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1.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110794, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721289

RESUMO

Based on data of the manufacturing sector of China and Japan from 2003 to 2016, this paper attempts to measure the progresses in energy-biased technology and energy efficiency by constructing a threshold panel regression model with variables including foreign direct investment (FDI) and energy consumption structure to explain energy efficiency using energy-biased technology as the key explaining variable. The estimation indicates significant differences in the energy efficiency of China's and Japan's manufacturing industries. In general, Japan's total energy efficiency is higher than China's. The industry with more intensive technology has higher energy efficiency which rises much faster. The paper finds that the energy efficiency of China's manufacturing sector shows an upward trend in general, while Japan's fluctuates more, showing two peaks and two troughs. Our empirical results show that there is a threshold value of progress in energy-biased technology; below this, progress in energy-biased technology will have a positive effect on energy efficiency and beyond it, the effect will be negative. Since this effect is not one-way, we define it as a 'double-edged effect'. It is estimated that the level of energy-biased technology progress of most manufacturing industries in China is below the threshold value, indicating that the technology progress in China's manufacturing sector has not been excessively biased towards energy consumption, and the impact on energy efficiency is still positive. The China-Japan comparison shows that the threshold value for Japan's manufacturing sector is significantly lower than that for China's, indicating a marginal effect on the 'double-edged effect': The threshold value will decrease when energy efficiency reaches a certain level. Therefore, it is necessary to offset these negative externalities from technological progress with other factors such as by increasing FDI and improving energy consumption structure.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Tecnologia , China , Eficiência , Japão
2.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110807, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721292

RESUMO

To help minimize urban industrial water consumption and realize the goal of a water-saving society, this paper develops a method for the dynamic optimization of the input production factors in an urban industrial water supply model. A negative exponential curve describes the urban industrial water consumption per Yuan of urban industrial value added, the latter being described by a Gompertz curve. The product of the two describes the urban industrial water demand. The production function of urban industrial water supply is expressed by the fixed substitution proportional production function. Taking investment and labor input as control variables, the system goal is to balance of industrial water supply and demand. The time-varying model can not only solve the stable state problem for infinite time horizon, but also the transient problem for finite time horizon. Taking Jiangsu province in eastern China as an example, the applicability of the method was investigated under different parameter combinations. The simulation results show its effectiveness in these cases. In the earlier period, meeting balance requirements is easier using the straight-line capital depreciation method. In the later period, the fixed rate on declining balance method allows to meet the requirements more easily. In general, it is easier to achieve the goal by choosing a smaller and feasible weight matrix coefficient of the control variables.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Abastecimento de Água , China , Água
3.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110859, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721307

RESUMO

Improving water-use efficiency (WUE) is a crucial way of achieving green industrial production and sustainable development. Applying an improved Super-slacks-based measure model with undesirable outputs, this paper investigates industrial WUE in mainland China. The results show that: (1) Industrial WUE in China is improving with the efficiency value increasing from 0.9874 to 0.9962 in 2012-2015. (2) The regions of water absolute scarcity and the vulnerability show the highest industry-related WUE, whereas the water stressed region, water scarce region, and water abundant region failed to achieve efficiency during the observation period. (3) The overall index value using the conventional model was higher than that of the improved model, indicating the need for a more reasonable water-use structure and environmentally friendly discharge structure. This study provides a new perspective for measuring industrial WUE and advances related studies by (1) incorporating the actual structure of water used and wastewater discharged with weights assigned to input and output slacks according to marginal use cost of water and marginal treatment cost of wastewater; and (2) adding realistic constraints on the amount of water used and wastewater discharged to the model. The estimated provinces in mainland China can adjust their industrial water-use structures and wastewater-discharge structures based on the results of this study, and thus improve the industrial WUE.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Água , China , Eficiência , Águas Residuárias
4.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110860, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721308

RESUMO

Notwithstanding the proliferation of papers dealing with the corporate finance implications of the so-called "carbon risk", very few studies analysed in depth the relationship between the firm's environmental risk profile and the cost of debt financing. We contribute to this stream of research by inspecting the relationship between EuroStoxx 600 companies' carbon emissions and cost of debt financing. We argue that lenders mitigate the impact of borrowers' GHG emissions on their future cash flows primarily requiring firms with higher carbon emissions intensity to pay significantly higher costs for financing their operations through indebtedness. We also found statistically significant evidence to support the conclusion that the positive effect of carbon emissions reduction on the cost of debt financing is relevant both for high and low emitting industries. Finally, we postulated that high emitting firms pay, on average, a higher cost of debt financing than less polluting firms but are less penalized if an increase in their carbon intensity occurs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the very first study to directly document the impact of carbon emissions on the cost of debt financing for non-financial European industries, substantially enriching the existing environmental financial literature.


