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1.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 85, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthy childhood development is fostered through sufficient physical activity (PA; including time outdoors), limiting sedentary behaviours (SB), and adequate sleep; collectively known as movement behaviours. Though the COVID-19 virus outbreak has changed the daily lives of children and youth, it is unknown to what extent related restrictions may compromise the ability to play and meet movement behaviour recommendations. This secondary data analysis examined the immediate impacts of COVID-19 restrictions on movement and play behaviours in children and youth. METHODS: A national sample of Canadian parents (n = 1472) of children (5-11 years) or youth (12-17 years) (54% girls) completed an online survey that assessed immediate changes in child movement and play behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak. Behaviours included PA and play, SB, and sleep. Family demographics and parental factors that may influence movement behaviours were assessed. Correlations between behaviours and demographic and parental factors were determined. For open-ended questions, word frequency distributions were reported. RESULTS: Only 4.8% (2.8% girls, 6.5% boys) of children and 0.6% (0.8% girls, 0.5% boys) of youth were meeting combined movement behaviour guidelines during COVID-19 restrictions. Children and youth had lower PA levels, less outside time, higher SB (including leisure screen time), and more sleep during the outbreak. Parental encouragement and support, parental engagement in PA, and family dog ownership were positively associated with healthy movement behaviours. Although families spent less time in PA and more time in SB, several parents reported adopting new hobbies or accessing new resources. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of immediate collateral consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak, demonstrating an adverse impact on the movement and play behaviours of Canadian children and youth. These findings can guide efforts to preserve and promote child health during the COVID-19 outbreak and crisis recovery period, and to inform strategies to mitigate potential harm during future pandemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Jogos e Brinquedos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 231-236, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592545

RESUMO

Pets, strays, and wild animals that excrete dispersal forms of parasites into the soil may be a threat in urban areas. The aim of the study was to determine the level of contamination with geohelminth eggs in community playgrounds (fenced and unfenced), playgrounds in city parks, and a transect found along the banks of the River Oder. In 74 out of 424 examined soil samples, the presence of geohelminths was confirmed (Toxocara spp., Ancylostomatidae and Trichuris spp.). The highest prevalence was noted for Toxocara spp. roundworms. Both total and mean number of eggs in the examined samples, as well as the general prevalence, proved to be diversified in almost all types of development that were compared. Areas near the river emerged as places most exposed to the appearance of geohelminth eggs; playgrounds in city parks were less likely sites; community playgrounds in the city centre were the least common places.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Helmintos , Solo , Animais , Helmintos/fisiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Jogos e Brinquedos , Polônia , Densidade Demográfica , Rios , Solo/parasitologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concern has been expressed over how well Africa is prepared to cope with the pandemic of Covid-19. Will rural populations with low levels of education know how to apply community-based infection control? We undertook fieldwork in two villages in central Sierra Leone to gain insight into how rural people faced with Covid-19 assess epidemic infection risks. METHODS: Two communities were selected based on prior contrasted exposure to Ebola Virus Disease-one with substantial number of cases and the other having resisted infection through strong community sequestration measures. We assessed understanding of infection risks via an experimental game. This asked players to express a preference for one of two diseases, one resembling Ebola with lower risk of infection and the other resembling Covid-19 with lower risk of death. Players were not told the identity of the diseases. RESULTS: In total 107 adult villagers played the game (58% women). Half (52%) preferred the disease model with lower risk of infection, 29% preferred the model with lower risk of death, while 21% saw the combined risk of infection and death as being equivalent. Differences in reactions between the two locations were small despite different experiences of Ebola. Asked to explain their choices 48% of players cited information on infection risks modelled by the game and 31% stated that their choices reflected awareness of the need for personal action and respect for local regulations. We concluded that villagers thoughtfully assess disease risks and that some are good intuitive statisticians. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest rural people in Sierra Leone retain the lessons of experience from the Ebola outbreak of 2014-15 and will be able to apply these lessons to a new infectious disease for which have no prior practical experience. Our expectation is that rural populations will understand Covid-19 control measures, thus reducing need for draconian enforcement.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Jogos e Brinquedos , Risco , População Rural , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
4.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 87-93, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prevalence of obesity and overweight among children is rising worldwide. Thus, the importance of restaurants as food environments is also growing. Considering these developments, the present study describes and evaluates menus and meals offered to children in German full-service restaurants. METHODS: Using quota sampling procedure, a representative sample of German full-service restaurants was identified. The individual meals were then assessed, using the Children's Menu Assessment tool (CMA). A total of 500 restaurants and 1,877 individual meals were analyzed. RESULTS: On average, every menu included 3.76 ± 1.31 meals for children. The arithmetic mean of the CMA score was 0.73 ± 0.85. Around 80% of all offered meals were limited to eight typical dishes and over 50% included French fries or another form of fried potatoes. Not one of the meals included any nutritional information. Healthy entrees were never marked (e.g. by an optional qualitative information such as healthy food symbol or a healthier choice tag). Eighty-one percent of all the main components in the meals were rated as unhealthy and none of the meals used wholegrain products. The automatic inclusion of a drink and free refill options are both rather unusual in Germany, as well as the use of cartoon characters and product logos or giving away promotional toys. A positive correlation was found between the price of the food and its quality. The majority of dishes feature a high energy density while simultaneously having a low nutrient density. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the range of food on offer for children in German restaurants is unhealthy and lacking in variety. There is an urgent need for improvement of both the menus themselves as well as the offered meals. Our study is not only by far the most comprehensive study, but also the study with the worst CMA score values worldwide.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Refeições , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Ingestão de Energia , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alemanha , Humanos , Planejamento de Cardápio , Jogos e Brinquedos
5.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114627, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375089

