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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008254, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or Kala-azar has been a major public health problem in Bihar, India, for several decades. A few VL infected districts including Vaishali have reported >600 cases annually. Hence, in 2015, the Government of India entrusted ICMR-Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, to implement an integrated control strategy for achieving the VL elimination target (<1 case per 10,000 people at the block level) in the Vaishali District of Bihar. METHODOLOGY: This study was conducted between January 2015 and December 2016. An integrated control strategy including the spatio-temporal mapping of VL-case distribution, active case detection, chemical-based vector control using indoor residual spraying (IRS), community awareness campaigns, the training of IRS members, the training of medical doctors for effective treatment, daily monitoring and the supervision of IRS activities, logistic management, post-IRS quality assurance, epidemiological surveillance, and entomological monitoring was performed. An insecticide quantification test was performed for evaluating the IRS quality on sprayed walls. A modern compression pump was used to maintain spray quality on different wall surfaces. The impact of IRS was assessed through sand fly collection in human dwellings and cattle sheds in pre- and post-IRS. The insecticide susceptibility of local P. argentipes was performed before each IRS round (in February and June) during 2015-2016. Statistical analysis such as the mean, percentage, and 95% CI were used to summarize the results. FINDINGS: All 16 blocks of the Vaishali District achieved the VL elimination target in 2016. The integrated VL control strategy helped reduce the number of VL cases from 664 in 2014 to 163 in 2016 and the number of endemic villages from 282 in 2014 to 142 in 2016. The case reduction rate was increased from 22.6% in 2014 to 58.8% in 2016. On average, 74 VL infected villages became Kala-azar free each year from 2015 to 2016. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the elimination of VL is possible from all endemic blocks of Bihar if the integrated Vaishali VL control strategy is applied under strong monitoring and supervision.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Erradicação de Doenças , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças Endêmicas , Características da Família , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(2): 375-383, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451031

RESUMO

Confined cow-calf operations are a relatively new production model in the United States. As with any new technology, there will be a learning curve for producers and veterinarians as we attempt to optimize animal health and profitability. It is critical that cattle are managed properly in these units if disease issues are to be minimized. Allowing for adequate space in the pen and at the feed bunk is a critical factor affecting animal welfare, nutritional management, and disease transmission.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/etiologia , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
3.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(2): 385-398, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451032

RESUMO

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young cattle. Housing factors that lead to poor ventilation and stagnant air are often considered the primary reasons for high levels of endemic disease. This article reviews the literature from the past 40 years in order to determine which housing factors have been associated with respiratory disease. Penning strategy and its affect on calf respiratory health were most commonly studied. The wide variation in disease definitions and quality of reporting make drawing conclusions from the available literature extraordinarily difficult.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino/etiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Animais , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/normas , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/veterinária , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ventilação
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(17): 21680-21691, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279257

RESUMO

This study monitored concentrations and emissions of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and respirable dust for a commercial broiler and a cage-layer barn in the Canadian Prairies over a year between March 2015 and February 2016. Seasonal concentration and emission profiles were acquired by monthly measurements, while diurnal profiles were generated in different seasons. The indoor air quality was evaluated considering both the individual and the additive health effect (respiratory irritation) of the three air pollutants. In winter, both 8-h and 15-min exposure limits (threshold concentrations) of NH3 were exceeded in the broiler barn; the highest additive level was more than two times of the limit. Seasonal average emissions of NH3, H2S, and respirable dust were 57 g d-1 AU-1, 1.35 g d-1 AU-1, and 1.99 g d-1 AU-1, respectively, for the layer barn, all with higher levels in the mild and warm seasons than in the cold season. The emission data were only obtained for the worst-case scenarios (last week of the production cycle) of the broiler barn, with annual averages of 92 g d-1 AU-1 for NH3, 1.19 g d-1 AU-1 for H2S, and 4.32 g d-1 AU-1 for respirable dust, with obvious higher NH3 levels in winter. Additionally, manure removal once every 3-4 days for the layer barn reduced NH3 emissions by 62% and 90% in the cold and mild seasons, respectively. This study also found significant negative influence of outdoor T (Tout) on NH3 emissions for the broiler barn but positive impact of Tout on NH3 emissions for the layer barn.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poeira/análise , Amônia/análise , Animais , Canadá , Galinhas , Pradaria , Abrigo para Animais
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1560, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214091

RESUMO

Exercise training is a powerful means to combat metabolic diseases. Mice are extensively used to investigate the benefits of exercise, but mild cold stress induced by ambient housing temperatures may confound translation to humans. Thermoneutral housing is a strategy to make mice more metabolically similar to humans but its effects on exercise adaptations are unknown. Here we show that thermoneutral housing blunts exercise-induced improvements in insulin action in muscle and adipose tissue and reduces the effects of training on energy expenditure, body composition, and muscle and adipose tissue protein expressions. Thus, many reported effects of exercise training in mice are likely secondary to metabolic stress of ambient housing temperature, making it challenging to translate to humans. We conclude that adaptations to exercise training in mice critically depend upon housing temperature. Our findings underscore housing temperature as a critical parameter in the design and interpretation of murine exercise training studies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Composição Corporal , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Insulina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura
6.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(1): 146-150, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208594

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The problem of occupational biohazards is very important, especially in the field of agriculture and in human and veterinary medicine. The aim of the study was to determine the potential sources of infection in veterinary professionals with selected zoonotic agents, including: Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia duodenalis, Leptospira spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Coxiella burnetii. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 50 air samples from barns, piggeries and veterinary surgeries were examined for the presence of Leptospira spp. and C. burnetii DNA. Serum samples of 86 pigs and 80 cows were tested for the presence of antibodies to Leptospira spp. and to phase I and II C. burnetii antigens. Serum of 70 cats were tested for the presence of antibodies to T. gondii and 65 samples of cat faeces for the presence of T. gondii oocysts. The presence of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were examined in 50 of dog faeces and 50 of bovine faeces samples. RESULTS: DNA of Leptospira spp. was detected in 2 air samples from the piggeries (4%). C. burnetii DNA was not found in any sample. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies were detected in 51 (59.3%) of examined pigs. Neither anti-Leptospira spp. nor anti-C. burnetii antibodies were found among samples of bovine serum. Anti-T. gondii antibodies was found in 52 cat serum samples (74.3%). Among samples of cat faeces, no T. gondii oocysts were detected. In one sample of cattle stool (2%), G. duodenalis was detected and in another (2%) - Cryptosporidium spp. G. duodenalis was detected in 7 samples (14%) and Cryptosporidium spp. in 2 samples (2%) of dog faeces. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate the potential risk of infection with Leptospira spp. in veterinarians working with pigs. Veterinarians could be also be at risk of infection with T. gondii and G. duodenalis.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/análise , Gatos , Bovinos , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA de Protozoário , Cães , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/veterinária , Hospitais Veterinários , Abrigo para Animais , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Projetos Piloto , Polônia/epidemiologia , Febre Q/veterinária , Suínos , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
7.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1341-1348, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111310

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare egg quality, carcass, meat characteristics, and bone properties of Taihang chickens in 2 different housing systems at various ages. A total of 168 birds were selected and randomly allocated to 2 groups at 23 wks and raised in conventional cage (CC) or flattening on floor (FF) housing system, respectively. FF hens' egg weight, albumen height, and Haugh unit were higher (P < 0.05), and yolk weight was lower (P < 0.001) than those of the CC hens. Egg quantity of FF hens was higher than that of the CC hens (P < 0.01). The FF hens' weight (P < 0.05) and breast meat percent (P < 0.01) were higher than those of the CC hens. The highest live body and carcass weight were observed at 57 wk (both P < 0.01), whereas the highest semieviscerated percentage (P < 0.01) and meat weight of breast and thigh (P < 0.05) were shown at 49 wk. The highest eviscerated percentage and thigh meat were displayed at 41 and 32 wk, respectively (P < 0.01). For meat color, the lightness of both breast and thigh meat in the FF group was significantly reduced compared with those of the CC group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). FF hens' humerus weight and breaking strength (both P < 0.01) and tibia breaking strength (P < 0.05) were significantly higher than those of the CC hens. Femur breaking strength was significantly affected by hens' age (P < 0.01). Egg weight, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk color (all P < 0.01), pH of thigh meat, semieviscerated, and eviscerated weight (all P < 0.05) were influenced by the interaction of housing system and age, whereas no change in moisture loss rate, meat color, shearing force, and bone quality was found (P > 0.05). In summary, in the 2 housing systems, hens' age and their interaction could affect slaughter performance, quality of egg, meat, and bone of Taihang chickens. In addition, the results of the present study support a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of Taihang chickens in accordance with the FF system.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Úmero/fisiologia , Carne/análise , Óvulo/fisiologia , Tíbia/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , China , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória
8.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0221838, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160192

RESUMO

Larval mosquitoes are aquatic omnivorous scavengers which scrape food from submerged surfaces and collect suspended food particles with their mouth brushes. The composition of diets that have been used in insectaries varies widely though necessarily provides sufficient nutrition to allow colonies to be maintained. Issues such as cost, availability and experience influence which diet is selected. One component of larval diets, essential fatty acids, appears to be necessary for normal flight though deficiencies may not be evident in laboratory cages and are likely more important when mosquitoes are reared for release into the field in e.g. mark-release-recapture and genetic control activities. In this study, four diets were compared for rearing Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti, all of which provide these essential fatty acids. Two diets were custom formulations specifically designed for mosquitoes (Damiens) and two were commercially available fish foods: Doctors Foster and Smith Koi Staple Diet and TetraMin Plus Flakes. Development rate, survival, dry weight and adult longevity of mosquitoes reared with these four diets were measured. The method of presentation of one diet, Koi pellets, was additionally fed in two forms, pellets or a slurry, to determine any effect of food presentation on survival and development rate. While various criteria might be selected to choose 'the best' food, the readily-available Koi pellets resulted in development rates and adult longevity equal to the other diets, high survival to the adult stage and, additionally, this is available at low cost.


Assuntos
Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anopheles/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/métodos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/economia , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais , Feminino , Alimentos/economia , Abrigo para Animais/economia , Longevidade , Masculino , Taxa de Sobrevida , Temperatura , Água
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 3422-3430, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008778

RESUMO

Providing dairy cows access to pasture is desirable, given their strong motivation for pasture access, but this practice is hindered by several practical constraints, including lack of available pasture. An alternative to pasture is an outdoor area that is bedded with a soft material such as sand or wood chips that requires less space than pasture, given the absence of soil or grass that can otherwise be damaged by cow traffic. However, little is known about space requirements for alternative outdoor areas. This study investigated how space allowance affected cow preference to be outdoors as well as cow behavior on an outdoor pack. A total of 3 groups of 24 pregnant, lactating, healthy Holstein cows were used. Each group was given 3 d for social dynamics to stabilize; during this time cows were kept indoors in a freestall pen. A habituation phase of 5 d followed, where animals were given free access to the outdoor pack with a space allowance of 16 m2/cow. Cows were moved outside (if not already outdoors) at set times each day during the habituation phase (i.e., 5 times during the first 2 d and 2 times during the last 3 d). Cows were then given free access to the outdoor pack, but space allowance was changed every day. A total of 13 different space allowances were randomly applied, without replacement, ranging from 4 to 16 m2/cow in 1-m2 increments. Using continuous video recordings, the location of the cows (i.e., in the freestall barn or on the outdoor pack) as well as displacements from a lying position on the outdoor pack were scored. Standing and lying behaviors were automatically measured using HOBO data loggers (Onset, Cape Cod, MA). Over the 24-h period, cows spent more time outside with increasing space allowance, but this result was driven almost entirely by the increased time spent outdoors during the nighttime hours. During the night, space allowance did not influence the number of displacements from lying on the outdoor pack or the proportion of time on the outdoor pack that cows spent lying down. Our results indicate that cows use an outdoor bedded pack mostly at night and that the time spent outside at night increases with increasing space allowance. Providing an outdoor bedded pack should be considered when designing dairy cattle housing systems.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Herbivoria , Lactação , Poaceae , Gravidez
10.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 698-701, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029155

RESUMO

In no antibiotics ever (NAE) broilers, enteric diseases pose a threat to intestinal health and generally welfare, which can be exacerbated because of stocking density. Through knowledge of litter condition and management, disease can be minimized, and broiler welfare can be improved. To evaluate how stocking density influences NAE broilers raised in conventional housing, we evaluated production traits for broilers raised at two stocking densities within a single commercial house. Over the course of 4 flocks, 78,960 Cobb 500 broilers were raised in an industry-style tunnel ventilated house. The house was divided into four equally sized pens, each representing one of two stocking densities. An industry standard stocking density (SSD; 0.23 m2 per bird) and low stocking density (LSD; 0.27 m2 per bird) were each assigned to two pens per flock and were alternated for each subsequent flock raised. Litter moisture content, body weight, mortality, and feed conversion (FCR) were evaluated and averaged over all four flocks for both stocking densities. Data were analyzed in JMP with an ANOVA, and means were separated by Tukey's honestly significant difference. As expected, the litter moisture content was significantly larger in the more densely packed SSD pens at weeks 2, 3, 4, and 6, totaling 0.242 moisture content on average at week 6 vs. 0.217 in LSD pens at the same flock age (P = 0.035). Weekly body weight and final flock FCR were not significantly impacted by stocking density. No association was observed in mortality between the broilers raised in SSD and LSD. The results from this study indicate that the two densities examined were comparable in their growth and efficiency. Additional management pressure would exist to handle the increase in litter moisture in flocks placed at SSD in a production setting; although, raised in the same barn at the same time, the impact of SSD vs. LSD was minimal in this study.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Densidade Demográfica
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005996

RESUMO

Transferring sows and their litters to group lactation (GL) after an initial period of farrowing crate (FC) housing could enhance the viability of GL for commercial production. Group lactation from 7 d postpartum would reduce the time sows spend in confinement, but the effects of early mixing on animal welfare and productivity require examination. Two experiments were conducted on sows and piglets kept in GL from 7, 10, or 14 d postpartum, compared with FC. Experiment 1 utilized 180 sows and 1,887 piglets over five time replicates (n = 60 sow and litter units per treatment) comparing GL from 7 or 14 d postpartum to FC. In experiment 2, 108 sows and 1,179 piglets were studied over three time replicates (n = 36 sow and litter units per treatment) comparing GL from 10 or 14 d postpartum to FC. All sows farrowed in FC. Group lactation sows were transferred to pens (one pen of five sows at 8.4 m2/sow and one pen of seven sows at 8.1 m2/sow, per GL treatment and replicate) with their litters at 7 (GL7), 10 (GL10), or 14 (GL14) d postpartum. Farrowing crate sows and their litters remained in their FC. Data were collected on sow feed intake and reproduction, piglet mortality (from day 6 postpartum), and sow and piglet weight changes, plasma cortisol concentrations, and injuries. Piglet mortality was greater in the GL7 (17 ± 1.8%) and GL10 treatments (12 ± 0.9%) compared with GL14 (8.3 ± 1.8% P ≤ 0.001 and 8.1 ± 0.9% P ≤ 0.001 in experiments 1 and 2), and greater in GL overall compared with FC (2.7 ± 1.5% and 1.8 ± 0.9% in FC in experiments 1 and 2; P ≤ 0.001). Piglets from GL7 were also lighter at weaning than GL14 piglets (P < 0.001), whereas GL10 and GL14 did not differ (P > 0.05). Overall, piglets in GL were lighter at weaning than piglets in FC (P ≤ 0.01). Sows from GL7 were heavier at weaning (P = 0.001), and GL10 sows tended to be heavier at weaning (P = 0.08), than GL14 and FC sows. Post-mixing, sow cortisol (P ≤ 0.01) and sow and piglet injuries (P ≤ 0.02) were greater in GL than FC. Treatment had no effect on sow feed intake or reproductive performance (P > 0.05). Under the conditions of this research, the known benefits of two-stage GL housing were achieved at a cost particularly to piglets in terms of increased piglet mortality and injuries after mixing, and reduced piglet growth. The risk of piglet mortality decreased with older age at mixing.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Reprodução , Suínos/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Lactação , Masculino , Período Pós-Parto , Desmame
12.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228808, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049990

RESUMO

The prevalence of skin lesions at the legs of dairy cows often serves as an indicator for animal welfare and is used as a measurement of adequacy of the present housing conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of skin lesions at the carpus, tarsus, and stifle in Swiss dairy cows kept in tie stalls and to describe potential risk factors associated with the different types and severities thereof. Skin lesions and potential risk factors were assessed in 627 cows of 27 tie stall farms in a cross-sectional study. The associations of each outcome and the potential risk factors were assessed by means of logistic regression models using farm as the random factor. One odds ratio was obtained for each biologically relevant risk factor category and the final models were compared between the lesion types and locations. Tarsal lesions were recorded most frequently, with a prevalence of 62.2, 34.4, and 24.0% for moderate to severe hair loss, any severity of ulceration, and moderate to severe swelling, respectively. The prevalence of carpal lesions ranged from 54.4% for hair loss, over 7.7% for ulceration, to 6.1% for swelling, while stifle lesions were recorded less frequently with a prevalence of 18.6, 8.9, 3.4% for hair loss, ulceration, and swelling, respectively. The risk for various skin lesion types and locations significantly increased, when the concrete stall base was covered with a rubber mat and the bedding depth was low. Cows were at the lowest risk to develop skin lesions when they had more than 13 days of outdoor exercise per month. The prevalence of skin lesions in tied Swiss dairy cows is remarkably high and could possibly be reduced by providing the herd more frequent outdoor exercise and a well-cushioned, friction-absorbing and non-abrasive lying surface.


Assuntos
Ossos do Carpo , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Abrigo para Animais , Dermatopatias/veterinária , Joelho de Quadrúpedes , Tarso Animal , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fatores de Risco , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 3745-3759, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008789

