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1.
Science ; 368(6496): 1181-1182, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527815
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400283

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the exposure to environmental lead (Pb) of children from a traditional community of African descent in Brazil and the effects on hematological parameters. Children (n = 75) aged 5.5-13 years from the exposed areas classified as low (LEx) and moderately (MEx) exposed were compared with children (n = 75) of a control group (CG). Dust Pb loading rates (RtPbs) at children's homes were measured. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected to assess Pb biomarkers of exposure and effects. All Pb determinations were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The median (IQR) of RtPb, PbB level, and ALA-D activity were 65 (25-137) µgPb/m2/30 days, 1.0 (0.1-2.8) µg/dL, and 71 (55-86) U/L, respectively. Spearman correlation evidenced the relationship of PbB with RtPb (rho = 0.368, P < 0.001) and ALA-D activity (rho = -0.587; P ˂ 0.001). After adjusting for exposure degree and child's age, a decline of 7.4 U/L in ALA-D activity was associated with a 10-fold increase in PbB. The prevalence ratio of elevated PbB (>5 µg/dL) in LEx and MEx areas were 1.5 and 3.7, respectively. Indoor dust exposure, living near pottery workshops and the secondary exposure were the main determinants of elevated PbB levels, which were associated with hematological effects.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Indústria Química , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil , Cerâmica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espectrofotometria Atômica
3.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126609, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443256

RESUMO

In this research, the toxicological effect of untreated wastewater from of ethyl alcohol industry was evaluated on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) under experimental conditions. Fish were treated with zero, half, one and two percent of sewage effluent for 21 days. Toxic effects were monitored in liver by determining biochemical indicators, oxidative stress biomarkers, and the expression of genes involved in the detoxification. Results showed that Sod1, Gstp-1a, Gpx1a gene expressions were significantly increased in the hepatocytes after 21 days at 2.0% sewage exposure. Sewage exposure also significantly increased Gsr, Ces2 and Cyp1a, Mt1 and Mt2 gene expression in the hepatocytes of zebrafish as compared to the reference group (P < 0.01). Total cellular antioxidants, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in fish exposed to 1 and 2% of sewage were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.01), whereas alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was only increased in fish exposed to 2% sewage (P < 0.01). A significant decrease in gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT) activity in fish exposed to 2% effluent was found (P < 0.01). Catalase (CAT) activity was increased in zebrafish exposed to all concentrations of effluent. The transcriptional analysis of the detoxification-related genes and the changes in the biochemical indicators evidenced that drainage of sewage effluents from the ethyl alcohol company is a serious threat to the health of aquatic animals in the Khorram-Rood River. These results will contribute to further study on the impact of sewage effluents of the alcohol industry on aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Indústria Química , Etanol , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Irã (Geográfico) , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Rios/química , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
4.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt B): 114493, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302876

RESUMO

Owing to the production and use of chemicals in chemical industry parks (CIPs), these areas are considered to be highly polluted. However, the type of pollutants presents in the wastewater from CIPs and the risk posed to the environment due to the release of these pollutants remains unclear. In this study, suspect screening was combined with traceability analysis to determine the type of pollutants present in wastewaters at 9 chemical enterprises and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the CIPs. Additionally, the distribution of nine pollutants from the WWTPs' effluent stage and the risk they posed to the surrounding river was examined through target analysis. Upon conducting suspect analysis, the presence of 65 and 64 chemicals in the 9 chemical enterprises' wastewaters and WWTPs, respectively, was tentatively identified. Traceability analysis of the compounds screened in the effluent from the WWTPs determined that 41 substances were identified as characteristic pollutants of the chemical enterprises, indicating that the suspect screening strategy enabled relatively more efficient identification of the characteristic pollutants compared to traditional quantitative analysis. Targeting analysis combined with ecological risk assessment showed that metolachlor, carbendazim, atrazine, diuron, and chlorpyrifos posed relatively higher risks to aquatic organisms in the surrounding river. Therefore, the refined management of the wastewater treatment plant in the CIPs is necessary.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Indústria Química , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Medição de Risco , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise
5.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126682, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283426