RESUMO

Contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in children's toys and jewelry is an ongoing problem where PTEs can become bioavailable especially via oral pathway (ingestion as a whole or of parts, and mouthing) and may cause adverse health effects for children. In the present review, legislation updates from the last decade in the United States (U.S.), Canada, and the European Union (E.U.) on PTEs in toys and jewelry are presented. Then, a literature review mostly covering the last decade on the total concentration, bioavailability, children's exposure, and bioaccessibility of PTEs in toys and jewelry is provided. The U.S. and Canadian legislations mainly focus on lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) total/soluble concentration limits to prevent exposure and have received several updates within the last decade, extending particularly the covered span of children's products. It seems that the introduction, subsequent enforcement, and update of regulations in developed countries have shifted the problem towards developing countries. In terms of categories, metallic toys and children's jewelry still have the most severe PTE contamination and the presence of Pb and Cd in these articles is an ongoing issue. Some studies suggest that color can be used as an indicator for the potential presence of PTEs (linked to chemicals such as lead chromate, cadmium sulfide) but the evidence is not always clear. Another concern is vintage/second-hand toys and jewelry as those items might have been produced before the legislation was present. As total and bioaccessible concentrations of PTEs in toys and jewelry do not always correlate, approaches considering bioaccessibility (e.g. of the E.U.) are more scientifically appropriate and help with better estimation of risk from exposure. Studies on toy and jewelry contamination using in vitro bioaccessibility techniques has become more common, however, there is still no in vitro test specifically designed and validated for toys and jewelry.


Assuntos
Joias , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio , Canadá , Criança , Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos
6.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(3): 573-584, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443995

RESUMO

Serious threats to child safety are infrequent and unpredictable but can lead to serious injury and death. To stay safe, children must identify and avoid contact with a safety threat, escape from it, and report it to an adult so the adult can remove the threat. Research shows that active learning approaches are effective for teaching children to engage in these safety skills. Passive learning approaches are not effective. Active learning approaches require children to practice the skills in the presence of simulated threats with feedback to reinforce correct responses and promote generalization of skills to the natural environment.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Crime/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Segurança , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Criança , Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Ensino
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433717

