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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111366, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658711

RESUMO

External damages are indicators of the overall quality of fish and fish welfare. Haddock is an important commercial species widespread in the North Atlantic, but few studies related to quality have been carried out on this species. We studied the levels of external damages on haddock captured with a demersal trawl in the Northeast Atlantic. Further, we investigated to what extent the compulsory sorting grid and diamond mesh codend gear configuration employed in this trawl fishery is responsible for the external damages observed during the capture process. We evaluated external damages on 563 haddock captured over 22 hauls. In general, the results showed that catching haddock without any gear inflicted damages using demersal trawls is challenging. However, the results also showed that the severity of most damages is low and the probability to catch haddock with no external damage can be significantly increased removing the grid and changing codend design.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Gadiformes , Animais , Peixes , Probabilidade , Alimentos Marinhos
2.
Adv Mar Biol ; 86(1): 1-139, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600543

RESUMO

The two banana prawns Penaeus merguiensis and P. indicus are arguably the most commercially important species of penaeid prawns in the tropical and sub-tropical Indo-West Pacific region. They are fecund, short-lived, and have a complex life history involving offshore spawning, inshore mangrove-lined nursery grounds, and migrations between the two locations. We have reviewed and assessed published research on: the fisheries and aquaculture; taxonomy and identification; distribution and habitat preferences; growth; mortality; food and feeding; predation, and the importance of the mangrove habitat to banana prawns. We have examined the life history patterns of these two banana prawns and the many environmental and biological factors that affect different life history stages, often resulting in large interannual variations in abundances of adult prawns and commercial catches. We have also reviewed research on the ecosystem relationships involving these prawns, including fishery impacts on the environment and other species caught as bycatch. In reviewing the published information on factors affecting recruitment dynamics and variability, we have sometimes found contrasting and confounding results, suggesting that these factors are not yet fully understood. Therefore, for each aspect of the prawns' biology we have pointed to areas with incomplete or conflicted understanding, which will hopefully guide future research on these extremely valuable prawn species.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Penaeidae , Animais , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros , Comportamento Predatório
3.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110811, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721294

RESUMO

Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing industries in global food production, which raises the need for adopting holistic planning in the allocation of fish farm locations dedicated to aquaculture in the context of an ecosystem approach. The future development and expansion of aquaculture will strongly depend on the availability of space to develop the industry in a sustainable manner, or in finding ways to reduce the environmental impact at existing locations. This study assesses the possibility of reducing the impact of aquaculture farming by optimizing on the spatial stocking design of three generations of caged fish. Three spatial stocking scenarios were analyzed using simulated numerical experiments. The analysis was performed using emission estimates and by modelling the dispersion and deposition of organic matter on the seabed with concomitant effects on oxygen concentration. Emissions were estimated according to fish growth predictions, energy requirements, body chemical composition, daily meal requirements (industrial feed), and proximate chemical composition of the feed in a sea bream fish farm. The simulation results show that an optimized spatial stocking design of fish cages can significantly reduce the environmental footprint while simultaneously allowing for an increase in annual fish production and optimal utilization of the farming site. Additionally, our findings suggest that carrying capacity of the farming site based only on the annual maximum biomass of harvested fish does not give optimal production estimates and may contribute to underestimating the productive capacity of cage fish farms.


Assuntos
Dourada , Animais , Aquicultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros
5.
Science ; 368(6496): 1243-1247, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527830

RESUMO

Predator recovery often leads to ecosystem change that can trigger conflicts with more recently established human activities. In the eastern North Pacific, recovering sea otters are transforming coastal systems by reducing populations of benthic invertebrates and releasing kelp forests from grazing pressure. These changes threaten established shellfish fisheries and modify a variety of other ecosystem services. The diverse social and economic consequences of this trophic cascade are unknown, particularly across large regions. We developed and applied a trophic model to predict these impacts on four ecosystem services. Results suggest that sea otter presence yields 37% more total ecosystem biomass annually, increasing the value of finfish [+9.4 million Canadian dollars (CA$)], carbon sequestration (+2.2 million CA$), and ecotourism (+42.0 million CA$). To the extent that these benefits are realized, they will exceed the annual loss to invertebrate fisheries (-$7.3 million CA$). Recovery of keystone predators thus not only restores ecosystems but can also affect a range of social, economic, and ecological benefits for associated communities.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Cadeia Alimentar , Kelp/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lontras , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Biomassa , Sequestro de Carbono , Pesqueiros , Herbivoria , Atividades Humanas , Frutos do Mar
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(2): 659-666, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476361