Assuntos
Efeito Estufa , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Indústrias
5.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110866, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721312

RESUMO

Industrial symbiosis (IS) is one of the alternative ways of using natural resources in industrial processes. Eco-industrial parks (EIPs), as commonly known areas of IS practices, increase resource efficacy and reduce environmental effects by implementing waste/by product exchanges among tenant plants. Although there is an increasing but limited number of EIPs around the world, their circularity is not ensured due to high dynamic market and business conditions. This paper aims at offering an innovative design approach for EIPs taking into account the potential waste exchanges between the plants potentially to be co-located within EIPs with the goal of eliminating adverse impacts of market and business dynamicity. To this end, first an analysis of an existing IS database is conducted and the sectors potentially to be co-located are identified. Second, inspired by natural eco-systems, the food web (FW) metrics are defined to measure the potential EIPs' circularity. Third, a non-linear optimization method, namely branch and bound algorithm, is adopted to decide which plants should be included in the EIP designs to maximize the cyclicity of the networks. Lastly, a location analysis is conducted in order to co-locate the plants and to minimize the operational costs of implementing and running the EIPs. The use of this integrated approach is illustrated in a scenario analysis for four theoretical EIPs, two taking the construction industry as an anchor industry and two considering the random inclusion of various industries that can exchange wastes with the constructions industry. These EIPs' FW metric values are compared with the biological FW averages of natural ecosystems. The results support the method's ability to design sustainable and circular EIPs and point out practical implications for practitioners and policy-makers. The study is a seminal one integrating three methodologies for the first time to design IS networks in the form of EIPs.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Análise de Alimentos , Indústrias
6.
Waste Manag ; 114: 274-286, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683243

RESUMO

The concept of biorefinery expands the possibilities to extract value from organic matter in form of either bespoke crops or organic waste. The viability of biorefinery schemes depends on the recovery of higher-value chemicals with potential for a wide distribution and an untapped marketability. The feasibility of biorefining organic waste is enhanced by the fact that the biorefinery will typically receive a waste management fee for accepting organic waste. The development and implementation of waste biorefinery concepts can open up a wide array of possibilities to shift waste management towards higher sustainability. However, barriers encompassing environmental, technical, economic, logistic, social and legislative aspects need to be overcome. For instance, waste biorefineries are likely to be complex systems due to the variability, heterogeneity and low purity of waste materials as opposed to dedicated biomasses. This article discusses the drivers that can make the biorefinery concept applicable to waste management and the possibilities for its development to full scale. Technological, strategic and market constraints affect the successful implementations of these systems. Fluctuations in waste characteristics, the level of contamination in the organic waste fraction, the proximity of the organic waste resource, the markets for the biorefinery products, the potential for integration with other industrial processes and disposal of final residues are all critical aspects requiring detailed analysis. Furthermore, interventions from policy makers are necessary to foster sustainable bio-based solutions for waste management.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Indústrias
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(24): 30875-30884, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533484

RESUMO

With the increase of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere, the living environment of human beings is seriously affected. As a high carbon emission industry in China, thermal power enterprises are the key areas of carbon emission reduction in China. This paper first uses Super-SBM model to measure the performance of China's 18 major thermal power enterprises in 2009-2018 from a static point of view. After considering the carbon emission constraints, it analyzes the degree of change in enterprise performance, and finds that the impact of carbon emission constraints on enterprise performance is not absolute. After that, with the help of Malmquist index model, this paper discusses the dynamic changes of thermal power enterprises' performance under carbon emission constraint in recent 10 yrs. The results show that the overall performance of carbon emission constraint is in a weak regression stage and summarizes the disadvantages of different enterprises. On the basis of the research conclusion, this paper puts forward countermeasures and suggestions to further improve the performance of Chinese thermal power enterprises under the carbon emission constraints in the future, which is conducive to different enterprises to optimize their own disadvantages.