RESUMO

The industry devoted to the production of phosphoric acid by using as raw material sedimentary phosphate rock (PR) is considered as a NORM activity (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials), due to the high levels of U-series radionuclides contained in this ore, which are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those in unperturbed soils. This fact allowed us to develop a deep characterization of the raw materials, wastes, main intermediate materials, and final products obtained at a typical phosphoric acid factory. The elemental composition (major, minor and trace elements), radionuclide concentrations, grain size distribution, mineralogy and micro-structural composition were analyzed. The aim of this characterization was to obtain information for operators and maintenance personnel involved in clean-up and waste management operations. The highest concentrations of some heavy metals and radionuclide activity concentrations were found in the "scales" (or internal incrustations)from the pipes that carry either phosphoric acid (PA) or the phosphogypsum waste (PG). The highest concentrations where found for 226Ra and 40K,with values up to 9 and 5 Bq g-1, respectively. In addition, high concentrations of many toxic heavy metals and trace elements, such as Cd, Cr, Ni, Sr, Y, V, Zn, Th, and U, were found in some sludge samples. The shielding effect of the containers/vessels/pipes has an essential role in the measured external dose in the intermediate products. The radiological implications of natural radionuclides with higher activity showed that if the maximum particulate matter concentration established in the Spanish regulation is verified, and taking into account the most conservative scenario, the annual limit of 1 mSv y-1 is not exceeded.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Fosfóricos/química , Exposição à Radiação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sulfato de Cálcio , Humanos , Metais Pesados , Fosfatos , Fósforo , Plantas , Radioisótopos/análise , Solo
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(5): 268, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248321

RESUMO

Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is classified as group 1 carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research for Cancer (IARC). In 2012, USEPA promulgated a new VCM emission standard as part of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and copolymer plants. The standard was set by benchmarking of peer plants with maximum achievable control technology (MACT). This study performs an emission assessment of a world-class PVC plant in Taiwan according to the MACT analysis. The emission data obtained were then benchmarked with baseline emission estimates of 15 PVC plants in the USA. Results of this study show seven types of VCM emissions: stripped resin of suspension/dispersion, wastewater, process vent, heat-exchange system, storage tank, equipment leaks, and other sources (gasholder). All the emission factors are complied with their MACT emission limitations (MEL) and ranked either #1 or #2 among the 15 plants. They are also summed and benchmarked against the production capacity of each plant, showing a negative power function with a fair correlation (R2 = 0.73). Among seven types of emissions, stripped resin contributes the highest (51.7%) by average emission factor of the 15 plants plus this study plant.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cloreto de Vinil , Benchmarking , Indústria Química , Humanos , Cloreto de Polivinila , Taiwan , Estados Unidos
8.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 90: 352-363, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081331

RESUMO

Coal-based olefin (CTO) industry as a complement of traditional petrochemical industry plays vital role in China's national economic development. However, high CO2 emission in CTO industry is one of the fatal problems to hinder its development. In this work, the carbon emission and mitigation potentials by different reduction pathways are evaluated. The economic cost is analyzed and compared as well. According to the industry development plan, the carbon emissions from China's CTO industry will attain 189.43 million ton CO2 (MtCO2) and 314.11 MtCO2 in 2020 and 2030, respectively. With the advanced technology level, the maximal carbon mitigation potential could be attained to 15.3% and 21.9% in 2020 and 2030. If the other optional mitigation ways are combined together, the carbon emission could further reduce to some extent. In general, the order of mitigation potential is followed as: feedstock alteration by natural gas > CO2 hydrogenation with renewable electricity applied > CCS technology. The mitigation cost analysis indicates that on the basis of 2015 situation, the economic penalty for feedstock alteration is the lowest, ranged between 186 and 451 CNY/tCO2, and the cost from CCS technology is ranged between 404 and 562 CNY/tCO2, which is acceptable if the CO2 enhanced oil recovery and carbon tax are considered. However, for the CO2 hydrogenation technology, the cost is extremely high and there is almost no application possibility at present.


