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1.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(5): 1012-1016, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567284

RESUMO

Strengthening practical teaching, together with improving innovation ability is one of the key tasks of Emerging Engineering Education. This paper is based on the revision of the training program of bioengineering in School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, improved the practical teaching system and curriculum content, built a five-level teaching system for basic experiment, comprehensive experiment, course design, scientific research and practical training. In order to cultivate outstanding innovative talents with practical ability and innovative spirit, innovative teaching reform mode is proposed. Furthermore the new thought and new schemes for Emerging Engineering Education are put forward.


Assuntos
Bioengenharia , Currículo , Bioengenharia/educação
2.
BMJ ; 369: m718, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349978

RESUMO

Head and neck structures govern the vital functions of breathing and swallowing. Additionally, these structures facilitate our sense of self through vocal communication, hearing, facial animation, and physical appearance. Loss of these functions can lead to loss of life or greatly affect quality of life. Regenerative medicine is a rapidly developing field that aims to repair or replace damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Although the field is largely in its nascence, regenerative medicine holds promise for improving on conventional treatments for head and neck disorders or providing therapies where no current standard exists. This review presents milestones in the research of regenerative medicine in head and neck surgery.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/uso terapêutico , Otolaringologia/tendências , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/tendências , Medicina Regenerativa/tendências , Tecidos Suporte , Bioengenharia , Transplante de Células/métodos , Transplante de Células/tendências , Cóclea , Cartilagem da Orelha , Ossos Faciais , Humanos , Laringe , Cartilagens Nasais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Glândulas Salivares , Crânio , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências , Traqueia , Membrana Timpânica
3.
Minerva Stomatol ; 69(1): 55-62, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214067

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dentistry, therefore implantology, prosthetics, implant prosthetics or orthodontics in all their variants, are medical and rehabilitative branches that have benefited greatly from these methods of investigation to improve the predictability of rehabilitations. We will examine the Finite Element Method and Finite Element Analysis in detail. This method involves the simulation of mechanical forces from an environment with infinite elements, the real one, to a simulation with finite elements. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The study searched MEDLINE databases from 2008 to 2018. Human use of FEM in vitro studies reported a contribution on oral rehabilitation through the use of FEM analysis. The initial search obtained 296 citations. After a first screening, the present revision considered the English-language works referred to human application of the FEM published in the last 10 years. Finally, 34 full texts were available after screening. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The ultimate aim of this review is to point out all the progress made in the field of bioengineering and therefore, thanks to this, in the field of medicine. Instrumental investigations such as FEM are an excellent tool that allows the evaluation of anatomical structures and any facilities for rehabilitation before moving on to experimentation on animals, so as to have mechanical characteristics and satisfactory load cycle testing. CONCLUSIONS: FEM analysis contributes substantially to the development of new technologies and new materials in the biomedical field, being able to perform a large number of simulations without the need for patients or to perform human tests. Thanks to the 3D technology and to the reconstructions of both the anatomical structures and eventually the alloplastic structures used in the rehabilitations it is possible to consider all the mechanical characteristics, so that they can be analyzed in detail and improved where necessary. It is possible thanks to these methods to know what are the ideal characteristics of a material to promote an oral rehabilitation, so we know the characteristics, it remains only to take a step in the field of the industry for the construction of materials close to these characteristics.


Assuntos
Ortodontia , Dente , Bioengenharia , Odontologia , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Estresse Mecânico
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 879, 2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054851

RESUMO

Bio-hybrid light-emitting diodes (Bio-HLEDs) based on color down-converting filters with fluorescent proteins (FPs) have achieved moderate efficiencies (50 lm/W) and stabilities (300 h) due to both thermal- and photo-degradation. Here, we present a significant enhancement in efficiency (~130 lm/W) and stability (>150 days) using a zero-thermal-quenching bio-phosphor design. This is achieved shielding the FP surface with a hydrophilic polymer allowing their homogenous integration into the network of a light-guiding and hydrophobic host polymer. We rationalize how the control of the mechanical and optical features of this bio-phosphor is paramount towards highly stable and efficient Bio-HLEDs, regardless of the operation conditions. This is validated by the relationships between the stiffness of the FP-polymer phosphor and the maximum temperature reached under device operation as well as the transmittance of the filters and device efficiency.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Luz , Organofosfatos/química , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Semicondutores , Bioengenharia/métodos , Dicroísmo Circular , Cor , Desenho de Equipamento , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/isolamento & purificação , Mutação , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína/genética , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura
5.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 159(5): 2010-2011, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926723