RESUMO

The relative importance index (IRI), mean crowding, niche breadth, and niche overlap (Qik) of major fish species were calculated based on two fishery resource surveys from April to May 2016 (spring) in the coastal waters of central and southern Zhejiang Province. The results showed that there were 24 major fish species (IRI:100), the niche breadth values of which differed greatly and were positively correlated with IRI. The niche overlaps of fishes were extremely low in spring. The total amount of species pairs with niche overlap 0.6 (Qik :0.6) were six in April and five in May, which represented 3.9% and 4.8% of the total pairs, respectively. Results from the redundancy analysis showed that the distribution of major fish species were mainly affected by temperature, salinity, water depth, and dissolved oxygen, which caused ecological differentiation of fish species.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Peixes , Animais , China , Pesqueiros , Estações do Ano
7.
J Environ Manage ; 269: 110757, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560987

RESUMO

Marine protected areas (MPAs) socio-ecological effectiveness depends on a number of management and governance elements, among which stakeholder engagement and community support play key roles. Collaborative conservation initiatives that engage stakeholders in action research and knowledge co-production processes can enhance management and governance of MPAs. To design effective strategies aimed at reconciling biodiversity conservation and management of sustainable human uses, it is key to assess how local communities respond to such initiatives and identify the set of contextual factors, institutional, local and individual, potentially affecting these responses. This paper presents the approach and results of one such initiative, spanning 6 EU countries and 11 MPAs in the Mediterranean Sea, focusing on small-scale fishers as key MPA users. Through a collaborative project, managers and fishers agreed upon specific governance interventions (e.g. increasing stakeholder engagement, engaging fishers in monitoring activities, reducing fishing efforts) to be implemented in each MPA for one year. Structured surveys queried: MPA managers on the MPA context, governance structure, feasibility and effectiveness of the tested interventions; and small-scale fishers on their perceptions of the impact of the tested interventions on a set of 9 socio-ecological variables (e.g. amount of fish caught, level of participation in decision-making, support for the MPA). Results revealed that the interventions tested were relatively feasible, effective and cost-effective. Fishers reported positive perceptions of the interventions for the 9 variables considered, especially for level of support for the MPA and for those associated with aspects of governance. Proportional odds models highlighted perceived effects are maximized under certain institutional, local and individual circumstances (e.g. old MPAs, small fisher communities, and fishers with a high proportion of income from fisheries). Findings highlight that employing good governance processes involving stakeholders may rapidly generate improved local support for conservation and provide insights for potential leverage points upon which to act to maximize perceived effectiveness and enhance support toward MPAs.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Animais , Biodiversidade , Peixes , Humanos , Biologia Marinha , Mar Mediterrâneo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232872, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396548

RESUMO

Fish populations globally are susceptible to endangerment through exploitation and habitat loss. We present theoretical simulations to explore how reduced adult survival (age truncation) might affect short-lived freshwater fish species in human-altered contemporary environments. Our simulations evaluate two hypothetical "average fish" and five example fish species of age 1 or age 2 maturity. From a population equilibrium baseline representing a natural, unaltered environment we impose systematic reductions in adult survival and quantify how age truncation affects the causes of variation in population growth rate. We estimate the relative contributions to population growth rate arising from simulated temporal variation in age-specific vital rates and population structure. At equilibrium and irrespective of example species, population structure (first adult age class) and survival probability of the first two adult age classes are the most important determinants of population growth. As adult survival decreases, the first reproductive age class becomes increasingly important to variation in population growth. All simulated examples show the same general pattern of change with age truncation as known for exploited, longer-lived fish species in marine and freshwater environments. This implies age truncation is a general potential concern for fish biodiversity across life history strategies and ecosystems. Managers of short-lived, freshwater fishes in contemporary environments often focus on supporting reproduction to ensure population persistence. However, a strong focus on water management to support reproduction may reduce adult survival. Sustainability management needs a focus on mitigating adult mortality in human-altered ecosystems. A watershed spatial extent embracing land and water uses may be necessary to identify and mitigate causes of age truncation in freshwater species. Achieving higher adult survival will require paradigm transformations in society and government about water management priorities.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Pesqueiros , Água Doce , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Crescimento Demográfico
10.
Adv Mar Biol ; 85(1): 1-37, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456839

