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1.
Lancet ; 394(10212): 1880, 2019 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777377
2.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223372, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The last two decades have witnessed a considerable growth in the literature focusing on LGBTQ2S+ employment, labour market inequality, and income. During the same period, Canada has emerged as a trailblazer in employment protections for both sexual and gender minorities. Unfortunately, the Canadian literature on LGBTQ2S+ employment outcomes and experiences is disperse and underdeveloped. OBJECTIVE: This paper brings together this disperse research and provides the first systematic review of Canada's LGBTQ2S+ employment and earnings literature. METHODS: We start with a systematic review and thematic synthesis of the broadly defined literature on LGBTQ2S+ poverty in Canada. We use a thematic synthesis to isolate the LGBTQ2S+ literature on employment, labour market inequality, and earnings. Our search of electronic databases took place in April 2018 and was updated in January 2019. RESULTS: A total of 532 abstracts and full texts were screened by reviewers, which resulted in 84 articles included in our final sample. These articles were then sorted by keywords and those pertaining to employment, labour market inequality, and income (n = 31) were included in this analysis. While estimates of sexual minority wage gaps vary depending on the data and methods used, most studies have found wage penalties for gay men and wage premiums for lesbians, relative to their heterosexual counterparts. The literature on bisexual employment is particularly scant but finds that bisexual men and women also earn less than their heterosexual counterparts. Research on the subjective workplace experiences of LGBTQ2S+ individuals find unique challenges, barriers and, at times, exclusion from the Canadian labour market. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: While the literature on LGBTQ2S+ employment outcomes and experiences in Canada is growing, much is left unknown. The principal limitation for researchers continues to be the dearth of population-based surveys that include questions on sexual orientation, gender identity, and relevant employment characteristics. To date, few studies have explored employment outcomes or the subjective workplace experiences of bisexuals, transgender, two-spirit or other gender minority peoples.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Literatura , Salários e Benefícios/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Sexualidade , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino
3.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(12): 1271-1275, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611658

RESUMO

In addition to improving quality of life, higher subjective wellbeing leads to fewer health problems and higher productivity, making subjective wellbeing a focal issue among researchers and governments. However, it is difficult to estimate how happy people were during previous centuries. Here we show that a method based on the quantitative analysis of natural language published over the past 200 years captures reliable patterns in historical subjective wellbeing. Using sentiment analysis on the basis of psychological valence norms, we compute a national valence index for the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany and Italy, indicating relative happiness in response to national and international wars and in comparison to historical trends in longevity and gross domestic product. We validate our method using Eurobarometer survey data from the 1970s and demonstrate robustness using words with stable historical meanings, diverse corpora (newspapers, magazines and books) and additional word norms. By providing a window on quantitative historical psychology, this approach could inform policy and economic history.


Assuntos
Livros , Idioma , Literatura , Saúde Mental/história , Satisfação Pessoal , Alemanha , Produto Interno Bruto , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Itália , Longevidade , Saúde Mental/tendências , Qualidade de Vida , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
5.
Educ Prim Care ; 30(5): 312-316, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502512

RESUMO

Key writings are those texts which represent a timeless contribution to the academic basis of general practice. We surveyed the 14 GP Specialist Training Programmes in Ireland and undertook focus group interviews with teachers and trainees in order to understand the extent to which such texts are currently used and whether they are valued in teaching. Our results indicate that traditional reading lists are not common in Irish GP training, that there are many barriers to trainees engaging with such literature but that both teachers and trainees see merit in providing access to a body of key writings. We suggest how this might be undertaken.


Assuntos
Bibliografias como Assunto , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Medicina Geral/educação , Docentes de Medicina , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Irlanda , Literatura
6.
Lancet ; 394(10197): 465, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402019

Assuntos
Literatura , Ciência , Humanos
7.
Psychoanal Rev ; 106(4): 343-370, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361556

RESUMO

Developing Lacan's idea of "hystory," the following reading of D. H. Lawrence's story "The Lovely Lady" considers the personal and historical as deeply entwined, both in their oppression and potential liberation. The lady, who represents the order of bourgeois idealism, discovers the key to eternal youth, each night vampirically feeding off the erotic energy of her son. This essay views the story as an allegory of modern life as a dead zone of alienation, in which "hystory" is comprised of the web of transgenerational phantoms, traumas of the past, and haunting secrets from the crypt of the (m)other's unconscious.


