs 1 (CABs) and the actual experience of drinking consequences among college students. PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 415 college students tested in October 2014. METHODS: Participants responded to an online survey. RESULTS: When compared to both types of norms and positive alcohol expectancies, CABs demonstrated the strongest associations to both willingness to experience drinking consequences and actual drinking consequences among college students. A multiple mediation analysis revealed that the impact of CABs on students' actual drinking consequences was mediated only through their willingness to experience drinking consequences. CONCLUSIONS: Students' college alcohol beliefs and their corresponding willingness to experience drinking consequences should be targeted in prevention and intervention programs designed to address the problem of college student drinking.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , Percepção Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Enquadramento Psicológico , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Valores Sociais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
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