Assuntos
Alcenos/química , Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Carvão Mineral , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Indústria Química , China , Poluição Ambiental/economia
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(11): 12242-12255, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993904

RESUMO

Chemical sector contributes extensively to the economic development of countries, however, it is one of the main water-consuming industries. Considering that the corporate water accounting along complete SCs can help companies in improving their sustainable water managements along their value chains, this paper aims to study the water consumption in the entire supply chain of the chemical industry from a multi-regional input-output perspective. In this regard, six Asian countries including Indonesia, Taiwan, China, Japan, South Korea and India are selected to be studied based upon the availability of their data. In the following, the direct water consumed by themselves and the indirect water used by their suppliers are measured for each country using input-output analysis method. Moreover, to draw on the conclusions of selected Asian countries, the amount of consumed water in their supply chains is compared with each other using one-way analysis of variance method. The results from input-output analysis show that the indirect water consumption in the chemical SCs of Indonesia, China, India and South Korea are 20.66, 4.62, 1.37 and 1.08 times greater than their direct water use, while the indirect water consumption for Japan and Taiwan are 0.73 and 0.13 times less than their direct values. The final results from one-way analysis of variance indicate that direct and indirect amount of water consumptions in the chemical supply chains of the selected countries do not follow the same trend over 15 years. However, India and China are the top two countries in terms of both direct and indirect amounts of water consumption due to their higher population. This study presents valuable information for authorities and policymakers in terms of proper water consumption management in chemical industry and other industrial sectors. In this matter, technology-based or production-related actions are beneficiary for affecting direct water use, while consumption-based or end-use actions are more appropriate for affecting indirect water consumption.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Ingestão de Líquidos , Análise de Variância , Ásia , China , Índia , Indonésia , Japão , República da Coreia , Taiwan , Abastecimento de Água
10.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113476, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902537

RESUMO

Exposure to chemicals produced by petrochemical industrial complexes (PICs), such as benzene, ionizing radiation, and particulate matters, may contribute to the development of leukemia. However, epidemiological studies showed controversial results. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize the association between residential exposure to PICs and the risk of leukemia incidence, focusing on exposure-response effects. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases for studies published before September 1st, 2019. Observational studies investigating residential exposure to PICs and the risk of leukemia were included. The outcome of interest was the incidence of leukemia comparing to reference groups. Relative risk (RR) was used as the summary effect measure, synthesized by characteristics of populations, distance to PICs, and calendar time in meta-regression. We identified 7 observational studies, including 2322 leukemia cases and substantial reference groups, in this meta-analysis. Residential exposure to PICs within a maximal 8-km distance had a 36% increased risk of leukemia (pooled RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.14-1.62) compared to controls, regardless of sex and age. In terms of leukemia subtypes, residential exposure to PICs was associated with the risks of acute myeloid leukemia (AML, pooled RR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.12-2.31) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, pooled RR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.11-6.42). In meta-regression, the positive association occurred after 10 years of follow-up with a pooled RRs of 1.21 (95% CI = 1.02-1.44) and then slightly increased to 1.77 (95% CI = 1.35-2.33) at 30 years after follow-up. No effect modification was found by sex, age, and geographic locations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Leucemia/induzido quimicamente , Petróleo/toxicidade , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Indústria Química , Humanos , Incidência , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Risco
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948098

