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1.
Development ; 147(3)2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014864

RESUMO

Roberto Mayor is Professor of Developmental and Cellular Neurobiology at University College London. Elected an EMBO member in 2019 and a former International Scholar of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, his lab works on the development of the neural crest, in particular its induction and migration. We met Roberto in Buenos Aires at the tenth biennial meeting of the Latin American Society for Developmental Biology (LASDB, the society he founded in 2001), and discussed the role serendipity has played in his career, why we need a more holistic view of the cell during development, and the challenges and potential of science in Latin America.


Assuntos
Biologia do Desenvolvimento , Neurobiologia , Animais , Movimento Celular , Passatempos , Humanos , Londres , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/psicologia , Crista Neural/citologia , Crista Neural/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
J Exp Med ; 217(2)2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961373

RESUMO

Iannis Aifantis is a principal investigator at NYU Langone Medical Center, and his laboratory works on the molecular mechanisms that drive normal stem cell differentiation and malignant transformation. Specifically, they're interested in the genomic, epigenetic, and proteomic regulation of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and the induction of leukemia and lymphoma; some of their basic research has led to clinical trials in leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. I chatted with Iannis to find out about his career in science so far.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico , Pesquisadores , Diferenciação Celular , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/imunologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Passatempos , Humanos , Liderança , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817855

RESUMO

Our aim is to examine the associations between long working hours and depression and mental well-being among the working population in Shanghai, as well as to identify the impact of having hobbies on these relationships. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai, with depression assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale and mental well-being assessed by the World Health Organization five-item Well-Being Index (WHO-5) scale. The phenomenon of long working hours (69.3%) was quite common among employees in Shanghai, and the rate of working over 60 h was 19.3%. Those who worked over 60 h had the highest prevalence of poorer mental health compared with individuals working ≤40 h per week. After adjustment in the logistic regression model, those who reported weekly working time over 60 h were 1.40 (95%CI: 1.03-1.90) and 1.66 (95%CI: 1.26-2.18) times more likely to have depression and poor mental well-being (PMWB), respectively. Adjusted ORs for having hobbies were 0.78 (95%CI: 0.62-0.97) and 0.62 (95%CI: 0.51-0.75), respectively. Meanwhile, having hobbies could significantly lower the mean score on the PHQ-9 and elevate the mean score on the WHO-5 in each working time group, with no interaction effect. Long working hours could have a significantly negative impact on workers' psychological health. Importantly, having hobbies in their daily lives might help to mitigate the adverse effects of long working hours on workers' depression and mental well-being.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Passatempos/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0218777, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483781

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to test the hypothesis that healed traumatic injuries in the pre-Neolithic assemblage of Con Co Ngua, northern Vietnam (c. 6800-6200 cal BP) are consistent with large wild animal interactions prior to their domestication. The core sample included 110 adult (aged ≥ 18 years) individuals, while comparisons are made with an additional six skeletal series from Neolithic through to Iron Age Vietnam, Thailand, and Mongolia. All post cranial skeletal elements were assessed for signs of healed trauma and identified cases were further x-rayed. Crude trauma prevalence (14/110, 12.7%) was not significantly different between males (8/52) and females (5/37) (χ2 = 0.061, p = 0.805). Nor were there significant differences in the prevalence of fractured limbs, although males displayed greater rates of lower limb bone trauma than females. Further, distinct from females, half the injured males suffered vertebral fractures, consistent with high-energy trauma. The first hypothesis is supported, while some support for the sexual divisions of labour was found. The prevalence and pattern of fractured limbs at CCN when compared with other Southeast and East Asian sites is most similar to the agropastoral site of Lamadong, China. The potential for skeletal trauma to assess animal trapping and herding practices prior to domestication in the past is discussed.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Domesticação , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Atividades Humanas , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Passatempos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Vietnã/epidemiologia
6.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 69(6): 428-435, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational and environmental exposures during the prenatal period may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and lifelong health effects. Yet, identification and evaluation of these potential hazards is lacking in routine obstetric care. AIMS: To assess the feasibility of incorporating a self-administered occupational and environmental exposure questionnaire into obstetric clinics. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey assessed prenatal clinic patients at a public hospital who were currently employed and <20 weeks gestation. Questionnaires evaluated job characteristics, workplace and hobby exposures, protective equipment use and symptoms during pregnancy. RESULTS: Of 69 participants (96% response rate), 46% were predominantly Spanish-speaking. Primary occupations were caregiver (16%), cleaner (14%) and administrative assistant (14%). Overall, 93% were exposed to a workplace hazard, with most participants reporting physical stressors (82%) or organic solvent exposure (78%). Most women (74%) used some personal protective equipment. Nearly half (54%) reported at least one non-pregnancy symptom, and 52% were referred for follow-up with an occupational medicine practitioner. Household and hobby-related chemical exposures were common in our sample (91%). We observed moderate consistency between job task and chemical use responses: 67-99% of intentionally redundant questions were fully or partially matched. Closed- compared to open-ended activity questions identified a higher proportion of physical stressors (82% versus 12%) and cleaning product (76% versus 30%) exposures. CONCLUSIONS: A self-administered questionnaire is an effective screening tool for identifying women with occupational and hobby-related exposures during pregnancy. Consistent incorporation of exposure assessment into prenatal care can improve clinical communications and early interventions for at-risk pregnant women.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Passatempos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Exposição Materna/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(29): 14671-14676, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235586