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of LAB EE prediction models in preschool children completing a free-living active play session. Performance was benchmarked against EE prediction models trained on free living (FL) data. METHODS: 25 children (mean age = 4.1±1.0 y) completed a 20-minute active play session while wearing a portable indirect calorimeter and ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers on their right hip and non-dominant wrist. EE was predicted using LAB models which included Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) models for the wrist, and RF and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models for the hip. Two variations of the LAB models were evaluated; 1) an "off the shelf" model without additional training; 2) models retrained on free-living data, replicating the methodology used in the original calibration study (retrained LAB). Prediction errors were evaluated in a hold-out sample of 10 children. RESULTS: Root mean square error (RMSE) for the FL and retrained LAB models ranged from 0.63-0.67 kcals/min. In the hold out sample, RMSE's for the hip LAB (0.62-0.71), retrained LAB (0.58-0.62) and FL models (0.61-0.65) were similar. For the wrist placement, FL SVM had a significantly higher RMSE (0.73 ± 0.29 kcals/min) than the retrained LAB SVM (0.63 ± 0.30 kcals/min) and LAB SVM (0.64 ± 0.18 kcals/min). The LAB (0.64 ± 0.28), retrained LAB (0.64 ± 0.25), and FL (0.62 ± 0.26) RF exhibited comparable accuracy. CONCLUSION: Machine learning EE prediction models trained on LAB and FL data had similar accuracy under free-living conditions.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Algoritmos , Calorimetria Indireta , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Redes Neurais de Computação , Jogos e Brinquedos
8.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126579, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443226

RESUMO

Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) are increasingly reported at significant levels in various matrices, including consumer goods that are manufactured from plastics containing certain brominated flame retardants. PBDD/Fs are known ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) but are not yet considered in the hazard assessment of dioxin mixtures. The aim of the present study was to determine if PBDD/Fs levels present in plastic constituents of toys could pose a threat to children's health. PBDD/Fs, unlike their chlorinated counterparts (PCDD/Fs), have not been officially assigned toxic equivalence factors (TEFs) by the WHO therefore, we determined their relative potency towards AhR activation in both human and rodent cell-based DR CALUX® bioassays. This allowed us to compare GC-HRMS PBDD/F congener levels, converted to total Toxic Equivalents (TEQ) by using the PCDD/F TEFs, to CALUX Bioanalytical Equivalents (BEQ) levels present in contaminated plastic constituents from children's toys. Finally, an estimate was made of the daily ingestion of TEQs from PBDD/Fs-contaminated plastic toys by child mouthing habits. It is observed that the daily ingestion of PBDD/Fs from contaminated plastic toys may significantly contribute to the total dioxin daily intake of young children.


Assuntos
Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Plásticos/química , Jogos e Brinquedos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Animais , Bioensaio , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Luciferases/genética , Plásticos/normas , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Ratos , Transfecção
9.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 41(313): 23-25, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446552

RESUMO

In a transcultural therapy session, an auxiliary therapist brings in play dough to the children. This medium will allow the youngs to anchor in the here and now of the session and will ease the therapeutic alliance.


Assuntos
Argila , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Criança , Humanos , Relações Profissional-Paciente
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231171, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243465

RESUMO

Plastic toys mouthed by children may be a source of exposure to endocrine active substances. The purpose of this study was to measure hormonal activity of substances leaching from toys and to identify potential endocrine disruptors causing that activity. For this purpose, migration experiments of toys were conducted in saliva simulants. The CALUX® assays were used to detect (anti-) estrogenic and (anti-) androgenic activity of 18 toys. Chemical trace analysis-namely, GC-MS and HPLC-MS- was used to identify which compounds may be responsible for endocrine activity in the sample migrates. Nine out of 18 tested toys showed significant estrogenic activity. For two samples, the detected estrogenic activity could be well explained by detecting the known endocrine active substance bisphenol A (BPA). For all identified substances, including BPA, a risk assessment for human health was performed by comparing the exposure dose, calculated based on the determined substance concentration, to toxicological reference values. Using worst-case scenarios, the exposure to BPA by mouthing of the two estrogen active, BPA-containing toys could be above the temporary TDI that EFSA has calculated. This demonstrates that some toys could significantly contribute to the total exposure to BPA of babies and infants. For seven out of nine estrogen active samples, the source of the estrogen activity could not be explained by analysis for 41 known or suspected endocrine active substances in plastic, indicating that the estrogen activities were caused by currently unknown endocrine active substances, or by endocrine active substances that would currently not be suspected in toys.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Lactente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(17): 21071-21083, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266620