RESUMO

Marine animal tracking has become one of the major tools used to understand the behavior and ecology of a multitude of species in the ocean, thus there is an increasing body of knowledge about this subject worldwide, particularly for sharks. Nevertheless, little was known of the movement patterns of shark in the Mexican Pacific (MXP) and Gulf of California (GOC), except for the pioneering work carried out in the 1980s on the movements of scalloped hammerhead sharks in El Bajo Espiritu Santo and other islands in the region, as well as ongoing studies on white shark movements, migratory patterns and behavior off Isla Guadalupe. Here we present an overview of previous studies on the movements of sharks, as well as a comprehensive description of new studies currently being carried out by our research group at Pelagios Kakunjá on several species of sharks in the MXP. We show how information gleaned from these studies can be put to use to guide sustainable exploitation policies and promote effective conservation practices.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Tubarões , Animais , Ecologia , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Ilhas , México
11.
Adv Mar Biol ; 85(1): 39-69, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456840

RESUMO

Sharks have been of great cultural and socioeconomic importance in Mexico since the late 19th century, when the first fisheries were prosecuted in the Gulf of California to export fins to China. Mexican shark and ray fisheries are classified mainly by the size of the fishing vessel and include small- (7.5-10m), medium- (10-27m), and large-sized (>27m) fisheries. All are multispecies fisheries that use longline or gillnet gear, with their relative productivity varying over time. Off the Pacific coast, early shark small size vessel fisheries in the Gulf of California were driven by the need for vitamin A from livers, especially during World War II. As this fishery declined, new shark fishing opportunities arose because of government support and the development of the medium-sized fishery, which was capable of farther offshore excursions. Shark meat became an important part of the diets of poor and impoverished citizens during the 1950s and 1960s. The establishment of a Mexican Exclusive Economic Zone in 1976 pushed foreign vessels from Asia out of Mexican waters and led to the development of the large-sized vessel fishery to exploit pelagic sharks in offshore waters. By the early 1980s, Mexico shark fisheries were among the most productive in the world; however, a national economic crisis reduced effort and landings until the late 1980s, when several new fisheries emerged. Landings from Pacific states fluctuated between ~13,000 and 24,000t (dressed weight) during 1987-2012 but expanded steadily thereafter because of government support and offshore fleet expansion. Shark fisheries landings from the Mexican Pacific are currently at their highest recorded levels, exceeding 31,000t; however, a lack of species-specific landings and life history information has precluded population assessments of targeted stocks. In addition, though several recent management measures have been enacted to protect Mexican shark and ray fishery resources, the enforcement of these regulations is severely lacking. Therefore, the long-term sustainability of current fishing levels is unknown but should engender concern based on anecdotal evidence of serial depletion among historical elasmobranch targets in the Mexican Pacific.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Tubarões , Animais , México , Dinâmica Populacional
12.
Adv Mar Biol ; 85(1): 93-102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456842

RESUMO

Mexico is a country that makes heavy use of the shark populations that inhabit the southern portion of the Northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP). Shark meat has become an essential food source in this country, while shark fins are used to supply traditional Asian markets. In addition to consumptive utilization, charismatic shark species support an ecotourism industry that has gained significance in several tourist resorts across the country. In this concluding chapter, we recap the contents of chapters included in volumes 83 and 85 in the Advances in Marine Biology series. The chapters in these volumes address biodiversity, conservation genetics, trophic ecology, migratory movements, fisheries, and shark ecotourism, allowing us to understand the state of knowledge relevant to human: shark interactions in the Mexican Pacific. We discuss the challenges for the sustainable use and conservation of sharks in the southern NEP and highlight the need for a more holistic management approach that includes economic and social factors. To meet these challenges, we recommend updating the Mexican National Plan of Action for Sharks published in, 2004, such that it may continue serving as a roadmap for the conservation and management of sharks in the southern NEP during the years to come.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Tubarões , Animais , Humanos , México , Oceano Pacífico
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231073, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365128