Assuntos
Ego , Literatura , Interpretação Psicanalítica , Humanos , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia
8.
Psychoanal Rev ; 106(4): 325-341, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361557

RESUMO

Winnicott's perspective on psychosomatic illness as a phenomenon that bridges the unconscious and the conscious will be discussed using, using clinical material and Kafka's short story "A Hunger Artist." The author makes use of Winnicott's ideas in discussing the idea that psychosomatic symptoms, or illness, are not necessarily a form of acting out in need of elimination, but a nonverbal "language" in need of a listener. The author describes clinical cases in which the psychosomatic symptom was treated as a sign of something that went wrong within the mother-infant relationship, which has awaited a good-enough environmental provision to enable the creation of a new meaning.


Assuntos
Interpretação Psicanalítica , Teoria Psicanalítica , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/psicologia , Ego , Humanos , Literatura
9.
Complement Ther Med ; 45: 185-189, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health research reporting guidelines for case reports (CARE - CAse REport) published in 2013 and 2017 have become a generally accepted standard for publishing case reports. The CARE guidelines represent an architectural framework for writing an evidence-based case report that can be customized as need for a specialty (or disease) if needed. We aim to develop a CARE guideline extension for acupuncture following the EQUATOR Network (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research) and the 2010″Guidance for Developers of Health Research Reporting". We have established a group of international experts including; clinicians, researchers and methodologists. We performed a needs assessment based on a review of acupuncture case reports published in the indexed medical literature. The needs assessment will be followed by (1) a series of expert interviews to establish a draft, (2) a modified Delphi process, and (3) a consensus meeting. Following the consensus meeting we will pilot test the CARE draft before publishing the CARE extension for acupuncture. METHODS: We will develop the CARE extensions for acupuncture following recommendations of the EQUATOR Network and the 2010 "Guidance for Developers of Health Research Reporting". We will establish an international multidisciplinary group including clinical practitioners, acupuncturists, researchers of reporting guidelines on acupuncture, clinical epidemiologists and statisticians. We performed a needs assessment, reviewing published case reports using acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention from indexed medical journals (PubMed-PMC and Medline, Scopus, Embase, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Wan Fang database, Chinese BioMedicine database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and VIP). In consultations with advisors we will develop a draft of potential items to be included in the CARE extension for acupuncture. Then we will conduct a modified Delphi process of at least three rounds, hold a face-to-face consensus meeting, pilot test and submit the CARE extension for acupuncture for publication. CONCLUSION: The development of a widely accepted CARE extension for acupuncture for case reports published in indexed medical journals. These guidelines will follow the EQUATOR Network recommendations and the 2010 "Guidance for Developers of Health Research Reporting".


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/normas , Publicações/normas , Pesquisa/normas , Redação/normas , China , Consenso , Humanos , Literatura
11.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 117(3): 188-194, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063307

RESUMO

Eponyms are commonly used in medicine; some of them derive from the name of literary characters or make reference to classical myths. In this article, we underline some eponyms obtained from literature and review the characteristics of the literary characters, the circumstances that led to their creation, and the physicians who coined and adapted them to the field of medicine. A literary eponym offers a cultural and humanist perspective to our daily practice and is part of the history of medicine.


Assuntos
Epônimos , Literatura , Pediatria , Criança , Humanismo , Humanos , Terminologia como Assunto
16.
Rev Chil Pediatr ; 90(1): 52-59, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095219

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Parental discipline is a topic frequently asked for advice by those who consult health professionals. It is related to parenting styles and has been scientifically studied regarding its effective ness and impact on children. OBJECTIVE: To describe the subjective theories about parental discipline present in recommendations made by doctors and psychologists in books for parents in Spanish. Ma terial and Method: Thirteen books with advice for parents, written in Spanish by healthcare profes sionals published between 2000 and 2017 were analyzed. Data analysis was performed using Groun ded Theory procedures adapted for the study of subjective theories, through open and axial coding. In addition, thematic codification was made to describe the cases, identifying subjective mottos and subjective theories for each case, which at the same time were grouped into superordinate subjective theories. RESULTS: The data were grouped into three general subjective theories about parental dis cipline in the books analyzed. These subjective theories differ from one another in the importance attributed to authority, punishment, and the necessity of parental discipline. CONCLUSION: There are differences in parental discipline among the books. There is little scientific evidence on the subjective theories of the books. Results differ from historical analyses of these publications in other cultural and temporal contexts. The importance of developing practical guidelines on parental discipline ba sed on evidence to guide parents by health professionals is highlighted.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Bem-Estar da Criança , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Punição/psicologia , Adolescente , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Prova Pericial , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , América Latina , Literatura , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha
17.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216930, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095612