Assuntos
Indústrias , China , Humanos
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(22): 670-679, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497026

RESUMO

Patients with asthma typically have chronic airway inflammation, variable airflow limitation, and intermittent respiratory symptoms; patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have fixed airflow limitation and persistent respiratory symptoms. Some patients exhibit features suggesting that they have both conditions, which is termed asthma-COPD overlap. These patients have been reported to have worse health outcomes than do those with asthma or COPD alone (1). To describe mortality among persons aged ≥25 years with asthma-COPD overlap, CDC analyzed 1999-2016 National Vital Statistics multiple-cause-of-death mortality data* extracted from the National Occupational Mortality System (NOMS), which included industry and occupation† information collected from 26 states§ for the years 1999, 2003, 2004, and 2007-2014. Age-adjusted death rates per one million persons¶ and proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs)** were calculated. During 1999-2016, 6,738 male decedents (age-adjusted rate per million = 4.30) and 12,028 female decedents (5.59) had both asthma and COPD assigned on their death certificate as the underlying or contributing cause of death. The annual age-adjusted death rate per million among decedents with asthma-COPD overlap declined from 6.70 in 1999 to 3.01 in 2016 (p<0.05) for men and from 7.71 in 1999 to 4.01 in 2016 (p<0.05) for women. Among adults aged 25-64 years, asthma-COPD overlap PMRs, by industry, were significantly elevated among nonpaid workers, nonworkers, and persons working at home for both men (1.72) and women (1.40) and among male food, beverage, and tobacco products workers (2.64). By occupation, asthma-COPD overlap PMRs were significantly elevated among both men (1.98) and women (1.79) who were unemployed, had never worked, or were disabled workers and among women bartenders (3.28) and homemakers (1.34). The association between asthma-COPD overlap mortality and nonworking status among adults aged 25-64 years suggests that asthma-COPD overlap might be associated with substantial morbidity. Increased risk for asthma-COPD overlap mortality among adults in certain industries and occupations suggests targets for public health interventions (e.g., elimination of or removal from exposures, engineering controls, and workplace smoke-free policies) to prevent asthma and COPD in and out of the workplace.


Assuntos
Asma/mortalidade , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Adulto , Asma/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 74(5): 322-337, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482207

RESUMO

This contribution focusses on Oreste Ghisalba's pioneering activities in both fundamental as well as applied research in biocatalysis and his work on building bridges not only between biotechnology and chemistry, but also culturally, geographically and between academia and industry. His scientific work published in journals, books and conferences will be reviewed and his teaching at ETH Zurich and the University of Basel will be highlighted. Furthermore, an appreciation will be given of his broad knowledge and vision in shaping the activities of the Swiss Coordination Committee Biotechnology (SKB), the Swiss-Japanese Meetings in Biotechnology, conferences and research programs such as the Swiss Priority Program Biotechnology (SPP Biotech) of the Swiss National Science Foundation.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Indústrias , Biocatálise
10.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 74(5): 338-341, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482208

RESUMO

Oreste Ghislaba's powerful vision and actions to make Switzerland a world-leading hub in biotechnology are described. He recognised the great potential for innovation in biotechnology and was able to communicate this to stakeholders in academia, industry and politics. He was instrumental in the creation of organisations such as Swiss Biotech Association, the CTI, the SATW, TA-Swiss, and the Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium that helped to create the Swiss biotech hub.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Biocatálise , Indústrias , Suíça
11.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 74(5): 342-344, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482209

RESUMO

Since its inception in 2004, the Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium (SIBC) has brought together scientists from the Pharma, Fine Chemicals, Agrochemicals and Flavor and Fragrance Industries with the goal of promoting biocatalysis inside and outside of Switzerland as well as providing mutual benefits in the form of pre-competitive knowledge sharing. One of the 'founding fathers' of the SIBC was of course Oreste Ghisalba, whom we are honoring here in this special edition. The history of the SIBC as well as current activities and future challenges will be presented.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Biocatálise , Suíça
12.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 74(5): 345-359, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482210