RESUMO

Contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in children's toys and jewelry is an ongoing problem, and there is evidence in the literature that the issue is shifting towards developing countries and small markets. The present research aims (1) to characterize total concentrations of eleven PTEs (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in children's jewelry and toys purchased from the Central Asian market (n = 65), and (2) to investigate the relationship between the extent of contamination and sample categories/properties. The laboratory analyses showed that the majority of the samples had PTEs above the total and soluble limits for PTEs stated in the USA, Canadian, and the EU legislation. Particularly for metallic toys and jewelry (n = 46), the total concentrations in 45 samples exceeded the EU migration limits for one or more PTEs. In particular, Cu and Zn concentrations were extremely high (up to 100%) in many samples and highly toxic Cd and Pb were present in elevated quantities in several articles. Contamination was also present, albeit to a much lesser extent, in other toy categories: brittle/pliable toys for Co and Cr, plastic toys and jewelry for Pb, and other toys for Co. Although average values and visual observations suggested evidence, no statistically significant relationship between PTE concentrations and sample properties (color, price, and degree of appeal) could be found. The findings supported the evidence that the contamination issue in children's jewelry and toys by PTEs is an ongoing issue in developing countries. Very high total concentrations of PTEs particularly found in several metallic samples warrant further investigation of migratable concentrations. Thus, conducting bioaccessibility tests and a subsequent human health risk characterization is recommended. Overall, there is a potential risk for children in the case of exposure to PTEs from children's jewelry and toys sold on the Central Asian market. More effective enforcement of legislation for consumer goods in the region and raising public awareness regarding chemicals in children's products are recommended.


Assuntos
Joias , Metais Pesados/análise , Canadá , Criança , Humanos , Plásticos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Medição de Risco
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230588, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294088

RESUMO

Many studies have examined children's understanding of playing and learning as separate concepts, but the ways that children relate playing and learning to one another remain relatively unexplored. The current study asked 5- to 8-year-olds (N = 92) to define playing and learning, and examined whether children defined them as abstract processes or merely as labels for particular types of activities. We also asked children to state whether playing and learning can occur simultaneously, and examined whether they could give examples of playing and learning with attributes either congruent or incongruent with those activities. Older children were more likely to define both playing and learning in terms of abstract processes, rather than by describing particular topics or activities. Children who defined both playing and learning in this way were able to generate more examples of situations where they were simultaneously playing and learning, and were better able to generate examples of learning with characteristics of play, and examples of playing with characteristics of learning. These data suggest that children develop an understanding that learning and playing can coincide. These results are critical to researchers and educators who seek to integrate play and learning, as children's beliefs about these concepts can influence how they reflect on playful learning opportunities.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229708, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In view of the current obesity epidemic, studies focusing on the interplay of playing outside (PO), screen time (ST) and anthropometric measures in preschool age are necessary to guide evidence-based public health planning. We therefore investigated the relationship between average time spent PO and ST from the ages 3 to 6 years and anthropometric measures at 6 years of age. METHODS: PO and ST of 526 children of the European Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP) were annually assessed by questionnaire from 3 until 6 years of age. Body weight, waist circumference and height were measured at 3 and 6 years of age to calculate Body-Mass-Index z-Scores (zBMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WTH). Linear, logistic and quantile regressions were used to test whether average time spent PO and ST in the 4 year period had an effect on anthropometric measures at age 6 years. RESULTS: Longer daily ST was associated with a higher zBMI (P = 0.002) and WTH (P = 0.001) at 6 years of age. No significant associations were found for time spent PO. Each additional hour of average ST during the 4 year period resulted in a 66% higher risk of having a zBMI score over 1 (P < 0.001) and almost twice the risk (94% higher risk) of having an zBMI score over 2 (P < 0.001) at 6 years. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive ST during preschool age is a risk factor for increased zBMI at 6 years, regardless of time spent PO. Reducing high levels of ST during preschool age, for e.g. at least 1h per week, could help preventing childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Jogos e Brinquedos , Tempo de Tela , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(5): 1094-1103, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124727