RESUMO

We tested the hypothesis that phonosemantic iconicity--i.e., a motivated resonance of sound and meaning--might not only be found on the level of individual words or entire texts, but also in word combinations such that the meaning of a target word is iconically expressed, or highlighted, in the phonetic properties of its immediate verbal context. To this end, we extracted single lines from German poems that all include a word designating high or low dominance, such as large or small, strong or weak, etc. Based on insights from previous studies, we expected to find more vowels with a relatively short distance between the first two formants (low formant dispersion) in the immediate context of words expressing high physical or social dominance than in the context of words expressing low dominance. Our findings support this hypothesis, suggesting that neighboring words can form iconic dyads in which the meaning of one word is sound-iconically reflected in the phonetic properties of adjacent words. The construct of a contiguity-based phono-semantic iconicity opens many venues for future research well beyond lines extracted from poems.


Assuntos
Idioma , Linguística/métodos , Semântica , Aprendizagem Verbal , Voz , Cognição , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Literatura , Masculino , Fonética , Som
18.
Nurs Outlook ; 67(4): 476-485, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to assess Italian nurse academics' scientific activity by exploring their publications in international journals. BACKGROUND: The scientific production of a discipline's academics is a requisite for the university accreditation process and for employment in academic positions. It can also be used as an indicator of the maturity and importance of a given discipline in a country. Italian nurse academics' scientific production has not been analyzed recently. METHOD: Quantitative descriptive study on an observation period of 16 years, from 2000 to 2016. METHODS: All Italian full-time academics in the sector of General, Clinical, and Pediatric Nursing Sciences were identified, based on selection criteria. All their publications in indexed international journals were systematically collected between November 2016 and February 2017. FINDINGS: Twenty-five Italian nurse academics were identified, and 450 of their publications met all our inclusion criteria, with a mean of 18 publications per author (range 0-88). There was a steady growth in the number of publications over time. Sixty-five percent of articles were published in nursing journals. Eighty-six percent of the publications were on nursing topics, the most popular being clinical issues (53.8%). Eighty percent of the publications were "applied research articles" and most of them adopted a quantitative approach with a descriptive study design. Hospitals and clinics were the most common settings studied, while patients and caregivers were the participants most often involved. Foreign coauthors contributed to 30% of the articles. DISCUSSION: Italian nursing academics contribute adequately to scientific production in the nursing sector.


Assuntos
Docentes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Enfermagem/tendências , Pesquisa em Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa em Enfermagem/tendências , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/tendências , Previsões , Humanos , Itália , Literatura , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Perspect Med Educ ; 8(2): 107-109, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953334

RESUMO

Residents commonly feel that a lack of time is a significant barrier in keeping up-to-date with both medical knowledge and literature. In this study, we addressed that barrier by placing an iPad-based live fact feed in the resident workroom of our emergency department, therefore allowing for passive learning while on shift. We hypothesized that residents with access to the live feed would score higher on monthly post-curriculum block exams. We ended up finding that the residents actually prefer a more active approach to learning and that many more people in the emergency department other than the residents benefitted from the fact board.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/educação , Internato e Residência/normas , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Fracasso Acadêmico/psicologia , Currículo , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Conhecimento , Literatura , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tecnologia
20.
Perspect Biol Med ; 62(1): 95-110, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031299

RESUMO

This paper analyzes the phenomenon of suffering and its relationship to medical practice by focusing on the paradigmatic work of Eric Cassell. First, it explains Cassell's influential model of suffering. Second, it surveys various critiques of Cassell. Next it outlines the authors' concerns with Cassell's model: it is aggressive, obscure, and fails to capture important features of the suffering experience. Finally, the authors propose a conceptual framework to help clarify the distinctive nature of subjective patient suffering. This framework contains two necessary conditions: (1) a loss of a person's sense of self, and (2) a negative affective experience. The authors suggest how this framework can be used in the medical encounter to promote clinician-patient communication and the relief of suffering.


Assuntos
Estresse Psicológico , Humanos , Literatura
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