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1.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0231318, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The elderly in rural areas comprise over half of the older population in China, and their health problems are a matter of great concern for the Chinese government and society. Among the many factors affecting health, social capital has generated much interest in academic research. Exploring the relationship between social capital and individual health among the elderly in rural China provides ways to improve the health of Chinese people, which has a positive impact on policy. METHODS: We selected 3719 respondents from the 2016 China Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Structural and cognitive social capital were obtained via exponentiation of variables (mean of zero and a standard deviation of one) and by giving them equal weight. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimators were used to analyze the association between social capital and individual health. We explored the mechanism linking structural and cognitive social capital with individual health through a mediation effect analysis. RESULTS: After correcting for endogeneity bias, structural social capital had a positive correlation with individual health among the elderly, with a coefficient of 0.062 (95% CI: 0.020-0.104). Cognitive social capital also had a positive correlation with individual health, with a coefficient of 0.097 (95% CI: 0.060-0.135). Physical exercise and positive attitude were two significant mediating variables of the relationship between social capital and individual health in the study group, with mediating effects of 0.018 and 0.054, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive social capital played a stronger role than structural social capital in promoting individual health among the elderly. Physical exercise and positive attitude mediated the relationship between social capital and individual health. Policymakers should not only build basic medical and health care systems but also consistently cultivate and strengthen structural and cognitive social capital among the elderly in rural China.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Otimismo , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Capital Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 50(3): 63-64, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596915

RESUMO

Given the enduring inequities in US health and health care, it is no surprise that particular communities are bearing the disproportionate brunt of the Covid-19 pandemic and our responses to it. Many ethical aspects of the pandemic involve diverse communities bound by race, ethnicity, disability, income, residence, age, and more. How does bioethics engage these communities in theory and in practice? Only faintly, despite Covid-19's relentless reminder that communities matter morally. This article sketches initial directions for developing a community-inclusive bioethics, one that understands communities as critical moral participants in the work of bioethics as well as in health and health care.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Capital Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S247-S248, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584108

RESUMO

Since March 2020, Italy has been in lockdown due to COVID-19, and individuals have missed all kinds of networking opportunities. Already in the 1st weeks of March, Italian cities' silence was broken by singing. The use of singing as a coping strategy as well as to improve the sense of cohesion is evident. Greater attention should be paid to the development of social cohesion and to social support in terms of social networks and the development of social capital. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus , Solidão , Pandemias , Satisfação Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral , Canto , Capital Social , Apoio Social , Adulto , Humanos , Itália
4.
J Rural Health ; 36(3): 446-456, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543751

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study creates a COVID-19 susceptibility scale at the county level, describes its components, and then assesses the health and socioeconomic resiliency of susceptible places across the rural-urban continuum. METHODS: Factor analysis grouped 11 indicators into 7 distinct susceptibility factors for 3,079 counties in the conterminous United States. Unconditional mean differences are assessed using a multivariate general linear model. Data from 2018 are primarily taken from the US Census Bureau and CDC. RESULTS: About 33% of rural counties are highly susceptible to COVID-19, driven by older and health-compromised populations, and care facilities for the elderly. Major vulnerabilities in rural counties include fewer physicians, lack of mental health services, higher disability, and more uninsured. Poor Internet access limits telemedicine. Lack of social capital and social services may hinder local pandemic recovery. Meat processing facilities drive risk in micropolitan counties. Although metropolitan counties are less susceptible due to healthier and younger populations, about 6% are at risk due to community spread from dense populations. Metropolitan vulnerabilities include minorities at higher health and diabetes risk, language barriers, being a transportation hub that helps spread infection, and acute housing distress. CONCLUSIONS: There is an immediate need to know specific types of susceptibilities and vulnerabilities ahead of time to allow local and state health officials to plan and allocate resources accordingly. In rural areas it is essential to shelter-in-place vulnerable populations, whereas in large metropolitan areas general closure orders are needed to stop community spread. Pandemic response plans should address vulnerabilities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Capital Social , Serviço Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(24): e19963, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541447

RESUMO

Covertly using heroin during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is very common among heroin-dependent patients, which has posed threats to the physical health of heroin-dependent patients and social safety. Covertly using heroin may be influenced by many factors, especially social capital. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between behaviors of covertly using heroin during MMT and social capital heroin-dependent patients in Sichuan Province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and November 2018, with a total of 581 heroin-dependent patients participating in the study. In addition to socio-demographic characteristics and heroin use related behaviors, the questionnaire also included the measures of social capital: social network (SN), social support (SP), community participation (CP) and social trust (ST). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between different measures of social capital and heroin use. The prevalence of covertly using heroin of heroin during MMT was 31.0% among our participants in the 6 months before the study. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors and heroin-use related variables, SN (OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76-0.95), SP (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.83-0.95), and ST (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.81-0.95) were significantly associated with heroin use. Results suggest that social capital may have a protective effect on behavior of covertly using heroin during MMT, which should be consider in the interventions for heroin-dependent patients, in order to reduce the incidence of heroin use during MMT as well as improve the compliance of MMT.