Assuntos
Bioengenharia
6.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 29(2): 209-219, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937152

RESUMO

Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, antioxidants such as vitamin E have had limited success in the clinic. This prompts the question of what effects amore potent antioxidant might produce. A prime candidate is the recently developed bioengineered antioxidant, poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalizedhydrophilic carbon clusters (PEG-HCCs), which are capable of neutralizing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical at106/molecule of PEG-HCC. In this project, we tested the potential of PEG-HCCs as a possible therapeutic for MetS.Results: PEG-HCC treatment lessened lipid peroxidation, aspartate aminotransferase levels, non-fastingblood glucose levels, and JNK phosphorylation inob/ob mice. PEG-HCC-treated WT mice had an increased response to insulin by insulin tolerance tests and adecrease in blood glucose by glucose tolerance tests. These effects were not observed in HFD-fed mice, regardless of treatment. PEG-HCCs were observed in the interstitial space of liver, spleen, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. No significant difference was shown in gluconeogenesis or inflammatory gene expression between treatment and dietary groups.Expert Opinion: PEG-HCCs improved some parameters of disease possibly due to a resulting increase in peripheral insulin sensitivity. However, additional studies are needed to elucidate how PEG-HCCsare producing these effects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Bioengenharia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbono/química , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(4): 1853-1859, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932426

RESUMO

Living systems are more robust, diverse, complex, and supportive of human life than any technology yet created. However, our ability to create novel lifeforms is currently limited to varying existing organisms or bioengineering organoids in vitro. Here we show a scalable pipeline for creating functional novel lifeforms: AI methods automatically design diverse candidate lifeforms in silico to perform some desired function, and transferable designs are then created using a cell-based construction toolkit to realize living systems with the predicted behaviors. Although some steps in this pipeline still require manual intervention, complete automation in future would pave the way to designing and deploying unique, bespoke living systems for a wide range of functions.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Automação , Bioengenharia/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Embrião não Mamífero/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Xenopus laevis/fisiologia , Animais , Células Artificiais , Embrião não Mamífero/citologia , Humanos
9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(3): 1068-1083, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777928

RESUMO

Engineering the process of molecular translation, or protein biosynthesis, has emerged as a major opportunity in synthetic and chemical biology to generate novel biological insights and enable new applications (e.g. designer protein therapeutics). Here, we review methods for engineering the process of translation in vitro. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the two major strategies-purified and extract-based systems-and how they may be used to manipulate and study translation. Techniques to engineer each component of the translation machinery are covered in turn, including transfer RNAs, translation factors, and the ribosome. Finally, future directions and enabling technological advances for the field are discussed.


Assuntos
Bioengenharia , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/biossíntese , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Proteínas Ribossômicas/fisiologia , Ribossomos/química , Ribossomos/metabolismo
11.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(12): e1006385, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830100

RESUMO

Physical interaction with a partner plays an essential role in our life experience and is the basis of many daily activities. When two physically coupled humans have different and partly conflicting goals, they face the challenge of negotiating some type of collaboration. This requires that both participants understand their partner's state and current actions. But, how would the collaboration be affected if information about their partner were unreliable or incomplete? We designed an experiment in which two players (a dyad) are mechanically connected through a virtual spring, but cannot see each other. They were instructed to perform reaching movements with the same start and end position, but through different via-points. In different groups of dyads we varied the amount of information provided to each player about his/her partner: haptic only (the interaction force perceived through the virtual spring), visuo-haptic (the interaction force is also displayed on the screen), and partner visible (in addition to interaction force, partner position is continuously displayed on the screen). We found that incomplete information about the partner affects not only the speed at which collaboration is achieved (less information, slower learning), but also the actual collaboration strategy. In particular, incomplete or unreliable information leads to an interaction strategy characterized by alternating leader-follower roles. Conversely, more reliable information leads to more synchronous behaviors, in which no specific roles can be identified. Simulations based on a combination of game theory and Bayesian estimation suggested that synchronous behaviors correspond to optimal interaction (Nash equilibrium). Roles emerge as sub-optimal forms of interaction, which minimize the need to account for the partner. These findings suggest that collaborative strategies in joint action are shaped by the trade-off between the task requirements and the uncertainty of the information available about the partner.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Bioengenharia , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Teoria do Jogo , Objetivos , Humanos , Liderança , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Comportamento Social , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
12.
Reproduction ; 158(6): F113-F126, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846436