RESUMO

The annual migration of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus is in peril. In an effort to aid population recovery, monarch enthusiasts across North America participate in a variety of conservation efforts, including captive rearing and release of monarch butterflies throughout the summer and autumn. However, the impact of captive breeding on monarchs remains an open question. Here, we show that captive breeding, both commercially and by summertime hobbyists, causes migratory behavior to be lost. Monarchs acquired commercially failed to orient south when reared outdoors in the autumn, unlike wild-caught North American monarchs, yet they did enter reproductive diapause. The commercial population was genetically highly divergent from wild-caught North American monarchs and had rounder forewings, similar to monarchs from nonmigratory populations. Furthermore, rearing wild-caught monarchs in an indoor environment mimicking natural migration-inducing conditions failed to elicit southward flight orientation. In fact, merely eclosing indoors after an otherwise complete lifecycle outdoors was enough to disrupt southern orientation. Our results provide a window into the complexity-and remarkable fragility-of migration.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Cruzamento/métodos , Borboletas/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Passatempos , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estações do Ano , Estudantes , Estados Unidos
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(22): 10868-10873, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988189

RESUMO

Efforts to mitigate the current biodiversity crisis require a better understanding of how and why humans value other species. We use Internet query data and citizen science data to characterize public interest in 621 bird species across the United States. We estimate the relative popularity of different birds by quantifying how frequently people use Google to search for species, relative to the rates at which they are encountered in the environment. In intraspecific analyses, we also quantify the degree to which Google searches are limited to, or extend beyond, the places in which people encounter each species. The resulting metrics of popularity and geographic specificity of interest allow us to define aspects of relationships between people and birds within a cultural niche space. We then estimate the influence of species traits and socially constructed labels on niche positions to assess the importance of observations and ideas in shaping public interest in birds. Our analyses show clear effects of migratory strategy, color, degree of association with bird feeders, and, especially, body size on niche position. They also indicate that cultural labels, including "endangered," "introduced," and, especially, "team mascot," are strongly associated with the magnitude and geographic specificity of public interest in birds. Our results provide a framework for exploring complex relationships between humans and other species and enable more informed decision-making across diverse bird conservation strategies and goals.