RESUMO

Although diverse, the potential business opportunities for biotechnology outside the biopharmaceutical market are very large. White biotechnology can offer sustainable operations and products, while investments tend to be lower than those in red biotechnology. But a number of bottlenecks and roadblocks in Switzerland must be removed to realise the full potential of white biotechnology. This was also the point of view of Oreste Ghisalba, who wanted to be part of a new initiative to facilitate the creation of additional business, new processes and new products. This initiative requires the identification and the use of synergies and a much better cooperation between academia and industry through targeted networking. Unfortunately, we must carry on with this task without Oreste, whom we will miss for his deep knowledge and friendship.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Biotecnologia , Indústrias , Investimentos em Saúde , Suíça
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(25): 31969-31982, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504439

RESUMO

Exploring fiscal reform's pollution effect draws increasing attention. Our paper brings a new perspective, i.e., the vertical fiscal imbalance (VFI) perspective, to study such issue. With the panel data of China's provincial level from 1999 to 2016, we reveal whether and how VFI affects environmental pollution. We find that VFI significantly enhances the environmental pollution level of China. As the VFI increases, environmental pollution effect caused by VFI appears to be aggravated. According to the transmission path check, we confirm in our paper that VFI can indirectly lead to environmental degradation by affecting the two channels environmental regulation and industrial transformation. Further, through the sub-sample regressions, we find that the impacts of VFI on environmental pollution as well as the transmission paths are regionally heterogeneous. Finally, we believe that using the VFI as a variable to explore fiscal reform's effect on environment is of rationality, and for a better environmental quality, VFI should be avoided.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental/análise , Indústrias , China
15.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127237, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512334

RESUMO

A growing modern-day concern is fine dust air pollution that contains heavy metals and ammonium ions (NH4+) from industrial and agricultural waste sources, respectively. In the current study, the development of an innovative and effective technique for real-time, quantitative monitoring of toxic fine dust components using plasma emission spectroscopy is presented as a complement to emergency preparedness plans aimed at reducing dust pollution. A novel spark-induced plasma spectroscopic (SIPS) device that can control the frequency and magnitude of plasma was developed for the toxic pollutants in this work. SIPS utilizes an electrical discharge from a high voltage at a low current to produce plasma when the applied voltage is higher than the ambient voltage surrounding the electrodes. The detection limit of this setup was enhanced by a factor of 4.3 over laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS). This compact sensing device was used in combination with a new quantitative analytical method to measure the concentration of heavy metals and ammonia molecules in fine dust air pollution. By integrating the time-resolved plasma emission signals that were based on the plasma continuum decay time of each element, quantitative measurements of the minute changes in composition of 0.1 µg/m3 were conducted. The findings of this study could inspire future research on the use of SIPS for monitoring airborne fine dust pollutants with better sensitivity in real-time via a new quantitative analytical method.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poeira/análise , Poluentes Ambientais , Indústrias , Metais Pesados/análise , Análise Espectral
16.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(2): 219-232, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594183

RESUMO

Mongolia is a rapidly developing country that has experienced growing industrialization and urbanization in recent decades. This study was conducted to evaluate the enrichment and labile fractions of metals in urban soils of Mongolia and to identify major sources of soil metal pollution. The concentrations and geochemical fractions of Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Cd, Co, Zn, V, Mo, As, Sb, and Pb in soils of the city Ulaanbaatar were investigated. The results demonstrate that only Fe, Mn, Co, Mo, and V occur at natural levels with enrichment factors close to unity. The majority of investigated toxic metals, including Cu, Zn, Cr, Sb, As, Cd, and Pb, are serious pollutants in urban soils, with enrichment factors of up to 2.8, 5.1, 2.1, 16, 13, 15, and 11, respectively. Studies of the chemical fractions of metals demonstrate that Zn is mainly found in its labile form and is considered a high risk to humans and biota. Industrial release, household ash, coal combustion, and tire abrasion were identified as key sources of toxic metals entering into the soil of Ulaanbaatar City, which should be controlled effectively to prevent the population as well as pollution distribution over a wider area by long-range atmospheric transport.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biota , China , Cidades , Carvão Mineral , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Indústrias , Mongólia , Solo , Oligoelementos/análise , Urbanização
17.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(6): 577-587, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493967