RESUMO

Exposure to fecal pathogens contributes to childhood diarrhea and stunting, causing harmful short- and long-term impacts to health. Understanding pathways of child fecal exposure and nutritional deficiencies is critical to informing interventions to reduce stunting. Our aim was to explore determinants of latrine use, disposal of child feces, and perceptions and provisions of a safe and clean child play environment among families with children under two (CU2) years to inform the design of a behavior change intervention to address water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and nutrition behaviors. In 2016, we conducted a mixed-methods formative research in western Kenya. We conducted 29 key informant interviews with community leaders, health workers, and project staff; 18 focus group discussions with caregivers of CU2 years; and 24 semi-structured household observations of feeding, hygiene, and sanitation behaviors. We used the capability, opportunity, motivation, and behavior model as our theoretical framework to map caregiver behavioral determinants. Latrine use barriers were lack of latrines, affordability of lasting materials, and social acceptability of unobserved open defecation. Barriers to safe disposal of child feces were lack of latrines, time associated with safe disposal practices, beliefs that infant feces were not harmful, and not knowing where children had defecated. Primary barriers of clean play environments were associated with creating and maintaining play spaces, and shared human and animal compounds. The immediate cost to practicing behaviors was perceived as greater than the long-term potential benefits. Intervention design must address these barriers and emphasize facilitators to enable optimal WASH behaviors in this context.


Assuntos
Jogos e Brinquedos , Toaletes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pré-Escolar , Fezes , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Lactente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Quênia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 237, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite extensive efforts, issues like obesity and poor physical capacity remain challenges for a healthy work life in several occupations. The Goldilocks work principle offers a new approach, encouraging design of productive work to promote physical capacity and health. This paper presents the protocol for the Goldilocks-childcare study, a randomised controlled intervention trial aiming to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing the Goldilocks work principle in childcare. The primary aim of the intervention is to increase time in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by having the childcare workers act as active role models for children in daily playful physical activities, and thereby improve cardiorespiratory fitness and health of the workers. METHODS: The study is a cluster-randomised trial with a usual-practice wait-list control group. The 10-week intervention consists of two phases. In the first, the childcare workers will participate in two participatory workshops aiming to a) develop playful physical activities ('Goldilocks-games') for children in which childcare workers participate as active role models at MVPA intensity, and b) develop action plans for implementation of the Goldilocks-games in daily work routines. In the second phase, childcare institutions will implement the Goldilocks-games. The primary outcome is working time spent in MVPA, and secondary outcomes are cardiorespiratory fitness, sleeping heart rate, perceived need for recovery, and productivity. Primary outcome and process evaluation will be based on direct measurements of physical activity and heart rate, determination of cardiorespiratory fitness, and questionnaires. DISCUSSION: If proven effective, the Goldilocks work principle has a large potential for promoting sustainable health and working lives of childcare workers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN15644757, Registered 25th December 2019.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Cuidado da Criança , Exercício Físico , Saúde do Trabalhador , Professores Escolares , Criança , Cuidado da Criança/métodos , Saúde da Criança , Dinamarca , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Arch Sex Behav ; 49(2): 373-394, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989412