RESUMO

The relocation of chemical enterprises along the Yangtze River a necessary means of ecological protection in the Yangtze River Basin. Vulnerability assessment provides a new idea for the study of livelihood ability and compensation standard of employees after relocation. Based on the framework of "Exposure-Sensitivity-Adaptability" proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the survey data of 410 employees of relocation enterprises in the Hubei Province of the Yangtze River Basin, this study firstly constructs a livelihood vulnerability evaluation index system and evaluation model, and analyzes whether the employees of relocation enterprises have the ability to cope with the risk impact brought by the Yangtze River Ecological Restoration policy. Then, we use multiple linear regression model to explore the relationship between the group's exposure, sensitivity, adaptability and livelihood vulnerability. Finally, we design a new compensation standard calculation method for special groups from the perspective of social cost, to alleviate their livelihood vulnerability and provide a theoretical basis and decision support for the government and enterprises to formulate and implement relevant resettlement standards. The results show that: (1) employees of all ages show a certain degree of vulnerability in their livelihood; (2) there are differences in livelihood vulnerability between male and female employees; (3) compared with other positions, the livelihood vulnerability of producers is relatively high, and the vulnerability index is unevenly distributed and internally differentiated; (4) a low family burden ratio, high education, convenient living conditions and complex social network can effectively reduce the vulnerability of employees' livelihood; (5) the key obstacle factors affecting the sustainable livelihood of families are living convenience, adaptability to relocation, policy understanding, children's burden ratio, education, and annual income per capita; (6) the alternative opportunity cost method can be used as the basis to determine the compensation standard of the relocated employees, which can better reflect the compensation effect of the opportunity cost in the existing definition of international compensation mechanisms and realize the leap from concept to action.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Compensação e Reparação , Emprego , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Adulto , China , Mudança Climática , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rios , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(1): 191-207, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140133

RESUMO

Thirty soil samples and 24 corresponding unpolished rice samples along the Red and Huong Rivers in northern and central Vietnam respectively, were analyzed in order to evaluate (a) soil geochemistry, (b) factors that determine the transfer of harmful and nutrient elements from soils into rice grains, (c) health risk to the local population through rice consumption. The concentrations of As, Bi, and U in the soils of this area are higher relative to those of average shale probably due to natural redox-related processes. Also, Zn, Ce, Th, La, Sn, Pb, and Cd are accumulated in some soils because of mining activities or industrial wastewater application. Arsenic concentrations exceed the Vietnamese allowable limit of 15 mg kg-1 in 80% of the tested soils. Twelve percent of the unpolished rice grains surpass the permissible maximum concentration of 0.2 mg Cd kg-1 grain dry matter by FAO/WHO and European Union, and all samples are below the Pb limit. The daily intake of As is within the range of the tolerable intake levels proposed by the European Food Safety Authority. Influences of soil parameters such as pH value, contents of soil organic matter, oxides/hydroxides of Al, Fe, and Mn cause a broad spread of transfer factors from soil to grains. Positive trends exist between the transfer factors within the groups (a) As, Sb, and U, (b) Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn, (c) Cd and Mn which indicate similar influences of soil parameters on their uptake. We propose that the allowable Cd maximum concentration for rice should be set to less than 0.2 mg kg-1. The analysis of As and Cd concentrations in soils and corresponding rice grains as well as the soil pH value should be made obligatory in order to prevent intoxication. In addition, critical elements from nonferrous metal mining and industrial areas should also be evaluated.


Assuntos
Metais/análise , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Cádmio/análise , Indústria Química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Humanos , Mineração , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Rios , Vietnã , Águas Residuárias
14.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(1): 241-253, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177476

RESUMO

Benzene homologues often used as organic raw materials or as detergents in chemical industry are prone to accidental release into the environment which can cause serious long-term soil pollutions. In a large former herbicide factory site, we investigated 43 locations for benzene homologues contaminations in soil, soil gas, and groundwater and studied the hydrogeological conditions. An inverse distance weighted interpolation method was employed to determine the pollutants three-dimensional spatial distribution in the soils. Results showed that benzene homologues residues were mainly originated from the herbicide production workshop and that the pollution had horizontally expanded at the deeper soil layer. Contaminants had already migrated 15 m downward from ground surface. Contaminant phase distribution study showed that NAPL was the primary phase (> 99%) for the pollutants accumulated in the unsaturated zone, while it had not migrated to groundwater. The primary mechanism for contaminant transport and attenuation included dissolution of "occluded" NAPL into pore water and pollutant volatilization into soil pore space. Risk assessment revealed that the pollutants brought unacceptable high carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks to public health. In order to convert this former chemical processing factory site into a residential area, a remediation to the polluted production workshop sites is urgently required.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/toxicidade , Carcinógenos Ambientais/análise , Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Indústria Química , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Herbicidas , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Volatilização
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852379