Assuntos
Dependência de Heroína/tratamento farmacológico , Heroína/efeitos adversos , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Heroína/administração & dosagem , Dependência de Heroína/epidemiologia , Dependência de Heroína/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Capital Social , Rede Social , Apoio Social
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 10755-10761, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366644

RESUMO

Social capital has been shown to positively influence a multitude of economic, political, and social outcomes. Yet the factors that affect long-run social capital formation remain poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that early state formation, especially investments in state capacity, are positively associated with higher levels of contemporary social capital and other prosocial attitudes. The channels by which early state capacity leads to greater social capital over time are even less understood. We contribute to both questions using the spatial and temporal expansion of the US postal network during the 19th century. We first show that county-level variation in post office density is highly correlated with a bevy of historical and contemporary indicators of social capital (e.g., associational memberships, civic participation, health, and crime). This finding holds even when controlling for historical measures of development and contemporary measures of income, inequality, poverty, education, and race. Second, we provide evidence of an informational mechanism by which this early investment in infrastructural capacity affected long-run social capital formation. Namely, we demonstrate that the expansion of the postal network in the 19th century strongly predicts the historical and contemporary location of local newspapers, which were the primary mode of impersonal information transmission during this period. Our evidence sheds light on the role of the state in both the origins of social capital and the channels by which it persists. Our findings also suggest that the consequences of the ongoing decline in local newspapers will negatively affect social capital.


Assuntos
Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Postais/estatística & dados numéricos , Capital Social , Humanos , Serviços Postais/economia , Estados Unidos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231504, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282824

RESUMO

Human capital and social capital are vital for sustainable development of organization, but existing studies are inadequate to explore the synergistic effect of them on organizational behaviors or organizational outcomes. The research employed multiple-source questionnaire to collect data of more than 400 R&D firms from leaders and corresponding employees in Chinese context. Bootstrapping method and response surface were used to analyze the associations between all the parameters. The results showed that: (1) in the case of the in-congruence between human capital and social capital, learning capability of R&D firms is at highest level when human capital is at low level and social capital is at high level; (2) learning capability partially mediates the impact of human capital and social capital on innovation performance; (3) environmental dynamism and environmental competitiveness have a joint moderating effect on the relationship between learning capability and innovation performance.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Liderança , Organizações/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Social , Capital Social
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 466, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: UK health policy increasingly focusses on health as an asset. This represents a shift of focus away from specific risk factors towards the more holistic capacity by which integrated care assets in the community support improvements in both health and the wider flourishing of individuals. Though the social determinants of health are well known, relatively little research has focussed on the impact of an individual's health on their social outcomes. This research investigates how improved health can deliver a social return through the development of social capital. METHODS: An observational study is undertaken on 25 years of longitudinal data, from 1991, drawn from the harmonised British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and Understanding Society Survey (USS). Fixed effects instrumental variable panel data regression analysis is undertaken on individuals. The number of memberships of social organisations, as a measure of structural social capital, is regressed on subjectively measured general health and GHQ12 (Likert) scores. Distinction is drawn between males and females. RESULTS: Improved general health increases social capital though differences exist between males and females. Interaction effects, that identify the impacts of health for different age groups, reveal that the effect of increased health on social capital is enhanced for males as they age. However, in the case of females increases in general health increase social capital only in connection with their age group. In contrast mental illness generally reduces social capital for males and females, and these effects are reduced through aging. CONCLUSIONS: Investing in health as an asset can improve the social outcomes of individuals. Increasing the outcomes requires tailoring integrated care systems to ensure that opportunities for social engagement are available to individuals and reflect age groups. Targeting improvements in mental health is required, particularly for younger age groups, to promote social capital. The results suggest the importance of ensuring that opportunity for engagement in social and civic organisation be linked to general and mental health care support.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Capital Social , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 494-500, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314691

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are a leading cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) despite effective treatments. To study the sociocultural and health system barriers to care, we conducted a qualitative social autopsy study of patients who died from febrile illness in northern Tanzania. From December 2016 through July 2017, we conducted in-depth interviews in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions with a purposive sample of 20 family members of patients who had died at two regional referral hospitals. Of the deceased patients included in this study, 14 (70%) were adults and 10 (50%) were female. Patients identified their religion as Catholic (12, 60%), Lutheran (six, 30%), and Muslim (two, 10%), and their ethnicity as Chagga (14, 70%) and Sambaa (two, 10%), among others. Family members reported both barriers to and facilitators of receiving health care. Barriers included a perceived lack of capacity of local health facilities, transportation barriers, and a lack of formal referrals to higher levels of care. Family members also reported the cost of health care as a barrier. However, one facilitator of care was access to financial resources via families' social networks-a phenomenon we refer to as social capital. Another facilitator of care was families' proactive engagement with the health system. Our results suggest that further investment in lower level health facilities may improve care-seeking and referral patterns and that future research into the role of social capital is needed to fully understand the effect of socioeconomic factors on healthcare utilization in LMICs.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Infecções/mortalidade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Capital Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Febre , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Rede Social , Tanzânia , Transportes , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231837, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324820