Assuntos
Aves , Ciência do Cidadão/estatística & dados numéricos , Ecossistema , Animais , Passatempos , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Ferramenta de Busca/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/etnologia
9.
Dermatol Online J ; 25(2)2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865411

RESUMO

Mycobacterium marinum is a nontuberculous mycobacteria with worldwide distribution that lives in fresh or salt water and is responsible for infections in fish, and sometimes in humans. Human disease consists mainly of cutaneous nodules, but deep structure involvement may also occur. Diagnosis of M. marinum infection remains a challenge, with a considerable time delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis. We present a 33-year-old man with no immunosuppressive history who was seen in our department with skin nodules over his hand and forearm, distributed in a sporotrichoid pattern. His hobbies included maintaining an aquarium of tropical fish. Histological examination of the patient's skin biopsy was compatible with the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection, and the Ziehl-Neelsen staining revealed acid-fast bacilli. Molecular techniques confirmed the suspicion of M. marinum infection. A necropsy was performed on one of the patient's fish, more specifically, a Poecilia reticulata, and resulted in identification of M. marinum from its gut. The patient was treated with clarithromycin, ethambutol, and rifampicin for 9 months, with clearance of infection.


Assuntos
Dermatoses da Mão/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium marinum , Úlcera Cutânea/microbiologia , Adulto , Antebraço , Dermatoses da Mão/microbiologia , Passatempos , Humanos , Linfadenopatia/microbiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/complicações , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/patologia
11.
Can J Occup Ther ; 86(2): 114-124, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND.: Examining craft-based occupations is necessary to explicate the relationship between occupation and well-being. PURPOSE.: This study aimed to understand the role of knitting in the lives of passionate knitters and their experience of how knitting contributes to health, well-being, and occupational identity. METHOD.: Principles of phenomenology guided interviews with 21 knitting-guild members (with and without health conditions) and observations at seven guild meetings as well as guided the data analysis. Eight interviewees and 24 additional guild members confirmed key findings in writing. FINDINGS.: Five main themes capture how knitting (a) "makes me happy," (b) is "the mental challenge I need," (c) is "a hobby that joins" through social connections and skill development, (d) sustains identity such that "I can't imagine life without knitting," and (e) is a creative outlet "reflecting my personality." IMPLICATIONS.: This in-depth description of how knitters experience their craft in daily life bolsters the philosophical assumption that favoured occupations have the power to promote health and well-being.


Assuntos
Passatempos/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Autoimagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Têxteis
13.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 57: 275.e13-275.e15, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is an uncommon vascular syndrome of upper extremity. HHS should be considered in patients who are presented with digital ischemia. Distal ulnar artery compression at the level of Guyon's canal with trauma results in thrombus or aneurysm. It may be observed after repetitive chronic trauma or acute blunt trauma to hypothenar eminence. Middle-aged male laborers, smokers, and dominant hands are affected frequently. Hand pain, discoloration or ulceration of digits, cold intolerance, hypothenar pulsatile mass, hypothenar weakness, and numbness are significant clinical findings. CASE CHARACTERISTICS: In this report, we presented a 37-year-old woman complaining with intermittent hand pain, paleness, and cyanosis at third, fourth, and fifth fingers of the right hand. She had no blunt trauma to her hand but intense amount of needle lace with her hands. Doppler ultrasonography revealed ulnar arterial thrombus at right Guyon's canal level. CONCLUSIONS: She was diagnosed as HHS secondary to intense needlework. A calcium channel blocker and low-dose aspirin were prescribed to her, and avoidance of hand traumas was suggested. These interventions relieved digital ischemia symptoms on her hand.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etiologia , Passatempos , Isquemia/etiologia , Doença de Raynaud/etiologia , Trombose/etiologia , Artéria Ulnar , Adulto , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/tratamento farmacológico , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/fisiopatologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Doença de Raynaud/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Raynaud/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Raynaud/fisiopatologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Síndrome , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Artéria Ulnar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Ulnar/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Ulnar/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores
14.
J Hand Surg Eur Vol ; 44(2): 203-207, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466378

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate prognostic factors for the time off work, the time to resumption of activities of daily living and hobbies, and duration of complaints in patients with a traumatic hand or wrist injury. In a 10-month longitudinal prospective cohort study, 383 patients were included and interviewed in person every 2 to 3 months. Several sociodemographic, psychological and work-related prognostic factors were investigated. For the time off work, job type, diagnosis, complication, blaming someone else for the trauma and gender were all found to be individual prognostic factors in Cox regression. For the time to resumption of activities of daily living and hobbies, and duration of complaints, gender, diagnosis, treatment and complications were found to be prognostic factors in univariate analysis. Age was solely correlated with resumption of activities of daily living and the duration of complaints. Considering these prognostic factors can help predict a patient's recovery more accurately. Level of evidence: II.