RESUMO

The objectives of the present study were to research the chemical composition of PAHs in PM2.5 of road dust, explore potential sources of PAHs, and assess their carcinogenic risk. Fifty-six road dust samples were collected on the arterial and sub-arterial roads at Nanjing Chemical Industry Park during the sampling periods of autumn and winter. A resuspension system in the laboratory was used to simulate the naturally suspended road dust in the environment and collect PM2.5. Ace was not detected, but other PAHs were found. The pollution level of PAHs was 43.66 ± 15.79 mg kg-1; and 4-ring PAHs, which accounted for 35.14% of PAHs, were the main pollutants. The contents of BeP and BghiP were the highest, accounting for 12.23% and 12.06% of PAHs, respectively. The PAHs concentrations were found to be higher in winter due to the physicochemical characteristics of PAHs and the meteorological conditions. The sequence of PAHs concentrations was: sub-arterial road in winter > arterial road in winter > arterial road in autumn > sub-arterial road in autumn. Traffic emission and industrial sources led to higher PAHs concentrations on the arterial roads in autumn. Meteorological conditions and road characteristics, such as vehicular speed, frequency of road dust sweeping, and road width, led to higher PAHs concentrations on the sub-arterial roads in winter. Principal component analysis (PCA) and the ratios of Ant/(Ant + Phe), Flu/(Flu + Pyr), InP/(InP + BP), and BaA/(BaA + Chr) were used to distinguish the PAHs sources, which indicated fossil fuel combustion, traffic emissions, and petroleum exhaust as the main PAHs sources. The application of the ILCR model for PAHs in road dust showed a higher carcinogenic risk for children and adults (6.01 × 10-5 and 5.80 × 10-5, respectively) on the sub-arterial roads in winter, indicating a high potential carcinogenic risk at the Chemical Industrial Park.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Indústria Química , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , China , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Medição de Risco , Emissões de Veículos/análise
16.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226416, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830101

RESUMO

This study assessed the perceived safety culture among five petrochemical production companies in Japan. Current effects of the perceived safety culture on employee safety motivation and performance were also examined. A total of 883 workers from the five petrochemical companies, which were located in the Chugoku region of Japan, provided valid responses to the survey distributed by email. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the personnel safety culture in these industries. The endogenous variables considered in this study included petrochemical safety culture, personnel error behavior and personnel attitudes toward violation behaviors. Petrochemical personnel safety motivation was a mediating variable. This study's findings highlight the importance of the perceived safety culture as a significant component of the organizational culture that influences employee behaviors and safety attitudes. This study further verifies the significant impact of the perceived safety culture in this industry sector on improving petrochemical personnel safety motivation and performance. Future research should explore the differences between the subcultures that have formed under larger safety cultures within similar high-risk industries, such as construction, aviation, manufacturing and mining.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Indústria Química/organização & administração , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Gestão da Segurança/normas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Percepção , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810301

RESUMO

Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are chemical building blocks for industries, and are mainly produced via the petrochemical pathway. However, the anaerobic fermentation (AF) process gives a potential alternative to produce these organic acids using renewable resources. For this purpose, waste streams, such as microalgae biomass, might constitute a cost-effective feedstock to obtain VFAs. The present review is intended to summarize the inherent potential of microalgae biomass for VFA production. Different strategies, such as the use of pretreatments to the inoculum and the manipulation of operational conditions (pH, temperature, organic loading rate or hydraulic retention time) to promote VFA production from different microalgae strains, are discussed. Microbial structure analysis using microalgae biomass as a substrate is pointed out in order to further comprehend the roles of bacteria and archaea in the AF process. Finally, VFA applications in different industry fields are reviewed.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microalgas/fisiologia , Anaerobiose , Indústria Química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717999