RESUMO

The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) sets a standard by which sustainable fisheries can be assessed and eco-certified. It is one of the oldest and most well-known fisheries certifications, and an estimated 15% of global fish catch is MSC-certified. While the MSC is increasingly recognized by decision-makers as an indicator for fishery success, it is also criticized for weak standards and overly-lenient third-party certifiers. This gap between the standard's reputation and its actual implementation could be a result of how the MSC markets and promotes its brand. Here we classify MSC-certified fisheries by gear type (i.e. active vs. passive) as well as by length of the vessels involved (i.e. large scale vs. small scale; with the division between the two occurring at 12 m in overall length). We compared the MSC-certified fisheries (until 31 December 2017) to 399 photographs the MSC used in promotional materials since 2009. Results show that fisheries involving small-scale vessels and passive gears were disproportionately represented in promotional materials: 64% of promotional photographs were of passive gears, although only 40% of MSC-certified fisheries and 17% of the overall catch were caught by passive gears from 2009-2017. Similarly, 49% of the photographs featured small-scale vessels, although just 20% of MSC-certified fisheries and 7% of the overall MSC-certified catch used small-scale vessels from 2009 to 2017. The MSC disproportionately features photographs of small-scale fisheries although the catch it certifies is overwhelmingly from industrial fisheries.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Certificação , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Pesqueiros , Indústria Alimentícia , Alimentos Marinhos/provisão & distribução , Publicidade/classificação , Publicidade/métodos , Publicidade/normas , Animais , Certificação/organização & administração , Certificação/normas , Eficiência Organizacional , Pesqueiros/classificação , Pesqueiros/organização & administração , Pesqueiros/normas , Peixes/fisiologia , Indústria Alimentícia/classificação , Indústria Alimentícia/instrumentação , Indústria Alimentícia/organização & administração , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Afiliação Institucional/organização & administração , Afiliação Institucional/normas , Alimentos Marinhos/classificação , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/organização & administração , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/normas
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(23): 29091-29099, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424765

RESUMO

Length-frequency data of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was studied using 1250 specimens of both sexes combined with maximum length and weight of 44.5 cm (TL) and 1050 g respectively through gill net catch at different landing sites of Halali Reservoir, Madhya Pradesh. The data were grouped into classes of 10-mm intervals and various parameters of population dynamics of fish were analysed and computed using the FiSAT-II software package (FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tools). The length-weight parameters were found to be at W = 0.001 L 2.96 where b = 2.96 and a = 0.001. Growth parameters L∞ and K of the species were L∞ = 46.73 cm and K = 0.63/year respectively; the annual rates of natural (M) and fishing mortality (F) were found to be 0.60 and 0.72 respectively. The estimated values for the exploitation rate (E) using the length-converted catch curve and virtual population analysis were 0.54 and 0.42 respectively. The recruitment pattern shows that O. niloticus was recruited in the fishery during April with one peak. Based on the data analysis, the stock in the Halali Reservoir does not exceed the maximum fishing pressure (Emax = 0.55) and there is selective mortality towards adult fish sizes. The introduction of Nile tilapia improved the total catch per unit of effort (CPUE), as well as increased the number of active fishers. Conversely, a significant reduction in the CPUE of other commercially important indigenous species was observed after the introduction of Nile tilapia in the reservoir. Therefore, for management purpose, this study suggests that the existing effort in terms of gill net mesh size which target size (TL-15.0 to 25.0 cm) individuals of length group is to be increased to exert more fishing pressure on Nile tilapia population in the reservoir to decline its abundance in the long term.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Pesqueiros , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Índia , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 155: 111124, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469763