RESUMO

It is generally recognized that there are gender-related differences in children's toy preferences. However, the magnitude of these differences has not been firmly established. Furthermore, not all studies of gender-related toy preferences find significant gender differences. These inconsistent findings could result from using different toys or methods to measure toy preferences or from studying children of different ages. Our systematic review and meta-analysis combined 113 effect sizes from 75 studies to estimate the magnitude of gender-related differences in toy preferences. We also assessed the impact of using different toys or methods to assess these differences, as well as the effect of age on gender-related toy preferences. Boys preferred boy-related toys more than girls did, and girls preferred girl-related toys more than boys did. These differences were large (d ≥ 1.60). Girls also preferred toys that researchers classified as neutral more than boys did (d = 0.29). Preferences for gender-typical over gender-atypical toys were also large and significant (d ≥ 1.20), and girls and boys showed gender-related differences of similar magnitude. When only dolls and vehicles were considered, within-sex differences were even larger and of comparable size for boys and girls. Researchers sometimes misclassified toys, perhaps contributing to an apparent gender difference in preference for neutral toys. Forced choice methods produced larger gender-related differences than other methods, and gender-related differences increased with age.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Identidade de Gênero , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963904

RESUMO

Approximately 50% of preschoolers do not meet physical activity recommendations and children who reside in low-income rural communities may be further at risk for higher levels of sedentary behavior. Outdoor play is essential for preschool children; however, literature is unclear as to which types of interventions elicit moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for all preschoolers. The aim of this study was to determine which type of intervention, physical activity or fundamental motor skill focus, elicits MVPA during outdoor play. Ninety-eight preschool children (M age = 4.48 years) from one Head Start center participated in an outdoor play intervention two days per week for 7 weeks. Classes were randomly assigned to one of four groups: fundamental motor skill focus (FMS), physical activity focus (PA), FMS and PA (FMS + PA), and control. An accelerometer worn on the hip measured MVPA. Results showed that age, sex and group assignment contributed to MVPA at the beginning of the intervention and age, sex, group assignment and MVPA during the beginning of the intervention contributed to MVPA at the end of the intervention. Overall, the FMS + PA group elicited MVPA from males and females of all ages. Interventions that combine both FMS and PA may reduce physical activity disparities in preschool children.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Destreza Motora , Jogos e Brinquedos , Acelerometria , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936783

RESUMO

Physical inactivity is a significant risk factor for childhood obesity. Preventing obesity in the early years reduces the risk of developing chronic health conditions later. Early childhood education and care (ECEC) services are important settings to establish good preschooler physical activity behaviors. This natural experiment investigated the influence of ECEC outdoor physical environment upgrade on preschoolers' physical activity (aged 2-5 years). Centers implemented upgrades without researcher input. Physical activity was measured by 7-day accelerometry for intervention (n = 159; 6 centers) and control (n = 138; 5 centers) groups. ECEC outdoor space was assessed using a modified Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) Instrument. Key outcomes were measured at baseline and 6-12 months follow-up. Fixed sandboxes, balls, portable slides, portable floor play equipment (e.g., tumbling mats), and natural grassed areas were positively associated with activity levels; fixed tunnels and twirling equipment were negatively associated with activity levels (all p < 0.05). Post-upgrade portable play equipment (balls, twirling equipment, slides, floor play equipment) increased intervention preschoolers' moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels compared to control (p < 0.05). Intervention preschoolers were more active than control at follow-up (58.09 vs. 42.13 min/day increase in total physical activity; 30.46 vs. 19.16 min/day increase in MVPA (all p < 0.001)). Since few preschoolers meet daily activity recommendations while at ECEC, the findings may help ECEC providers to optimize outdoor physical environments and encourage more active play among preschoolers.


Assuntos
Creches/normas , Saúde da Criança/normas , Meio Ambiente , Exercício Físico , Jogos e Brinquedos , Acelerometria , Cuidado da Criança/psicologia , Cuidado da Criança/normas , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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