Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.503
Filtrar
1.
Br Dent J ; 228(5): 381-387, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170261

RESUMO

This second centenary article looks at the history of the BDA Library through the medium of its technological developments. It shows how the workings of a library and its services have been transformed through changes in the way that information is duplicated, stored, reproduced, read and viewed. It also discusses how much or little has really altered at the heart of what a library does for its members.


Assuntos
Bibliotecas , História do Século XX
2.
Crit Rev Microbiol ; 45(5-6): 686-700, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815562

RESUMO

The action of fungi on books, documents, maps, and works of art on paper can result in inestimable cultural losses. Plus, some of the fungi present in paper documents, surfaces and air from archives, libraries and museums are also a threat to human health. This work aims to review the literature on the most important and frequent microfungal populations found in paper-based collections all over the world, and correlate these data with human health risks. A total of 71 studies, dating between 1997 and 2018 were reviewed and organized. From 27 different countries, 207 fungal genera and 580 species were reported. Chaetomium sp. and Fusarium sp. were found to be special contaminants in the air of archives and have been associated with paper biodeterioration. The most common fungi reported (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Alternaria species) have an impact on paper conservation but can also cause adverse human health effects. The most frequent fungal species retrieved from discoloured paper materials are discussed in greater detail. Considerations on methods of identification and quantification of fungal contamination are also presented. Finally, the authors acknowledge an urgent need for standardizing research in this area and further studies are proposed.


Assuntos
Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Ar , Arquivos/história , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Bibliotecas/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Museus
3.
Gac Med Mex ; 155(5): 559-562, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695235

RESUMO

The works of Argentinian scholar Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986) have captivated physicians. An assiduous reader, he was given, with magnificent irony, "books and the night". Borges suffered from chronic and irreversible blindness, which influenced much of his work and has been the subject of different literary and diagnostic analyses from the ophthalmological point of view. However, the characteristics of his visual impairment have escaped the neurological approach, which is why we reviewed his work looking for data suggesting a concomitant brain injury. On his autobiography, he recounts how, during an episode of septicemia, he suffered hallucinations and loss of speech; in addition, in some poems and essays he describes data that suggest "phantom chromatopsia", a lesion of cortical origin. After that accident, Borges survived with a radical change in literary style. Although a precise diagnosis is impossible, his literary work allows recognizing some elements in favor of concomitant brain involvement.


Assuntos
Cegueira/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Poesia como Assunto/história , Argentina , Autobiografias como Assunto , Cegueira/etiologia , Traumatismos Cranianos Penetrantes/complicações , Traumatismos Cranianos Penetrantes/história , História do Século XX , Bibliotecas/história
4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(9): 97009, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are critical endocrine receptors that regulate a multitude of processes in adult and developing organisms, and thyroid hormone disruption is of high concern for neurodevelopmental and reproductive toxicities in particular. To date, only a small number of chemical classes have been identified as possible TR modulators, and the receptors appear highly selective with respect to the ligand structural diversity. Thus, the question of whether TRs are an important screening target for protection of human and wildlife health remains. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that there is limited structural diversity among environmentally relevant chemicals capable of modulating TR activity via the collaborative interagency Tox21 project. METHODS: We screened the Tox21 chemical library (8,305 unique structures) in a quantitative high-throughput, cell-based reporter gene assay for TR agonist or antagonist activity. Active compounds were further characterized using additional orthogonal assays, including mammalian one-hybrid assays, coactivator recruitment assays, and a high-throughput, fluorescent imaging, nuclear receptor translocation assay. RESULTS: Known agonist reference chemicals were readily identified in the TR transactivation assay, but only a single novel, direct agonist was found, the pharmaceutical betamipron. Indirect activation of TR through activation of its heterodimer partner, the retinoid-X-receptor (RXR), was also readily detected by confirmation in an RXR agonist assay. Identifying antagonists with high confidence was a challenge with the presence of significant confounding cytotoxicity and other, non-TR-specific mechanisms common to the transactivation assays. Only three pharmaceuticals-mefenamic acid, diclazuril, and risarestat-were confirmed as antagonists. DISCUSSION: The results support limited structural diversity for direct ligand effects on TR and imply that other potential target sites in the thyroid hormone axis should be a greater priority for bioactivity screening for thyroid axis disruptors. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5314.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Dimerização , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Bibliotecas , Receptores X Retinoide , Hormônios Tireóideos , Ativação Transcricional
5.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 49(4): 239-244, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495165

RESUMO

Published in the Ming Dynasty around 1593 to 1596, the Jinling Edition of the Compendium of Materia Medica is considered the earliest engraved version. This edition has considerable literary and academic value. Only a handful of copies remain as they had to survive more than 400 years of human conflict and environmental damage such as mold and mildew. Throughout history, many ancient books, including herbal materia medica, have been exported to overseas, following the expansion of trade and cultural exchange. In Japan, many of these books are still well preserved. The author conducted a field investigation to Tohoku University in Sendai, Tokyo's Oriental Library, the Cabinet Library of the National Archives, and the National Diet Library to study four very well-preserved Jinling Editions of the Compendium of Materia Medica to fully understand the development of traditional medicine in Japan.