RESUMO

In early XXth century, the Gulf of Gabes (SE Tunisia) used to host the most extended Posidonia oceanica seagrass beds in the Mediterranean Sea, and a highly productive hotspot of benthic/demersal biodiversity. Sponge harvesting and seabed trawling provoked a first step of seagrass degradation. Subsequently, phosphogypsum releases from Gabes Industrial Complex, since mid-1970s, accelerated the decline of the remaining patches. A sharp reduction of coastal fisheries landings took place with the establishment of the last industrial plant units in 1985. The decrease in coastal commercial species landings was found to be directly correlated with P. oceanica decline. The trophic web system switched from a 'benthic-dominated' to a 'pelagic-dominated' system. The economic loss related to coastal fisheries was estimated at ~60 million € in 2014 and the 1990-2014 cumulated loss exceeded 750 million €. This first economic valuation of the only direct-use consumptive value of the coastal fishing service provided by P. oceanica in Gabes Gulf is a first step towards the assessment of the environmental cost of the negative externalities caused by the local phosphate industry. It may be used as a preliminary decision-making aid to consider alternative industrial solutions.


Assuntos
Alismatales , Pesqueiros , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Humanos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Tunísia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233237, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433702

RESUMO

Alongside government driven management initiatives to achieve sustainable fisheries management, there remains a role for market-based mechanisms to improve fisheries outcomes. Market-based mechanisms are intended to create positive economic incentives that improve the status and management of fisheries. Research to understand consumer demand for certified fish is central but needs to be mirrored by supply side understanding including why fisheries decide to gain or retain certification and the impact of certification on them and other stakeholders involved. We apply semi-structured interviews in seven different Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certified fisheries that operate in (or from) Western Australia with the aim of better understanding fisheries sector participation in certification schemes (the supply side) and the impacts and unintended benefits and costs of certification. We find that any positive economic impacts of certification were only realised in a limited number of MSC fisheries in Western Australia, which may be explained by the fact that only a small proportion of Western Australian state-managed fisheries are sold with the MSC label and ex-vessel or consumer market price premiums are therefore mostly not obtained. Positive impacts of certification in these Western Australian fisheries are more of a social and institutional nature, for example, greater social acceptability and increased efficiency in the governance process respectively. However, opinion is divided on whether the combined non-monetary and monetary benefits outweigh the costs.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Alimentos Marinhos/provisão & distribução , Crescimento Sustentável , Certificação/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesqueiros/economia , Humanos , Alimentos Marinhos/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Austrália Ocidental
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232324, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357180

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is used to minimize solid waste while producing biogas by the action of microorganisms. To give an insight into the underlying microbial dynamics in anaerobic digesters, we investigated two different AD systems (wastewater sludge mixed with either fish or grass waste). The microbial activity was characterized by 16S RNA sequencing. 16S data is sparse and dispersed, and existent data analysis methods do not take into account this complexity nor the potential microbial interactions. In this line, we proposed a data pre-processing pipeline addressing these issues while not restricting only to the most abundant microorganisms. The data were analyzed by Common Components Analysis (CCA) to decipher the effect of substrate composition on the microorganisms. CCA results hinted the relationships between the microorganisms responding similarly to the AD physicochemical parameters. Thus, in overall, CCA allowed a better understanding of the inter-species interactions within microbial communities.


Assuntos
Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Esgotos/microbiologia , Anaerobiose , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Análise de Dados , Pesqueiros , Interações Microbianas , RNA Bacteriano , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Estatística como Assunto
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 155: 111099, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469758

RESUMO

This paper presents a review around seagrass habitat in Tarawa Lagoon, Kiribati and explores the links between seagrass occurrence and the national priority issues of climate change, urban development, human health, nearshore fisheries, threatened species, ocean policy, research capacity and awareness. The contribution of healthy seagrass habitats to many aspects of these national issues is often overlooked and there is need to establish the knowledge gaps and priority actions that can enable mitigation of issues that impact on valuable seagrass resources and their management. Research data on seagrass habitats in Kiribati, and the wider Pacific Island region, is limited and this hinders informed decisions at local, national and regional levels. We present a comprehensive review on seagrass within a national context to aid prioritisation and uptake of information for resource owners, and wider stakeholders, in Kiribati while acknowledging local expertise. The paper highlights data and knowledge gaps that if addressed, will provide information useful to Kiribati nationals, communities and government stakeholders. Recommendations for actions that fill these gaps and build understanding of seagrass resources in Kiribati are provided.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pesqueiros , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Micronésia , Ilhas do Pacífico
19.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 282-289, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468791