RESUMO

The scale of the damage due to chemical accidents in Korea is significant, and appropriate preparation and response are required. Currently, Korean enterprises are managed on the basis of the presence of certain substances. However, chemicals other than these also cause chemical accidents. It is necessary to develop a relative ranking risk index that can be calculated through use of the chemical enterprise information on chemical enterprises that is available. The Korean chemical accident risk index (KCARI), which consists of the flammability, reactivity, explosiveness, corrosiveness, toxicity, and inventory sub-indices, was developed and verified by determining the for difference in KCARI was performed by accident, and accident severity category, calculating the correlation between the KCARI values, the factors, and some sub-indices, determining how an increase in the KCARI would impact how the incident rate changed as KCARI increased and how well the KCARI can predict the chemical accident risk of chemical handling enterprises, and confirming the consistency of the proposed index and the current system. These results indicated that the frequency and severity of chemical accidents, and the presence of accidental substances, showed significant differences in the KCARI values. However, there were limitations in the ability of the fitted model to precisely predict the accident. Thus, this model can be used as a tool for the early screening and management of enterprises with a high risk of chemical accident.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos , Indústria Química , Humanos , República da Coreia , Risco
19.
Work ; 64(3): 651-660, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a context where preventive measures are developed via a functionalist and technological approach, the aim of this work is to set out general principles and methods for new preventive solutions that will enrich these existing measures. OBJECTIVE: We propose an approach centered on the involvement of workers at all hierarchical levels around "intermediary objects" of prevention in order to foster a collective debate. This might provide empowered workers to be actors into their own prevention of risk faced. METHODS: Observational data was coupled with chemical and physiological measurements. We developed, reworked and enriched the notion of risk representation, which promotes the visibility and recognition of the knowledge built, developed and held by workers on their activities and on ways to protect themselves from dangers or hazards. RESULTS: Implementation of the method generates detailed knowledge of chemical risks, knowledge that is constructed by the workers. This knowledge is made possible by the experience of the body and senses, and becomes accessible via references to the domestic and professional sphere in reflexive activities. The actors get involved and make use of their individual, collective and organizational resources to propose prevention solutionsCONCLUSIONS:Use of intermediate prevention objects in an "intermediate space for dialogue" allows dialogues to be produced and fostered. Ultimately, these spaces are circulating entities for the co-production of knowledge for action: to generate knowledge and innovative prevention solutions collectively.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Indústria Química , Ergonomia/métodos , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
20.
Work ; 64(3): 551-561, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological conditions are experiences of the conscious and unconscious elements of the work context, which revolve around workers' perceptions of feeling either engaged or disengaged with the assigned tasks. In the psychosocial work environment of hazardous industries like petrochemicals where production lasts twenty-four hours a day and continues seven-days-a-week, a psychologically available worker is extremely important. Psychological availability refers to when workers who are physically, emotionally and psychologically engaged at the moment of performing tasks. OBJECTIVE: The broad objective of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of behavioral factors on the psychological and physiological health of workers. METHODS: The latest, second generation technique, which is structural equation modeling, is used to identify the relationships between behavioral antecedents and health outcomes. A total of 277 technical workers participated, aged between 20 and 49 and were healthy in all aspects. RESULTS: The study results showed quantitative demands, emotional demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity were significantly associated with both psychological (stress) and physiological (Body Mass Index) factors. The social support of colleagues produced mixed findings with direct and indirect paths. Stress also significantly mediates the psychosocial factors and burnout of the workers. CONCLUSION: The study concluded that workers were physically available, but they experienced distractions as members of social systems, affecting their physiological and psychological health.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Satisfação no Emprego , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Emoções , Conflito Familiar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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