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1.
Protist ; 170(4): 374-384, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479910

RESUMO

In 1703 two articles appeared in the Transactions of the Royal Society, authored by an unnamed gentleman. The articles, with deference to Leeuwenhoeck, described recent observations made with a microscope. Clifford Dobell, in his biography of Leeuwenhoeck, remarked at length on the extraordinary quality of the illustrations and descriptions of "animalcules". He declared the anonymous author to be the scion and master draughtsman of Leeuwenhoeck's followers. Still today, one of the illustrations is credited with being the first unambiguous depiction of a diatom. Here I present evidence that the anonymous author was Charles King of Staffordshire and evidence of his talent. John Hill is often credited for the first naming and illustrating Paramecium and other ciliates in his 1752 book, but it has been claimed repeatedly that he copied the anonymous 1703 illustrations without attribution. Here, the illustrations from 1703 and 1752 are given, and casual examination suffices to show not only that the illustrations were copied, but also that the 1703 illustrations (and text descriptions) of Charles King are of a far higher quality than those of John Hill. Although very little is known about Charles King, he deserves recognition as a pioneer of protistology.


Assuntos
Livros Ilustrados/história , Diatomáceas/citologia , História do Século XVIII , Microbiologia/história , Microscopia
2.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 74: 15-26, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639143

RESUMO

This article addresses the development of visual practices in early modern Botany by focusing on the diverse strategies of graphic representation of plant species. Naturalis Biodiversity Center holds a historic herbarium of 169 sheets with specimens of Mediterranean plants collected by the Sicilian Botanist Paolo Boccone (1633-1704). Part of Boccone's dried specimens served as model for the etchings published in his Icones et descriptiones rariorum plantarum (1674) and part of them were used as matrix for at least one album of botanical autoprints kept in Paris. The exceptional survival of the three collections: the original dried specimens, their autoprint impressions and the etched illustrations of the book, offers a unique insight in the material and intellectual issues addressed in the process of visual representation of plants in early modern Botany. Here we present the first scientific comparison of these three valuable 17th century botanical collections. Visual comparison revealed that the Leiden collection provided 64 specimens to Icones, while 44 specimens show a perfect matching with the autoprint impressions. In nine cases the Leiden specimens appear both in the autoprints and in the Icones, thus showing the complete process of visual translation of the plant preliminary to its wider circulation in the scientific community.


Assuntos
Livros Ilustrados/história , Botânica/história , Disseminação de Informação/história , Plantas , História do Século XVII , Países Baixos , Paris , Sicília , Manejo de Espécimes/história
3.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 48(1): 221-242, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219959

RESUMO

Past studies have shown that multimodal presentation of story can improve story-retelling performance in the first language. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether similar multimedia effects can be observed in second language learning and graphic novel reading. A total of 51 Chinese elementary school children, aged 7-8, who were learning English as a second language were recruited. They were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions that differed in the format of story presentation: English text, English text with pictorial illustrations or graphic novel. After reading the same story, the children retold the story in English. The narratives produced were then rated by two independent raters. The results of group comparison showed that children from the three experimental groups had similar performance, indicating that multimedia presentation may not always facilitate narrative production in English as a second language. Within-subject comparison further showed that the children were relatively strong in language skills and capturing the main ideas of the story, while showing weakness in story structure awareness, elaboration, as well as local and global cohesion. Suggestions for the application of multimodal presentation of narrative texts are discussed.


Assuntos
Livros Ilustrados , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Narração , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Leitura , Criança , Feminino , Histórias em Quadrinhos como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino
4.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb ; 48(4): 352-367, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488895

RESUMO

Sir Alexander Morison's The Physiognomy of Mental Diseases and the original art work that formed the basis of the book have not had the scholarly attention they deserve. The published book and the commissioned portraits have not been studied in any detail. Historians have tended to offer cursory assessments that have reflected their own preconceived ideas rather than properly engaging with the material. This is a pity because Morison's work is a rich source that tells us much about the history of psychiatry. The pictures and text give us a glimpse into the world of the asylum and that of the patient. Although we see the patient through the eyes of the artist and Dr Morison, they do emerge as individuals. The accompanying texts reflect the psychiatric approach of the time and reveal contemporary notions of diagnosis, aetiology and treatment. Morison's work can also be located in the history of ideas about physiognomy. He himself was particularly influenced by Jean-Étienne-Dominique Esquirol, and Morison's work, in turn, influenced WAF Browne. These papers will outline Morison's career and consider in detail his book on The Physiognomy of Mental Diseases.