RESUMO

The use of social network sites helps people to make and maintain social ties accumulating social capital, which is increasingly important for individual success. There is a wide variation in the amount and structure of online ties, and to some extent this variation is contingent on specific online user behaviors which are to date under-researched. In this work, we examine an entire city-bounded friendship network (N = 194,601) extracted from VK social network site to explore how specific online user behaviors are related to structural social capital in a network of geographically proximate ties. Social network analysis was used to evaluate individual social capital as a network asset, and multiple regression analysis-to determine and estimate the effects of online user behaviors on social capital. The analysis reveals that the graph is both clustered and highly centralized which suggests the presence of a hierarchical structure: a set of sub-communities united by city-level hubs. Against this background, membership in more online groups is positively associated with user's brokerage in the location-bounded network. Additionally, the share of local friends, the number of received likes and the duration of SNS use are associated with social capital indicators. This contributes to the literature on the formation of online social capital, examined at the level of a large and geographically localized population.


Assuntos
Redes Sociais Online , Comportamento Social , Capital Social , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e923921, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-11153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND From the end of December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began to spread in central China. Social capital is a measure of social trust, belonging, and participation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of social capital on sleep quality and the mechanisms involved in people who self-isolated at home for 14 days in January 2020 during the COVID-19 epidemic in central China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Individuals (n=170) who self-isolated at home for 14 days in central China, completed self-reported questionnaires on the third day of isolation. Individual social capital was assessed using the Personal Social Capital Scale 16 (PSCI-16) questionnaire. Anxiety was assessed using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) questionnaire, stress was assessed using the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction (SASR) questionnaire, and sleep was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. Path analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between a dependent variable (social capital) and two or more independent variables, using Pearson's correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM). RESULTS Low levels of social capital were associated with increased levels of anxiety and stress, but increased levels of social capital were positively associated with increased quality of sleep. Anxiety was associated with stress and reduced sleep quality, and the combination of anxiety and stress reduced the positive effects of social capital on sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS During a period of individual self-isolation during the COVID-19 virus epidemic in central China, increased social capital improved sleep quality by reducing anxiety and stress.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Capital Social , Adulto , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 329, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social capital is a collective attribute of communities that determines health and well-being of populations. The collective resources in a high social capital community have been reported to result in better health outcomes. While evidence supports the links between social capital and various health outcomes, it is not clear about underlying mechanisms connecting multiple dimensions of social capital to health. METHODS: Using the two-wave data from a nationally representative cohort study of Australian adults (N = 16,637), this study examined the effects of two dimensions of social capital (i.e., structural and cognitive social capital) on physical and mental health in the Australian adult population. Based on prior literature and theoretical reasoning, it was anticipated that the structural and cognitive social capital would influence self-assessed health status (physical and mental health). Additionally, these two dimensions of social capital were hypothesized to moderate the relationships between chronic health conditions and these two aspects of health status. RESULTS: Analyses showed that the effects of chronic health conditions on mental health status were moderated by the structural social capital (ß = .652, SE = .249, p = .009). Additionally, it was found that perceived community cohesion was predictive of mental health (ß = .295, SE = .103, p = .004). Our analysis also indicated that perceptions of disadvantaged neighbourhood environment contributed to poorer mental health status (ß = -.461, SE = .144, p = .001). However, none of the social capital variables significantly predicted physical health status. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that the structural dimension of social capital would function as a buffer against the malicious effects of chronic health conditions, impairments and disabilities. Specifically, community participation (structural social capital) is indispensable to develop an effective community-based program to improve health and well-being of those with chronic health conditions or disabilities, as increasing active participation may generate beneficial effects in this vulnerable population. Subjective perceptions about communities can also play an important role in improving better health outcomes. Further research is needed to examine underlying mechanisms linking the multiple dimensions of social capital to health outcomes among individuals who are vulnerable to external stressors.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Capital Social , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
AIDS Care ; 32(sup2): 99-106, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162527

RESUMO

Half of HIV-positive persons in Russia are on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and only 27% are virally suppressed. A feasibility pilot intervention to mobilize social capital resources for HIV care support was conducted in St. Petersburg. Out-of-care or ART-nonadherent HIV-positive persons (n = 24) attended a five-session intervention to increase access social capital resources (i.e., family, friends, or providers) to mobilize supports for entering care, initiating care, and adhering to ART. HIV care indicators were assessed at baseline, an immediate followup (FU-1), and 6-month followup (FU-2) points. At FU-1, participants more frequently discussed their care experiences with others, verifying the intervention's mechanism of action. Participants increased in scales of medication taking adherence (p = 0.002, FU-1; p = 0.011, FU-2), self-efficacy (p = 0.042; FU-1), and outcome expectancies (p = 0.016, FU-2). Among persons not on ART, HIV Medication Readiness scale scores increased at FU-1 (p = 0.032) but became attenuated at FU-2. Participants tended to more frequently keep care appointments (79%, baseline to 90%, FU-1, p = 0.077); to have undetectable viral load (54%, baseline to 74%, FU-2; p = 0.063); and to have fewer past-month days with delayed or incomplete medication doses (7.8, baseline to 4.2, FU-1; p = 0.084). This novel social capital intervention is promising for improving HIV care-related outcomes and warrants a full-scale evaluation.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Capital Social , Rede Social , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Apoio Social , Carga Viral
16.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e923921, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND From the end of December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began to spread in central China. Social capital is a measure of social trust, belonging, and participation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of social capital on sleep quality and the mechanisms involved in people who self-isolated at home for 14 days in January 2020 during the COVID-19 epidemic in central China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Individuals (n=170) who self-isolated at home for 14 days in central China, completed self-reported questionnaires on the third day of isolation. Individual social capital was assessed using the Personal Social Capital Scale 16 (PSCI-16) questionnaire. Anxiety was assessed using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) questionnaire, stress was assessed using the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction (SASR) questionnaire, and sleep was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. Path analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between a dependent variable (social capital) and two or more independent variables, using Pearson's correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM). RESULTS Low levels of social capital were associated with increased levels of anxiety and stress, but increased levels of social capital were positively associated with increased quality of sleep. Anxiety was associated with stress and reduced sleep quality, and the combination of anxiety and stress reduced the positive effects of social capital on sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS During a period of individual self-isolation during the COVID-19 virus epidemic in central China, increased social capital improved sleep quality by reducing anxiety and stress.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Capital Social , Adulto , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(2): 225-230, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220192

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the relationship between community social capital and quality of life among the middle-aged and elderly rural-to-urban residents, and to provide the policy reference for improving the health status. Methods: A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select the research objects. Univariate analysis and logistic regression model were used to explore the effect of social capital on quality of life among the middle-aged and elderly rural-to-urban urbanized residents. Results: The scores of self-rated physical health and mental health in the rural-to-urban residents were lower than those of urban residents ( P<0.05). The total score of community social capital, community participation and community cohesion in the rural-to-urban residents were lower than those of urban residents ( P<0.05). The result of multivariate analysis showed that community attachment and community cohesion were the protective factors of physical health ( P<0.05), and community cohesion was the protective factor of mental health ( P<0.05). Conclusion: There is a correlation between community belonging, community cohesion and quality of life among the elderly rural-to-urban residents. Attention should be paid to the promotion of community social capital so as to improve the health status of middle-aged and elderly rural-to-urban residents.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , População Rural , Capital Social , População Urbana , Idoso , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Waste Manag ; 105: 347-354, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114406

RESUMO

In this paper we examine the relative importance of an individual's subjective evaluations and social capital on his/her decision to exercise social control (i.e. confront the offender) on the hypothetical instance of witnessing a PAYT (Pay-As-You-Throw) scheme violation. Our data (N = 299) originates from an online questionnaire filled in by residents of Greece in early summer 2016. Through logistic regression modeling, we find that the subjective evaluation of the offence and social capital components have independent and complementary effects on the decision to exercise social control, over and above the demographic characteristics of the respondent.


Assuntos
Capital Social , Feminino , Grécia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Relig Health ; 59(3): 1161-1174, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146701

RESUMO

This paper emphasises the important role that place has in determining how religious social processes operate and impact on health and wellbeing. It draws upon evidence through qualitative in-depth interviews with families (both parents and children) living in two deprived neighbourhoods in Malta, a 'traditional' and a 'modern' one. It emerged that religious faith and practices can generate normative and resource-based social capital which can positively impact on health and wellbeing. However, some individuals found this social capital constraining and this had detrimental effects on their wellbeing. The context, composition, history and norms of the place emerge as highly important. This study emphasises that religious social processes operate in a highly complex manner, and 'adherents' and 'disaffiliates' are likely to enjoy positive or negative health and wellbeing according to where they live and according to important persons living in the neighbourhood such as the parish priest. This study contributes to the research gap between religion, social capital and health and the complex, social processes that operate at the local level of place.


Assuntos
Áreas de Pobreza , Religião , Capital Social , Criança , Humanos , Malta , Características de Residência , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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