RESUMO

Countries have sought to stop the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by severely restricting travel and in-person commercial activities. Here, we analyse the supply-chain effects of a set of idealized lockdown scenarios, using the latest global trade modelling framework. We find that supply-chain losses that are related to initial COVID-19 lockdowns are largely dependent on the number of countries imposing restrictions and that losses are more sensitive to the duration of a lockdown than its strictness. However, a longer containment that can eradicate the disease imposes a smaller loss than shorter ones. Earlier, stricter and shorter lockdowns can minimize overall losses. A 'go-slow' approach to lifting restrictions may reduce overall damages if it avoids the need for further lockdowns. Regardless of the strategy, the complexity of global supply chains will magnify losses beyond the direct effects of COVID-19. Thus, pandemic control is a public good that requires collective efforts and support to lower-capacity countries.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Política de Saúde , Indústrias , Modelos Econométricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Indústrias/economia , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 312: 123575, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521468

RESUMO

The need to increase circularity of industrial systems to address limited resources availability and climate change has triggered the development of the food waste biorefinery concept. However, for the development of future sustainable industrial processes focused on the valorisation of food waste, critical aspects such as (i) the technical feasibility of the processes at industrial scale, (ii) the analysis of their techno-economic potential, including available quantities of waste, and (iii) a life cycle-based environmental assessment of benefits and burdens need to be considered. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of food waste valorisation pathways and to analyse to which extent these aspects have been considered in the literature. Although a plethora of food waste valorisation pathways exist, they are mainly developed at lab-scale. Further research is necessary to assess upscaled performance, feedstock security, and economic and environmental assessment of food waste valorisation processes.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Mudança Climática , Indústrias
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(2): 573-580, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476351

RESUMO

The Pan-Pearl River Basin is a bridgehead for China's reform and opening-up and the construction of the Belt and Road at Sea, with vital strategic significance in Chinese overall development. Land use data and climate and socio-economic indicators were integrated to probe the spatiotemporal change and its driving forces of land use in the Pan-Pearl River basin with ArcGIS spatial analysis tool and SPSS factor analysis tool. Results showed that land use in the Pan-Pearl River Basin significantly changed between 1990 and 2015, with decreases of the area of paddy field and woodland and rapid increases of urban land and other construction land. Outflow of grassland occurred in the northwestern part of the basin. Reduction of cultivated field was mainly concentrated in the central part of the basin and coastal areas. Increases in urban and rural land, industrial and mining land, and residential land were centrally distributed in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Marco Greater Bay Area. The prominent change areas were Guangdong-Hong Kong-Marco Greater Bay Area : central and southeast of Guangxi Province : northern Hainan Province. Land use changes during 1990-2000 were most obvious in the basin. The main driving factor of spatiotemporal variation of land use was the rapid development of social economy and industry and the improvement of residents' consumption level.


Assuntos
Florestas , Rios , China , Hong Kong , Indústrias
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231438, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427993

RESUMO

Through the online booking platform, 10,543 big data of spatial and temporal distribution of Beijing hotel industry has been obtained in this paper. Then, the methods of GIS and the geographical detector are used to study the spatiotemporal evolution process and the influencing factors of Beijing hotel industry during 2003-2018. The results are as follows: a. During the period of 2003-2018, the hotel industry in Beijing maintained a high growth rate and had three growth peaks in 2008, 2010 and 2014. Meanwhile, major historical events, such as the Olympic Games had a significant influence on the development of the hotel industry. b. Between 2003 and 2018, the hotel industry in Beijing gradually developed from the centripetal agglomeration to aggregation + diffusion, and also from the single center to the multi-center. Besides, various hotels presented two characteristics of city orientation and scenic orientation. c. The natural geographical environment had shaped the overall pattern and characteristics of the spatial distribution of the hotel industry in Beijing, and the socio-economic factors such as commercial activities, public facilities, tourism services and traffic conditions significantly influenced the location selection of the hotel industry. Therefore, the urban center is the ideal area for the spatial layout of the hotel industry. d. Geographical detector research showed that the factors, such as administrative organs, road network density, leisure and recreational facilities, and companies have strong explanatory power for hotel location selection, which is an important reference index for hotels to select the micro location. This paper is a beneficial supplement to the existing research and has certain guiding significance for the sustainable development of Beijing hotel industry.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Logradouros Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , China , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Humanos
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