Assuntos
Traumatismos da Mão/epidemiologia , Retorno ao Trabalho , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Passatempos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Ocupações , Prognóstico , Fatores Sexuais , Licença Médica
16.
Autism ; 23(1): 247-259, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172638

RESUMO

Restricted interests are an established diagnostic symptom of autism spectrum disorder. While there is considerable evidence that these interests have maladaptive consequences, they also provide a range of benefits. This article introduces a new instrument, the Survey of Favorite Interests and Activities, and uses it to examine the nature of restricted interests in autism spectrum disorder. Respondents report substantial benefits of restricted interests as well as areas of difficulty. The Survey of Favorite Interests and Activities assesses Social Flexibility, Perseveration, Respondent Discomfort, Adaptive Coping, and Atypicality. All scales have Cronbach's α > 0.70. Age and socioeconomic status have little effect on Survey of Favorite Interests and Activities scales; nor does gender with the exception of interest Atypicality. The expected pattern of correlations with existing scales was found. Research and clinical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Criança , Escolaridade , Feminino , Passatempos/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207426, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although social participation (SP) is valid in active aging, it is vague which types and the frequency of SP are effective in maintaining instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). We conducted a community-based prospective cohort study and investigated the association of the types and frequency for SP with IADL decline in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: The target population were all individuals aged ≥65 living in a commuter town in Nara, Japan. A total of 6,013 participants with independent IADL at baseline were analyzed. IADL was assessed using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Six SP types were assessed: volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby clubs, senior citizens' clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural clubs. The frequency of SP was categorized into frequent (i.e., weekly or more), moderate (i.e., monthly or yearly), and non-participation. Using multiple logistic regression models, the odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) for IADL decline were calculated. Covariates included age, marital status, education, subjective economic status, work status, body mass index, chronic medical conditions (i.e., hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease), lifestyle factors (i.e., alcohol, smoking, and exercise), self-rated health, depression, and cognitive functioning. To examine gender differences, stratified analyses by gender were performed. RESULTS: During the 33-month follow-up, 16.4% of men and 8.7% of women exhibited IADL decline. After adjustment for all covariates, compared to those who never participated, women with moderate participation had significantly lower odds of IADL decline in volunteer groups (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.31-0.88), hobby clubs (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.38-0.79), neighborhood community associations (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.42-0.81), and cultural clubs (OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.31-0.82), and women with frequent participation had lower odds of IADL decline in hobby clubs (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.43-0.93). In contrast, among men, the significant association between SP and less risk of IADL decline was limited to moderate participation in neighborhood community associations (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-0.99), and there were no differences between frequent participation and non-participation in all types of SP. Regarding volunteer groups, compared to women with frequent participation, women with moderate participation had a significantly lower risk of IADL decline (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.18-0.77). The results of additional stratified analyses by self-rated health, depression, and cognitive functioning showed that the associations of the type and frequency of SP with IADL decline varied according to physical and mental functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Several types of SP have a favorable effect on IADL through moderate participation rather than frequent participation, and women with moderate participation in volunteer groups have a more beneficial effect on IADL than women with frequent participation. When advising community-dwelling older adults on SP for IADL maintenance, health professionals may need to take into account plateau effects, gender differences, and physical and mental functioning.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Participação Social/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Passatempos , Humanos , Vida Independente , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Rev Med Suisse ; 14(625): 1955-1957, 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379479

RESUMO

Bird watching can be an ideal activity for a physician. By their training, doctors may be more inclined than other professionals to take the time to observe birds. Medical studies provide basic knowledge, especially in biology and physics. Clinical training then teaches to watch, to listen. This article proposes a look at the similarities between medicine and ornithology : the importance of the meaning of observation, the identical « diagnostic ¼ approach, the use of an identical scientific methodology (participatory science), the impact of migration. It also recalls the balance that the practice of observation brings to physicians.


Assuntos
Medicina , Médicos , Animais , Aves , Assistência à Saúde , Passatempos
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