RESUMO

The ovarian follicle and its maturation captivated my imagination and inspired my scientific journey - what we know now about this remarkable structure is captured in this invited review. In the past decade, our knowledge of the ovarian follicle expanded dramatically as cross-disciplinary collaborations brought new perspectives to bear, ultimately leading to the development of extragonadal follicles as model systems with significant clinical implications. Follicle maturation in vitro in an 'artificial' ovary became possible by learning what the follicle is fundamentally and autonomously capable of - which turns out to be quite a lot. Progress in understanding and harnessing follicle biology has been aided by engineers and materials scientists who created hardware that enables tissue function for extended periods of time. The EVATAR system supports extracorporeal ovarian function in an engineered environment that mimics the endocrine environment of the reproductive tract. Finally, applying the tools of inorganic chemistry, we discovered that oocytes require zinc to mature over time - a truly new aspect of follicle biology with no antecedent other than the presence of zinc in sperm. Drawing on the tools and ideas from the fields of bioengineering, materials science and chemistry unlocked follicle biology in ways that we could not have known or even predicted. Similarly, how today's basic science discoveries regarding ovarian follicle maturation are translated to improve the experience of tomorrow's patients is yet to be determined.


Assuntos
Bioengenharia , Preservação da Fertilidade , Infertilidade Feminina/prevenção & controle , Oócitos/fisiologia , Oogênese , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Criopreservação , Feminino , Humanos , Oócitos/citologia , Folículo Ovariano/citologia
14.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 47(6): 1781-1794, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845725

RESUMO

Conversion of cellulosic biomass (non-edible plant material) to products such as chemical feedstocks and liquid fuels is a major goal of industrial biotechnology and an essential component of plans to move from an economy based on fossil carbon to one based on renewable materials. Many microorganisms can effectively degrade cellulosic biomass, but attempts to engineer this ability into industrially useful strains have met with limited success, suggesting an incomplete understanding of the process. The recent discovery and continuing study of enzymes involved in oxidative depolymerisation, as well as more detailed study of natural cellulose degradation processes, may offer a way forward.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Celulose/metabolismo , Microbiologia Industrial , Bactérias/genética , Bioengenharia , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Plantas/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(51): 25555-25561, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776251

RESUMO

Human population growth, soil degradation, and agrochemical misuse are significant challenges that agriculture must face in the upcoming decades as it pertains to global food production. Seed enhancement technologies will play a pivotal role in supporting food security by enabling germination of seeds in degraded environments, reducing seed germination time, and boosting crop yields. So far, a great effort has been pursued in designing plants that can adapt to different environments and germinate in the presence of abiotic stressors, such as soil salinity, heat, and drought. The technology proposed here seeks a different goal: To engineer the microenvironment of seeds by encapsulation, preservation, and precise delivery of biofertilizers that can boost seed germination and mitigate abiotic stressors. In particular, we developed a biomaterial based on silk fibroin (S) and trehalose that can be mixed with rhizobacteria and applied on the surface of seeds, retrofitting currently used techniques for seed coating, i.e., dip coating or spray drying. A micrometer thick transparent robust coating is formed by material assembly. The combination of a polymorphic protein as S and of a disaccharide used by living systems to tolerate abiotic stressors provides a beneficial environment for the survival of nonspore forming rhizobacteria outside the soil and in anhydrous conditions. Using Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Phaseolus vulgaris as working models, we demonstrated that rhizobacteria delivered in the soil after coating dissolution infect seedlings' roots, form root nodules, enhance yield, boost germination, and mitigate soil salinity.


Assuntos
Bioengenharia/métodos , Microambiente Celular/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Fibroínas/química , Phaseolus , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Rhizobium , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Trealose/química
16.
Soft Matter ; 15(45): 9359-9367, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697286

RESUMO

A facile and effective method is described to engineer original bacterial cellulose fibrous networks with tunable porosity. We showed that the pore shape, volume, and size distribution of bacterial nanocellulose membranes can be tailored under appropriate culture conditions specifically carbon sources. Pore characterization techniques such as capillary flow porometry, the bubble point method, and gas adsorption-desorption technique as well as visualization techniques such as scanning electron and atomic force microscopy were utilized to investigate the morphology and shape of the pores within the membranes. Engineering various shape, size and volume characteristics of the pores available in pristine bacterial nanocellulose membranes leads to fabrication and development of eco-friendly materials with required characteristics for a broad range of applications.


Assuntos
Acetobacteraceae/química , Bioengenharia , Celulose/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Porosidade , Tensão Superficial
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739392

RESUMO

Biopolymers derived from polysaccharides are a sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative to the synthetic counterparts available in the market. Due to their distinctive properties, the cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), mainly composed of heteropolysaccharides, emerge as a valid alternative to address several biotechnological and biomedical challenges. Nevertheless, biotechnological/biomedical applications based on cyanobacterial EPS have only recently started to emerge. For the successful exploitation of cyanobacterial EPS, it is important to strategically design the polymers, either by genetic engineering of the producing strains or by chemical modification of the polymers. This requires a better understanding of the EPS biosynthetic pathways and their relationship with central metabolism, as well as to exploit the available polymer functionalization chemistries. Considering all this, we provide an overview of the characteristics and biological activities of cyanobacterial EPS, discuss the challenges and opportunities to improve the amount and/or characteristics of the polymers, and report the most relevant advances on the use of cyanobacterial EPS as scaffolds, coatings, and vehicles for drug delivery.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Biopolímeros/química , Cianobactérias/química , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/isolamento & purificação , Bioengenharia , Biopolímeros/isolamento & purificação , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Estrutura Molecular
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(11)2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739562

RESUMO

Leaves are one of the most important organs of plants, and yet, the association between leaf color and consumable traits remains largely unclear. Tea leaves are an ideal study system with which to investigate the mechanism of how leaf coloration affects palatability, since tea is made from the leaves of the crop Camellia sinensis. Our genomic resequencing analysis of a tea cultivar ZiJuan (ZJ) with purple leaves and altered flavor revealed genetic variants when compared with the green-leaf, wild type cultivar YunKang(YK). RNA-Seq based transcriptomic comparisons of the bud and two youngest leaves in ZJ and YK identified 93%, 9% and 5% expressed genes that were shared in YK- and ZJ-specific cultivars, respectively. A comparison of both transcript abundance and particular metabolites revealed that the high expression of gene UFGT for anthocyanin biosynthesis is responsible for purple coloration, which competes with the intermediates for catechin-like flavanol biosynthesis. Genes with differential expression are enriched in response to stress, heat and defense, and are casually correlated with the environmental stress of ZJ plant origin in the Himalayas. In addition, the highly expressed C4H and LDOX genes for synthesizing flavanol precursors, ZJ-specific CLH1 for degrading chlorophyll, alternatively spliced C4H and FDR and low photosynthesis also contributed to the altered color and flavor of ZJ. Thus, our study provides a better molecular understanding of the effect of purple coloration on leaf flavor, and helps to guide future engineering improvement of palatability.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Bioengenharia , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/biossíntese , Cor , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Metabolômica , Fotossíntese/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Polimorfismo Genético , Polifenóis/biossíntese , RNA-Seq , Paladar , Chá/química , Transcriptoma/genética
20.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775355

RESUMO

Microalgae and their metabolites have been an El Dorado since the turn of the 21st century. Many scientific works and industrial exploitations have thus been set up. These developments have often highlighted the need to intensify the processes for biomass production in photo-autotrophy and exploit all the microalgae value including ExoPolySaccharides (EPS). Indeed, the bottlenecks limiting the development of low value products from microalgae are not only linked to biology but also to biological engineering problems including harvesting, recycling of culture media, photoproduction, and biorefinery. Even respecting the so-called "Biorefinery Concept", few applications had a chance to emerge and survive on the market. Thus, exploiting EPS from microalgae for industrial applications in some low-value markets such as food is probably not a mature proposition considering the competitiveness of polysaccharides from terrestrial plants, macroalgae, and bacteria. However, it does not imply drawing a line on their uses but rather "thinking them" differently. This review provides insights into microalgae, EPS, and their exploitation. Perspectives on issues affecting the future of EPS microalgae are also addressed with a critical point of view.


Assuntos
Bioengenharia , Microalgas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Alga Marinha/química
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