Assuntos
Bibliotecas , Materia Medica , Livros , Humanos , Japão , Medicina Tradicional
6.
Int J Pharm ; 569: 118551, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336154

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to establish a material library and discuss its potential application to the development and lifecycle management of a continuous manufacturing process for solid dosage forms. Particularly, this study addresses the importance of selecting process-relevant testing conditions for material characterization, proposes a methodology to capture relevant information with a reduced set of measurements, and correlates material properties with process performance. This study included 20 pharmaceutical materials, and each material was characterized by 44 properties, capturing 880 data points. The stress conditions of a commonly used feeder hopper were calculated using the Janssen model for six selected materials. Multivariate analysis, such as principal component analysis and clustering analysis, was used to explore the knowledge space of the material library. Statistically similar and dissimilar material properties were evaluated for material feeding performance from a loss-in-weight feeder to test utility of the material library. 20 materials included in this study show a wide range of material properties. Consolidation stress during testing significantly impacts obtained material properties. Based on a material similarity metric, a reduced set of characterization tests that captures >95% of the relevant information was identified. Materials were then grouped into six clusters. The material loss-in-weight feeding results show that the materials within the same cluster show similar feeding performance, while selected materials from different cluster have different feeding performance. Additional material understanding regarding flow properties may be needed to implement a continuous manufacturing process. Characterization using multiple tests under process-relevant conditions can be helpful to establish the correlation between material properties and process and product performance using multivariate analysis tools.


Assuntos
Bibliotecas , Tecnologia Farmacêutica , Formas de Dosagem , Excipientes , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Reologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: With the spread of Wifi networks, safety concerns have arisen, with complaints of somatic disorders, notably in traditional libraries and media libraries. The aim of the present study was to describe the conditions and levels of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the real-life occupational conditions of those working in traditional libraries and media libraries. METHODS: Dynamic measurements, using an exposimeter, were taken in 20 radiofrequency bands from 88 to 5850 MHz. The activity of 28 library workers was analyzed on a space-time budget. An audit of exposure sources and static measurements enabled the work-places to be mapped. RESULTS: In seven libraries, 78,858 samples were taken over the 20 radiofrequency bands from 88 to 5850 MHz. Exposure was described for 28 working days. The median total field was 0.071 V/m (10th percentile: 0.022 V/m, 90th percentile: 0.534 V/m) and for Wifi the median field was 0.005 V/m (10th percentile: 0.005 V/m, 90th percentile: 0.028 V/m). Median individual exposure to Wifi frequency waves ranged from 0.005 to 0.040 V/m. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the occupational exposure in this sector was close to the exposure in the general population. Peaks were due to the use of walkie-talkies by security staff. Exposure due to external sources depended on geographic location. Exposure in this occupation is well below the general occupational exposure levels, notably as regards Wifi.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/instrumentação , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Bibliotecas , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Ondas de Rádio , Calibragem , Telefone Celular , Meios de Comunicação , Humanos , Local de Trabalho
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137540

RESUMO

Public libraries constitute a ubiquitous social infrastructure found in nearly every community in the United States and Canada. The hypothesis of this study is that public libraries can be understood as important supports of walking in neighborhoods, not only as walkable destinations, but also as providers of programs that increase walking in communities. Recent work by public health scholars has analyzed how libraries contribute to community health. This particular topic has not previously been researched. As such, a qualitative, exploratory approach guides this study. Grounded theory techniques are used in a content analysis of a corpus of 94 online articles documenting this phenomenon. Results show that across North America public librarians endeavor to support walking through programs oriented around stories, books, and local history, as well as through walking groups and community partnerships. While this exploratory study has many limitations, it does set the stage for future, more rigorous research on the contributions public libraries and public librarians make to walking in neighborhoods. The principal conclusion of this study is that additional research is needed to comprehensively understand the intersection between public librarianship and public health.