RESUMO

Housing conditions can affect health of cows by increasing exposure to biological, chemical, and physical hazards, resulting in increased disease. A report in 2014 indicated that 99% of UK dairy cows are housed during winter months and that an increasing number of farms are committing to year-round indoor-housing management systems. Current literature does not provide a clear understanding of the relationship between cow health, welfare, and production, and the housing environment. Loafing space, in this case defined as non-feed, non-lying, and non-high traffic areas of the housed environment, is considered an important component of housing for dairy cows; however, the scientific literature associated with this subject is sparse internationally. The aim of this research was to explore current housing of dairy cows across Great Britain, with specific focus on understanding the practices and variability associated with space allowance. A secondary aim was to explore farmer opinions and knowledge on the value of living space. A single researcher visited 53 randomly selected farms, from a representative sample group, once during the winter housing period 2017-18. Data collection consisted of 3 elements: collation of basic farm details, precise measurement of adult dairy cow accommodation, and a questionnaire to capture farmer opinions on space allowances. Statistical analysis was undertaken to assess variation among farms in total space, loafing space, and living space per cow. A new metric, termed "living space," was defined to describe the additional space availability for dairy cows above that deemed to be a baseline requirement. Large variability was identified between farms in total space available per cow, with a range from 5.4 to 12.7 m2 [mean = 8.3 m2, median = 8.2 m2, interquartile range (IQR) = 1.9 m2]. The mean living space was 2.5 m2, with a range of 0.5 m2 to 6.4 m2 (median = 2.4 m2, IQR = 1.6 to 3.2 m2). Responses from a farmer questionnaire on importance of loafing space revealed that farmers felt it was essential for cow welfare, over half of farmers scoring this ≥8 on a 0 to 10 scale. Farmers were categorized into 4 latent classes based on their attitudes toward the importance of loafing space. In a linear model to predict the "living space" provided on each farm, geographical location and latent class of farmer attitude were covariates significantly associated with the amount of space provided. This study is the first worldwide to quantify variability in loafing and living spaces for dairy herds; further research is required to evaluate the extent to which variation in quantity and quality of space influences cow health, welfare, and productivity, as well as farm economics and emissions.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Doenças dos Bovinos , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 129: 1-5, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896041

RESUMO

Pododermatitis is a disorder with a complex etiology, because potentially determined by various factors such as posture, nutrition and genetics. In the case of presence of pododermal lesions, it is often noticed that rabbits go to eat at the bowl less frequently, but an evident weight loss is not always perceptible. In fact, similarly to poultry, overweight animals seem to be prone to the onset of pododermatitis. An experiment was carried out to test the effect of different types of bedding material (straw vs. wood shavings vs. coarse bark mulch vs. cotton) on the prevalence of pododermatitis in 30 fattening Separator rabbits. Once a week, the four experimental runs were assessed for contamination (macroscopic contamination by faeces/urine/litter) as well as for lesion scoring of the footpad. In addition, the water and ammonia binding behaviour of bedding was tested. The most favourable values as to dry matter, NH3 (p < .05) and also scoring of the litter were generally observed when cotton was used as bedding material. This is probably due to the high water binding capacity, the faster water release and the structural effects of the material itself (softness). By contrast, the structure of the coarse bark mulch was not suitable for binding liquids (especially urine) and led to increased contamination of the barrels. These results suggest that rabbits with an increased tendency to sore soles should be kept on bedding materials with desirable physical properties (e.g. cotton litter).


Assuntos
Dermatite/veterinária , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Abrigo para Animais , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Dermatite/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Coelhos
15.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 21, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a group of opportunistic pathogens, which are widely spread in the environment. Animal breeding is an important source of pathogen spreading. However, the concentration and characteristics of CoNS in the bioaerosols of henhouses are unclear. RESULTS: In this study, we showed that CoNS were significantly increased in bioaerosols of henhouses during the first 60 days, and reached 2.0 × 106 CFU/m3, which account for 75.4% of total bacteria. One hundred and two CoNS isolates from bioaerosols and nasal swabs of farmers were further identified, covering seven species. Among these, 41.2% isolates were Staphylococcus sciuri, which was the predominant species, followed by S. equorum, S. saprophyticus, S. haemolyticus, S. xylosus, S. arlettae and S. gallinarum. There were high rates of resistance to oxacillin in CoNS (49.0%), which were defined as Methicillin-Resistant CoNS (MRCoNS), and 36.3% isolates contained resistance gene mecA. Bioaerosol infection models showed that, chickens exposed to aerosolized S. sciuri had significant induction of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 at 5 days post-infection (dpi) in lungs and at 7 dpi in spleens. CONCLUSIONS: We reported a high concentration of CoNS in henhouses, and S. sciuri was the preponderant CoNS species. Antibiotic resistance analysis and bioaerosols infection of CoNS further highlighted its hazards on resistance and immunological challenge. These results suggested that, CoNS in bioaerosols could be one serious factor in the henhouses for not only poultry industry but also public health.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Mucosa Nasal/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , China , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fazendeiros , Abrigo para Animais , Humanos , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Oxacilina/farmacologia
16.
Value Health ; 23(1): 89-95, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Livestock-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is a concern in healthcare and a political priority in some countries. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the net societal costs of 2 alternative strategies for controlling LA-MRSA in Denmark: (1) eradicating LA-MRSA in all pig housing units, and (2) containing LA-MRSA within the units. METHODS: Benefits and costs are considered for affected economic sectors: healthcare, pig production, pig-related industries, and public administration. RESULTS: The cost to society of eradication is estimated at €2.3 to €2.5 billion (present value). Containment will cost €55 to €93 million. For both strategies, the main cost lies in primary pig production-for containment this is mainly due to establishing and operating anterooms and shower rooms, and for eradication it is due to production losses, loss of genetic resources, and costs of cleaning and disinfection. CONCLUSION: Compared with these costs, health economic benefits are moderate for both strategies. Containment is superior to eradication when measured by a benefit-cost ratio.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/veterinária , Erradicação de Doenças/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Abrigo para Animais , Controle de Infecções/economia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos , Suínos/microbiologia , Zoonoses , Animais , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Dinamarca , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/economia , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Estafilocócicas/economia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/economia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Zoonoses/economia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
17.
Am J Primatol ; 82(1): e23081, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916274

RESUMO

Pair housing is one of the most important components of behavioral management for caged macaques; however, it can result in aggression and injury if partners are incompatible. Knowing when to proceed and when to stop social introductions can be challenging, and can have consequences for the partners. We examined whether behavior early in social introductions predicted success (i.e., partners remained cohoused with full contact for at least 28 days) in 724 female-female and 477 male-male rhesus macaque pairs. We took cage side one-zero focal observations on pairs during the first 2 days of full contact, recording social and aggressive behaviors. The majority of pairs (79.6% of female and 83.0% of male) were successful. The most common behaviors exhibited by pairs during these observations were maintaining proximity, tandem threats, and anxiety. Mounting was also relatively common in male pairs. Grooming and close social contact (e.g., touching) were not common in our study. Several behaviors observed on Day 1 significantly predicted pairing success. For females, these included proximity, tandem threat, rump present, mount, and groom. Day 1 predictors of success for male pairs included proximity, tandem threat, rump present, mount, and social contact. Fewer behaviors predicted success on Day 2. Maintaining proximity on Day 2 predicted success for both sexes, but tandem threat predicted success only for females. Behaviors that predicted incompatibility for females on Day 1 included displace, grimace, threat, bite, and other aggressive contacts. Day 1 predictors of separation for male pairs were displaced, grimace, and abnormal behavior. The only Day 2 behavior that correlated with incompatibility was grimace, which was predictive for males. Interestingly, aggression did not predict incompatibility for male pairs. Identifying behaviors exhibited by monkeys early in the pair introduction that are predictive of long-term compatibility can shape pairing decisions, reducing later stress and potential injury.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Macaca mulatta , Comportamento Social , Agressão , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Masculino
18.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 758-768, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926505

RESUMO

Causes of morbidity and mortality and a survey of infectious disease agents were collated from wild and colony-raised endangered Amargosa voles (Microtus californicus scirpensis). Six voles from the wild and 295 voles in the captive-breeding colony were included in the study upon identification of an infectious agent during screening, identification of clinical signs of disease, or finding a pathological condition or infectious agent on necropsy. Findings included 28 significant or incidental pathological conditions of seven organ systems and 19 parasitic, viral, bacterial, or fungal agents. Several voles captured in the wild had fungal osteomyelitis of the tail that disseminated systemically in a vole brought from the wild to the colony and may have been caused by a Penicillium sp. Three voles reintroduced from the colony to the wild experienced inanition and subsequent severe hepatic and moderate renal tubular lipidosis. The most common significant pathological conditions in colony-reared voles were chronic interstitial nephritis with proteinosis; cardiomyopathy; trichobezoars that, in intestines or cecocolic junctions, sometimes induced local rupture or infarction with peritonitis; multifocal gastrointestinal ulceration and colibacillosis; acute renal tubular necrosis or nephritis; sepsis; hepatic and renal lipidosis; molar apical elongation sometimes progressing to invasion of the calvarium; and mammary tumors. Uncommon diagnoses included intervertebral disc disease; microvascular dysplasia; and multifocal bacterial abscessation. Common or clinically important infectious agents included Demodex sp. mites in hair follicles, Demodex sp. in esophageal mucosa, and an outbreak of tropical rat mites thought to have been introduced via the straw bedding; gastrointestinal Helicobacter sp.; attaching and effacing Escherichia coli; and Citrobacter braakii, a possible zoonotic bacterium. This survey of species-specific diseases and pathogens was possible because the established health surveillance program that is part of the species recovery plan allowed for monitoring of voles throughout the duration of their natural life spans in captivity.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Arvicolinae , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/etiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Abrigo para Animais , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/patologia , Doenças dos Roedores/mortalidade , Doenças dos Roedores/patologia
19.
Zoo Biol ; 39(1): 56-62, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663179

RESUMO

Caring for all aspects of zoo elephants' well-being is considered a major challenge. Providing an appropriate flooring substrate to facilitate lying rest presents a meaningful part of a holistic management concept. Investigating the impact of a new sand flooring on the nocturnal resting behavior of a breeding group of seven African elephants living at one zoo revealed more total lying rest, longer bouts of lying rest and a reduced side preference in the adult females. With an average total daily lying rest of about 1.5-2.0 hrs, the investigated zoo elephants expressed longer lying rest compared to recently reported data from free-ranging individuals in Botswana. In addition, the presence of nursing calves in the observed elephant group seemed to impact the resting pattern of all group members, with around 60% of all lying bouts being discontinued after interruption by the youngsters. With respect to observed nursing during leaning rest, we encourage the installation of appropriate horizontal structures in breeding facilities to support leaning rest behavior of their female elephants. In doing so, zoos may improve rest quality of nursing females, and, in general, the welfare aspect of sleep for their elephants.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Comportamento Animal , Elefantes/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Descanso , Comportamento Social , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Areia
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 1072-1099, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837797

RESUMO

Compost-bedded pack barns (CBP) are receiving increasing attention as a housing system for dairy cows that has potential to improve animal welfare. This article reviews current scientific knowledge about CBP with the aim of providing a comprehensive tool for producers and researchers using this housing system. In CBP, cows are provided with an open bedded pack area rather than the individual stalls and concrete alleys found in freestall systems. The bedded pack, a mixture of organic bedding and cattle excreta, is cultivated frequently (1-3 times per day) to incorporate fresh manure and air into the pack, thus promoting an aerobic composting process. To function well, CBP generally require a large area per cow. Optimal animal densities over the bedded area range from 7.4 to more than 15 m2/cow depending on several factors, including climate, bedding, pack management, and cow characteristics. Studies have indicated that CBP, compared with conventional systems such as freestall barns, have the potential to improve the welfare of dairy cows. In particular, the main reported benefits include improved comfort during resting, better foot and leg health, and more natural animal behavior. Research has also indicated that adequate udder health can be achieved in CBP. However, because the bedded pack has been shown to contain high bacterial concentrations, proper management is essential to maintain adequate cow cleanliness and reduce the risk of mastitis. Controlling pack moisture is consistently indicated as the most important issue with CBP. Especially under cold and humid weather conditions, large amounts of bedding may be necessary to keep the pack adequately dry and comfortable for the cows. Nevertheless, the improvements in cow health may offset the higher costs of bedding.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Indústria de Laticínios , Abrigo para Animais , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle
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