Assuntos
Ilustração Médica/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Fisiognomia , Psiquiatria/história , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Livros Ilustrados , Criança , Feminino , História do Século XIX , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos/história , Adulto Jovem
6.
S Afr J Commun Disord ; 65(1): e1-e8, 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Children who enter school with limited vocabulary knowledge are at risk for reading failure. This study investigated the efficacy of an interactive e-book, implemented as a mobile application, to facilitate vocabulary learning in Grade 1 isiXhosa-speaking children (n = 65). OBJECTIVE:  The purpose was to measure if an e-book intervention, specifically developed for use in the South African context, could facilitate the acquisition and retention of new words at different levels of lexical representation. METHOD:  A randomised pre-test and/or post-test between-subject design was used where an experimental group that received the e-book intervention was compared to a control group before the control group received a delayed intervention. Follow-up testing was performed to measure retention of the new vocabulary after eight weeks. Mixed-model repeated-measure Analysis of Variance (ANOVAs) were used to determine differences between the participants in the experimental and control groups. RESULTS:  The short-term e-book intervention not only facilitated fast-mapping of new words but enabled participants to develop more robust lexical representations of the newly acquired words. Follow-up assessment showed that they retained their newly acquired word knowledge. CONCLUSION:  Multimedia technology can be used to provide explicit and embedded vocabulary training to young children at risk for academic failure. These findings are particularly relevant for South African environments where there is limited parental support and lack of educational resources to promote vocabulary learning in young children.


Assuntos
Livros Ilustrados , Linguagem Infantil , Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Aprendizagem , Vocabulário , Análise de Variância , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Memória , Leitura , África do Sul , Percepção da Fala
7.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb ; 48(3): 272-283, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191919

RESUMO

Sir Alexander Morison's The Physiognomy of Mental Diseases and the original art work that formed the basis of the book have not had the scholarly attention they deserve. The published book and the commissioned portraits have not been studied in any detail. Historians have tended to offer cursory assessments that have reflected their own preconceived ideas rather than properly engaging with the material. This is a pity because Morison's work is a rich source that tells us much about the history of psychiatry. The pictures and text give us a glimpse into the world of the asylum and that of the patient. Although we see the patient through the eyes of the artist and Dr Morison, they do emerge as individuals. The accompanying texts reflect the psychiatric approach of the time and reveal contemporary notions of diagnosis, aetiology and treatment. Morison's work can also be located in the history of ideas about physiognomy. He himself was particularly influenced by Jean-Étienne-Dominique Esquirol, and Morison's work, in turn, influenced WAF Browne. These papers will outline Morison's career and consider in detail his book on The Physiognomy of Mental Diseases.


Assuntos
Ilustração Médica/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Fisiognomia , Retratos como Assunto/história , Psiquiatria/história , Livros Ilustrados , França , História do Século XIX , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Escócia
8.
BMC Pediatr ; 18(1): 186, 2018 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although it is well established that family-centered education is critical to managing childhood asthma, the information needs of parents of children with asthma are not being met through current educational approaches. Patient-driven educational materials that leverage the power of the storytelling and the arts show promise in communicating health information and assisting in illness self-management. However, such arts-based knowledge translation approaches are in their infancy, and little is known about how to develop such tools for parents. This paper reports on the development of "My Asthma Diary" - an innovative knowledge translation tool based on rigorous research evidence and tailored to parents' asthma-related information needs. METHODS: We used a multi-stage process to develop four eBook prototypes of "My Asthma Diary." We conducted formative research on parents' information needs and identified high quality research evidence on childhood asthma, and used these data to inform the development of the asthma eBooks. We established interdisciplinary consulting teams with health researchers, practitioners, and artists to help iteratively create the knowledge translation tools. RESULTS: We describe the iterative, transdisciplinary process of developing asthma eBooks which incorporates: (I) parents' preferences and information needs on childhood asthma, (II) quality evidence on childhood asthma and its management, and (III) the engaging and informative powers of storytelling and visual art as methods to communicate complex health information to parents. We identified four dominant methodological and procedural challenges encountered during this process: (I) working within an inter-disciplinary team, (II) quantity and ordering of information, (III) creating a composite narrative, and (IV) balancing actual and ideal management scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a replicable and rigorous multi-staged approach to developing a patient-driven, creative knowledge translation tool, which can be adapted for use with different populations and contexts. We identified specific procedural and methodological challenges that others conducting comparable work should consider, particularly as creative, patient-driven knowledge translation strategies continue to emerge across health disciplines.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Livros Ilustrados , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Pais/psicologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Arte , Criança , Comunicação , Humanos , Narração
9.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 26: e2998, 2018.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791665

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to validate the content and appearance of a serial album for children aged from 7 to 10 years addressing the topic of prevention and control of body weight. METHOD: methodological study with descriptive nature. The validation process was attended by 33 specialists in educational technologies and/or in excess of infantile weight. The agreement index of 80% was the minimum considered to guarantee the validation of the material. RESULTS: most of the specialists had a doctoral degree and a graduate degree in nursing. Regarding content, illustrations, layout and relevance, all items were validated and 69.7% of the experts considered the album as great. The overall agreement validation index for the educational technology was 0.88. Only the script-sheet 3 did not reach the cutoff point of the content validation index. Changes were made to the material, such as title change, inclusion of the school context and insertion of nutritionist and physical educator in the story narrated in the album. CONCLUSION: the proposed serial album was considered valid by experts regarding content and appearance, suggesting that this technology has the potential to contribute in health education by promoting healthy weight in the age group of 7 to 10 years.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Livros Ilustrados , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 222: 11-20, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705516

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: From 1640-1796, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) occupied the island of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). Several VOC officers had a keen interest in the medicinal application of the local flora. The Leiden University Library holds a two-piece codex entitled: Icones Plantarum Malabaricarum, adscriptis nominibus et viribus, Vol. I. & II. (Illustrations of Plants from the Malabar, assigned names and strength). This manuscript contains 262 watercolour drawings of medicinal plants from Sri Lanka, with handwritten descriptions of local names, habitus, medicinal properties and therapeutic applications. This anonymous document had never been studied previously. AIM OF THE STUDY: To identify all depicted plant specimens, decipher the text, trace the author, and analyse the scientific relevance of this manuscript as well as its importance for Sri Lankan ethnobotany. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We digitised the entire manuscript, transcribed and translated the handwritten Dutch texts and identified the depicted species using historic and modern literature, herbarium vouchers, online databases on Sri Lankan herbal medicine and 41 botanical drawings by the same artist in the Artis library, Amsterdam. We traced the origin of the manuscript by means of watermark analysis and historical literature. We compared the historic Sinhalese and Tamil names in the manuscript to recent plant names in ethnobotanical references from Sri Lanka and southern India. We published the entire manuscript online with translations and identifications. RESULTS: The watermarks indicate that the paper was made between 1694 and 1718. The handwriting is of a VOC scribe. In total, ca. 252 taxa are depicted, of which we could identify 221 to species level. The drawings represent mainly native species, including Sri Lankan endemics, but also introduced medicinal and ornamental plants. Lamiaceae, Zingiberaceae and Leguminosae were the best-represented families. Frequently mentioned applications were to purify the blood and to treat gastro-intestinal problems, fever and snakebites. Many plants are characterised by their humoral properties, of which 'warming' is the most prevalent. Plant species were mostly used for their roots (28%), bark (16%) or leaves (11%). More Tamil names (260) were documented than Sinhalese (208). More than half of the Tamil names and 36% of the Sinhalese names are still used today. The author was probably a VOC surgeon based in northern Sri Lanka, who travelled around the island to document medicinal plant use. Less than half of the species were previously documented from Ceylon by the famous VOC doctor and botanist Paul Hermann in the 1670s. Further archival research is needed to identify the maker of this manuscript. CONCLUSIONS: Although the maker of this early 18th century manuscript remains unknown, the detailed, 300-year-old information on medicinal plant use in the Icones Plantarum Malabaricarum represents an important ethnobotanical treasure for Sri Lanka, which offers ample opportunities to study changes and continuation of medicinal plant names and practices over time.


Assuntos
Livros Ilustrados/história , Medicina Tradicional/história , Plantas Medicinais , História do Século XVIII , Sri Lanka
11.
Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 77(4): 764-770, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical education in Ottoman-Turkish medicine was shaped by the influence of Claudius Galenus (c.130-c.210) and Ibn-i Sina (c.980-c.1037). These teachings were performed in madrasahs until the beginning of the 19th century. Within the scope of master-apprentice relationship, medical training was also given in private clinics. As a result of religious and social pressures on scientific studies, human cadavers were never used because they were considered sacred. For centuries, all books were handwritten in the Ottoman Empire until the first printing press was established in Istanbul during 1726. However, the first illustrated book on anatomy was not printed until another 100 years later. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparative study was conducted on the anatomical drawings in "Miratü'l Ebdan Fi Tesrih-i Azau'l Insan" (Ataullah SM, 17th), and significance of this book. RESULTS: Forty-six out of 56 figures were received from the book of physician and anatomist Jean Palfin (1650-1730). Remaining 9 figures were cited from author himself as collected from Bernard Siegfried Albinus (1697-1170), Raymond Vieussens (1614-1715), R. Drake (1667-1707), Clopton Havers (1657-1702), Albrecht von Haller (1708-1777), Joseph Guichard Duverney (1648-1730). The figures were drawn exactly the same way with minimal changes. Main text of the book is mostly translation from Italian edition of Bertin and Palfin's Works. The book is not only the first printed anatomical book but also the first printed work in Ottoman-Turkish medicine. Another very significant aspect of the illustrations are perspective drawing figures which differ from miniature style drawings of the past. CONCLUSIONS: Sânîzade Ataullah's work has a significant value not only for being the first printed illustrated anatomy book which makes it more approachable but also for providing anatomical drawings as illustrations not as miniature style painting.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Livros Ilustrados , Medicina , Impressão , Humanos , Turquia
12.
AMA J Ethics ; 20(1): 134-140, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460765

RESUMO

Physicians who recommend patient education comics should consider that some patients might question the appropriateness of this format, especially in the US, where a dominant cultural view of comics is that they are juvenile and intended to be funny. In this case, Dr. S might have approached communication with Mrs. T differently, even without knowing her attitude toward comics as a format for delivering health information. Dr. S could acknowledge that though some people might not expect useful medical information in a comic format, it has unique aspects and new research on patient education comics shows that even adults are finding this medium to be effective, educational, and engaging. Offering comics to patients, however, does potentially require patient educators to invest additional time to review and assess their accuracy and relevance.


Assuntos
Atitude , Recursos Audiovisuais , Ilustração Médica , Folhetos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Adulto , Livros Ilustrados , Cultura , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente , Estados Unidos , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto
13.
AMA J Ethics ; 20(1): 188-194, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460772

RESUMO

The representations of physicians and medical practice found in comic strips, comic books, and graphic novels throughout the past century reflect broader representational trends in popular visual media. Drawing on examples including Winsor McCay's Dream of the Rarebit Fiend, the superhero comics character Stephen Strange/Doctor Strange, and contemporary graphic medicine, this article outlines the shifting models for depicting physicians and medical ethics in comics. It concludes that contemporary representations are often more realistic and nuanced, although gender and racial diversity along with diversity in medical specializations remains problematic.


Assuntos
Atitude , Livros Ilustrados/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Jornais como Assunto/história , Médicos/história , Ética Médica/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Médicos/ética
14.
AMA J Ethics ; 20(1): 199-205, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460775

RESUMO

Matthew P. McAllister wrote: "Comic books can and have contributed positively to the discourse about AIDS: images that encourage true education, understanding and compassion can help cope with a biomedical condition which has more than a biomedical relevance" [1]. With this in mind, I combined a 23-narrator oral history and my personal memoir about an inpatient Chicago AIDS hospital unit in my book, Taking Turns: Stories from HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371. In doing so, I built upon the existing rich history of HIV/AIDS in comics, which this article will briefly describe. Although not a comprehensive review of the intersection of AIDS and comics, the book is a tour through influences that proved useful to me. In addition, in making my book, I faced a distinct ethical issue with regard to representing patient experiences with HIV/AIDS, and I describe here how I addressed it.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Livros Ilustrados , Comunicação , Educação em Saúde , Narração , Folhetos , Ativismo Político , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/história , Livros Ilustrados/história , Histórias em Quadrinhos como Assunto/história , Educação em Saúde/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Ilustração Médica/história , Medicina na Literatura , Narração/história , Folhetos/história
17.
Perspect Biol Med ; 61(4): 609-621, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613042

RESUMO

Cultures around the world are replete with images of women as the epitome of love, kindness, patience, and similar virtues, owing to their ability to give birth. Consequently, those who cannot give birth due to medical conditions are stigmatized and made to feel inadequate and deviant. Although infertility is a gender-neutral health predicament, it is women who encounter severe abjuration. Cultural scripts that glorify childbearing and stigmatize infertility impact the afflicted adversely as they destabilize their identity and aggravate their suffering as a patient. Graphic medical narratives on infertility, such as Paula Knight's The Facts of Life (2017), Emily Steinberg's Broken Eggs (2014), and Phoebe Potts's Good Eggs (2010), reflect on these issues and, in the process, illuminate how infertility fractures women's identity in a pronatalist society. This essay explores three graphic pathographies on infertility through three major themes: pronatalism and the social construction of motherhood, the absolutism of science, and alternatives to motherhood. The essay argues that the use of comics and graphic medicine, by combining visual and conceptual modes, presents the social, personal, and medical features of infertility with new force and urgency.


Assuntos
Livros Ilustrados , Infertilidade Feminina/psicologia , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Cultura Popular , Aborto Espontâneo , Adulto , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Mães , Narração , Gravidez
18.
Neuropsychologia ; 110: 104-112, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757002

RESUMO

Autobiographical remembering and future imagining overlap in their underlying psychological and neurological mechanisms. The hippocampus and surrounding regions within the medial temporal lobes (MTL), known for their role in forming and maintaining autobiographical episodic memories, are also thought to play an essential role in fictitious and future constructions. Amnesic individuals with bilateral hippocampal damage cannot reconstruct their past personal experiences and also have severe deficits in the ability to construct coherent fictitious or future narratives. However, it is not known whether this impairment reflects a failure to generate details from autobiographical episodic memory to populate personal narratives or an inability to bind such details into coherent narratives. We show that four individuals with hippocampal damage and episodic amnesia can construct narratives when the relevant details of the story are provided in a picture book and that their narratives maintain overall coherence on several measures. These findings indicate that individuals with hippocampal damage can bind details into coherent narratives when details are available to them. We conclude that the hippocampal system instead likely plays a role in the generation of details from which narratives are constructed.


Assuntos
Amnésia/psicologia , Memória Episódica , Narração , Amnésia/diagnóstico por imagem , Amnésia/fisiopatologia , Livros Ilustrados , Feminino , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot ; 25(1): 78-84, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28701104

RESUMO

There have been long-standing calls to better educate the public at large on risks of drowning; yet limited evaluation has taken place on current resources in circulation. The purpose of this qualitative research is to develop an understanding of the content in currently circulated drowning prevention resources in the United States. Data points (n = 451) consisting of specific content within 25 different drowning prevention educational resources were analyzed using document analysis methods; a grounded theory approach was employed to allow for categorical development and indexing of the data. Results revealed six emerging categories, including safety precautions (n = 152), supervision (n = 109), preventing access (n = 57), safety equipment (n = 46), emergency procedures (n = 46), and aquatic education (n = 41). Results provide an initial insight into the composition of drowning prevention resources in the United States and provide a foundation for future research.


Assuntos
Livros Ilustrados , Afogamento/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Segurança , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emergências , Humanos , Folhetos , Pais/educação , Equipamentos de Proteção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Natação/educação , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Hist Biol ; 51(1): 69-106, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28321591

RESUMO

The sixteenth century could be understand as a period of renaissance of interest in nature and as a period of development of natural history as a discipline. The spreading of the printing press was connected to the preparation of new editions of Classical texts and to the act of correcting and commenting on these texts. This forced scholars to confront texts with living nature and to subject it to more careful investigation. The discovery of America uncovered new horizons and brought new natural products, which were exotic and unknown to Classical tradition. The aim of this study is to compare strategies and categories, which were used in describing plants of the Old and the New World. Attention will be paid to the first reactions to the new flora, to the methods of naming and describing plants, to the ways of gaining knowledge about plants from local sources or by means of one's own observation. The confrontation with novelty puts naturalists in the Old World and in the New World in a similar situation. It reveals the limits of traditional knowledge based on Classical authorities. A closer investigation, however, brings to light not only the sometimes unexpected similarities, but also the differences which were due to the radical otherness of American plants.


Assuntos
Livros Ilustrados/história , Botânica/história , História Natural/história , Obras de Referência , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVI , Plantas
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