Assuntos
Bibliotecas , Setor Público , Características de Residência , Caminhada , Canadá , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Pesquisa , Estados Unidos
9.
Genetics ; 212(2): 377-385, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936113

RESUMO

CRISPR-mediated base editors have opened unique avenues for scar-free genome-wide mutagenesis. Here, we describe a comprehensive computational workflow called beditor that can be broadly adapted for designing guide RNA libraries with a range of CRISPR-mediated base editors, Protospacer Adjacent Motif (PAM) recognition sequences, and genomes of many species. Additionally, to assist users in selecting the best sets of guide RNAs for their experiments, a priori estimates of editing efficiency, called beditor scores, are calculated. These beditor scores are intended to select guide RNAs that conform to requirements for optimal base editing: the editable base falls within maximum activity window of the CRISPR-mediated base editor and produces nonconfounding mutational effects with minimal predicted off-target effects. We demonstrate the utility of the software by designing guide RNAs for base editing to model or correct thousands of clinically important human disease mutations.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Mutagênese , RNA/genética , Software , Algoritmos , Animais , Genoma , Humanos , Bibliotecas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fluxo de Trabalho
10.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 107(2): 232-237, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019392

RESUMO

Background: Public librarians are in a unique position to assist the general public with health information inquiries. However, public librarians might not have the training, detailed knowledge, and confidence to provide high-quality health information. Case Presentation: The authors created and delivered three workshops to public librarians in Suffolk County, New York, highlighting several National Library of Medicine resources. Each workshop focused on a different topic: general consumer health resources, genetics health resources, and environmental/toxicology resources. At the end of each workshop, participants were asked to complete the Training Session Evaluation form provided by the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM). All participants reported that they learned a new skill or about a new tool, that their ability to locate online health information improved, and that they planned to use the knowledge they gained in the future. Online tutorials covering the major resources from each workshop were created and made accessible to the public on several organizations' websites. Virtual reference services were initiated for public librarians who need further assistance with these resources and will continue to be provided on an ongoing basis. Financial support for the equipment and software utilized in each of these tasks was awarded by NNLM. Conclusions: Based on attendance and participant feedback, this model of health information outreach appears to have been successful in furthering the educational needs of public librarians and may be useful to others in creating a similar program in their communities.


Assuntos
Relações Interinstitucionais , Bibliotecas/organização & administração , Educação , Humanos , Bibliotecários , Biblioteconomia/educação , Serviços de Biblioteca , National Library of Medicine (U.S.) , New York , Estados Unidos
11.
Health Info Libr J ; 36(2): 111-120, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Goal 3 (SDG-3) of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) incorporates 13 targets that cut across pressing health concerns globally. Health literacy has however been linked to achieving good health in the society, and its improvement in developing economies could aid the achievement of SDG-3. OBJECTIVE: The review focused on identifying actions that can be implemented by libraries to enhance health literacy and access to information among health care practitioners and consumers to support the achievement of SDG-3 in developing countries, especially Nigeria. METHOD: A literature search was conducted on reputable academic databases, namely sciencedirect, doaj, google scholar, pubmed and jstor. Similar keyword combinations were used to obtain articles, with filters set to search the keywords in article titles or abstract. Relevant criteria were used to screen the literature. RESULTS: Results from the literature searching were grouped under six themes that emerged from the literature. The value of libraries in health care was discussed, and suggestions were made for implementation in libraries. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that libraries in developing economies have to take actions to improve users' health literacy in order to become prominent stakeholders in the process of achieving SDG-3.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Letramento em Saúde/normas , Bibliotecas/tendências , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Global/tendências , Letramento em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Nigéria
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875719

RESUMO

Hazardous organisms may thrive on surfaces that are often exposed to human contact, including children's library books. In this study, swab samples were taken from 42 children's books collected from four public libraries in Texas and California. Samples were then cultivated in brain⁻heart infusion (BHI) medium and then in Luria broth (LB) medium containing either ampicillin or kanamycin. All 42 samples (100%) were positive for bacterial growth in normal BHI medium. Furthermore, 35 samples (83.3%) and 20 samples (47.6%) in total were positive in LB medium containing ampicillin or kanamycin, respectively. Bacterial populations were then identified in samples using an Orbitrap Fusion™ Tribrid ™ mass spectrometer, a state-of-the-art proteomic analysis tool. Identified bacterial species grown in ampicillin included Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Serratia, Streptococcus, Escherichia, Salmonella, and Enterococcus. In contrast, identified bacteria grown in kanamycin included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Bacillus. The presences of pathogenic bacteria species were also confirmed. The results of this study warrant follow up studies to assess the potential health risks of identified pathogens. This study demonstrates the utility of proteomics in identifying environmental pathogenic bacteria for specific public health risk evaluations.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Livros , Bibliotecas , Bactérias/classificação , California , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Humanos , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Texas
14.
Health Info Libr J ; 36(1): 1-3, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811883

RESUMO

Maria Grant reflects on her ten years as Editor-in-Chief of the Health Information and Libraries Journal, her vision to enhance the quality and reach of the journal, and working with prospective authors in the health library sector to increase confidence in recognising and communicating the value of the work being undertaken.