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of Anisakis infections among high-risk populations along the coastal areas of Jiangsu Province, so as to develop the strategy for the prevention and control of anisakiasis in the province. METHODS: Three counties along the coastal areas of Jiangsu Province were selected as the study sites in 2018, including Rudong County in Nantong City, Haizhou District in Lianyungang City and Dongtai City in Yancheng City. The knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of anisakiasis prevention and control, and the prevalence of serum specific IgG antibody against Anisakis were investigated among high-risk populations among these three study sites, including fishermen, fish seller and people who liked eating fresh and live marine fish. Factors affecting the prevalence of the specific IgG antibody against Anisakis were identified using a multiple logistic regression model. In addition, Anisakis larvae infections were detected in fresh and live marine fish samples collected from local markets, and the prevalence and intensity of Anisakis infections were estimated. RESULTS: A total of 625 high-risk populations were investigated, including 349 men (55.8%). Only 13.0% of the subjects heard about anisakiasis, and a low awareness rate of anisakiasis prevention and control knowledge was seen among these three types of high-risk populations. There were 21.6% of the subjects eating raw or half-cooked marine fish, 5.8% eating undercooked marine fish, 3.2% presenting vomiting, nausea and diarrhea after eating marine fish, 5.1% developing systemic allergic symptoms, and 65.6% using the same chopping board for raw and cooked food. The sero-prevalence of the anti-Anisakis IgG antibody was 7.0% among the study subjects. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified education level [OR = 0.687, 95% CI (0.478, 0.987)] and development of systemic allergic symptoms [OR = 4.641, 95% CI(1.411, 15.268)]as factors affecting the positive anti-Anisakis IgG antibody among the study subjects. Among 494 fresh and live marine fish detected, the prevalence and intensity of Anisakis larvae infection was 64.0% and 8.1 larvae per fish, with high prevalence seen in Trichiurus haumela and Pneumatophorus japonicas. CONCLUSIONS: The awareness of anisakiasis prevention and control knowledge is low among the high-risk populations living along the coastal areas of Jiangsu Province, and there are high-risk behaviors, such as eating raw or half-cooked food, using the same chopping board for raw and cooked food. In addition, the prevalence of Anisakis infections is high in the marine fish in these areas. Therefore, the health education and health promotion for anisakiasis prevention and control should be intensified.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase , Anisakis , Peixes , Alimentos Crus , Medição de Risco , Animais , Anisaquíase/prevenção & controle , Anisaquíase/transmissão , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Pesqueiros , Peixes/parasitologia , Humanos , Larva , Masculino , Prevalência , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 729: 138936, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361451

RESUMO

Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been increasingly used as a primary tool for fisheries management and conservation. Over the past few decades, the implementation of MPAs has achieved mixed results with regard to conservation goals, which has driven the scientific community to contemplate what factors may determine the effectiveness of an MPA. Most previous analyses have tended to focus on the design criteria of MPAs as well as post-closure management capabilities, but pre-closure conditions are seldom considered. Here, we investigate the effects of varying pre-closure fishing effort scenarios on MPA performance by applying a developed evaluation framework and age-structured dynamic model for the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) in Haizhou Bay, China. We specifically focus on the overall fishing pressure imposed on the fish population and the spatial heterogeneity of fishing effort. We used ecological and social indicators to evaluate the effects of MPAs. Our results demonstrate that MPAs with lower pre-closure fishing pressure are more effective than those with higher pre-closure fishing pressure in recovering the fish population. Highly aggregated fishing efforts inside the MPAs prior to their implementations could also make MPAs less effective. By comparing our findings to other studies, we noticed that evaluation metrics and time frames could make a difference in determining the effects of a given MPA, which indicates the importance of monitoring programs. From a social perspective, placing MPAs in heavily exploited areas without additional harvest regulations may result in a tragedy of the commons situation that leads to a significant loss in catches. This study highlights the ecological and social risks of establishing MPAs under different pre-closure fishing scenarios and provides insights for the development of marine conservation plans.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Peixes
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