Assuntos
Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Bibliotecas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Editoração , Humanos
15.
Health Info Libr J ; 36(1): 41-59, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to health services is a major challenge in many rural communities within Canada. Rural public libraries can serve as centres for health resources. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this exploratory study was to analyse the manner in which Alberta's rural libraries provide health information to their patrons. METHODS: A questionnaire including closed ended and open ended questions was sent to the 285 rural libraries across the Canadian province of Alberta. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis techniques were used for the data analysis. RESULTS: The findings indicate that in three quarters of Alberta's rural libraries, about 10% of requests for assistance were related to health issues. The provision of health information in these libraries is hampered by the lack of Internet, private space for reference interviews, and staff and volunteer training. Library staff members were inexperienced in conducting reference transactions and reported lacking confidence in meeting patrons' needs and ethical standards. DISCUSSION: Addressing these challenges will require the recruitment of more qualified librarians in rural library systems, possibly through incentive measures, and a comprehensive education and training programme for both staff and volunteers combined with the necessary resource support for the rural libraries. CONCLUSION: When human and material resources are adequate, rural libraries can contribute to improving the health literacy of their communities.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Letramento em Saúde/métodos , Bibliotecários/educação , Bibliotecas/organização & administração , População Rural , Alberta , Letramento em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Internet , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voluntários
16.
Public Health Nurs ; 36(2): 172-177, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite an increase in national health care service utilization, entry into the health care system remains inequitable. This disparity in health care access disproportionately affects those experiencing homelessness. Because the homeless population faces significant financial and nonfinancial barriers, health care system engagement with these individuals must be reconsidered. OBJECTIVE: This article will describe the piloting of an interprofessional model within an urban library to address barriers to health care access that homeless individuals face. DESIGN: The library's unique status as a community hub presents an opportunity for partnership in addressing this population's health care access issues. This community-based model is the first recorded to utilize three distinct professions-nursing, social work, and library science-in a public library. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of this pilot project resulted in a high retention rate of referrals to community health services for those unstably housed and facilitated a system of warm transfers. Although opportunities to improve generalizability exist, this initiative sets the stage for discussion around co-location of health and social services in a nontraditional community-based setting to achieve equitable access to health care.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Bibliotecas/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Habitação , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos Piloto , Serviço Social
17.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(7): 997-1005, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27154063

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of leaf extracts of four plants against some isolated fungal species from deteriorated books. Aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts of selected plant species were screened in vitro for their antifungal activity against some book deteriorating fungal species. Fifteen species belonging to 09 genera were isolated and identified from infested books in library. Aqueous and solvent extracts of leaves of Azadiracta indica, Callistemon citrinus, Eucalyptus lanceolatus and Pongamia pinnata were tested against some dominant fungal species viz. Chaetomium spiralis, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus stolonifer. Solvent extracts exhibited potent inhibitory activity than aqueous extracts. However, these plant extracts exhibited moderate activity against A. flavus, C. spiralis, R. stolonifer and A. alternata.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Livros , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solventes/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Eucalyptus/química , Bibliotecas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Myrtaceae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/toxicidade , Solventes/farmacologia
18.
J Community Health ; 44(1): 192-199, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995303

RESUMO

Policy makers and public health practitioners rarely consider public libraries to be part of the health system, even though they possess several characteristics that suggest unrealized potential to advance population health. This scoping review uses an adapted social determinants framework to categorize current health-related work conducted by public libraries in the United States and to discuss libraries' potential as 'meso-level' community resources to improve population health. Our discussion of libraries contributes to scholarship on place-based health disparities, by emphasizing the potential impact of institutions that are modifiable through social policy-e.g., parks, community centers, schools-and which have a conceptually clear or empirically documented relationship to health.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Bibliotecas/organização & administração , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Estados Unidos
19.
Perception ; 48(1): 26-57, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558474

RESUMO

The Warburg Dance Movement Library is a validated set of 234 video clips of dance movements for empirical research in the fields of cognitive science and neuroscience of action perception, affect perception and neuroaesthetics. The library contains two categories of video clips of dance movement sequences. Of each pair, one version of the movement sequence is emotionally expressive (Clip a), while the other version of the same sequence (Clip b) is not expressive but as technically correct as the expressive version (Clip a). We sought to complement previous dance video stimuli libraries. Facial information, colour and music have been removed, and each clip has been faded in and out. We equalised stimulus length (6 seconds, 8 counts in dance theory), the dancers' clothing and video background and included both male and female dancers, and we controlled for technical correctness of movement execution. The Warburg Dance Movement Library contains both contemporary and ballet movements. Two online surveys ( N = 160) confirmed the classification into the two categories of expressivity. Four additional online surveys ( N = 80) provided beauty and liking ratings for each clip. A correlation matrix illustrates all variables of this norming study (technical correctness, expressivity, beauty, liking, luminance, motion energy).


Assuntos
Dança/normas , Bibliotecas , Movimento , Gravação de Videoteipe , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Natl Med J India ; 32(2): 125, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939417

Assuntos
Bibliotecas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA