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1.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(3): 322-336, 2020.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643621

RESUMO

In the past two decades, there has been a considerable research interest in celebrity worship. According to the general view, celebrity worship can be considered as a continuum, ranging from a healthy enthusiasm to an exces - sive involvement. A considerable proportion of research investigating this phenomenon has focused on the explora - tion of the underlying mechanisms of excessive celebrity worship. In light of this, the primary aim of the present review is to summarize and synthesize the clinical and personality psychological characteristics of the attitudes related to celebrity worship, based on the international literature. In this review, we introduce the definition and assessment of celebrity worship. Following this, we describe the demographical and personality correlates of excessive celebrity wor - ship, and analyze the findings of empirical studies on psychological well-being, cognitive and social functioning. Based upon all this, it can be concluded that excessive celebrity worship is associated with some psychiatric symptoms (e.g., symptoms of depression and anxiety) and a lower level of cognitive (e.g., critical thinking) and social skills (e.g., attachment to peers). In this review, we also elaborate on the possibilities and challenges of future research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Pessoas Famosas , Personalidade , Atitude , Emoções , Humanos , Grupo Associado
2.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(3): 373-376, 2020.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643627
4.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(2): 29-34, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593373

RESUMO

In 1758, Benjamin Franklin froze water by means of the evaporation of diethyl ether. Diethyl ether became the coolant in early mechanical refrigerators and ice makers. Refrigeration advances by Carl von Linde and others provide medical oxygen from the air, liquid nitrogen for cryopreservation and cryoablation, xenon for inhaled anesthesia, and liquid helium for supercooling of magnetic resonance image scanners.


Assuntos
Éter/história , Refrigeração/história , Termometria/história , Anestesia/história , Pessoas Famosas , Alemanha , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos
5.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(2): 35-37, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593374

RESUMO

In 1812, Frances (Fanny) Burney (born in 1752 and died in 1840) underwent a mastectomy performed by Larry without anaesthesia. In the days after surgery, Burney wrote a letter to her sister, Esther Burney, describing her experience. In total, the letter is four pages long including information on before, during and after the surgery. Although this letter has been cited in numerous texts, it has yet to be analysed from multiple perspectives, shedding new light on the history of anaesthesia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/história , Historiografia , Mastectomia/história , Relações Médico-Paciente , Anestesia/história , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Correspondência como Assunto/história , Pessoas Famosas , Feminino , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Literatura Moderna/história , Reino Unido
9.
BMJ ; 368: m575, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between reporting on suicides, especially deaths of celebrities by suicide, and subsequent suicides in the general population. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and Google Scholar, searched up to September 2019. REVIEW METHODS: Studies were included if they compared at least one time point before and one time point after media reports on suicide; follow-up was two months or less; the outcome was death by suicide; and the media reports were about non-fictional suicides. Data from studies adopting an interrupted time series design, or single or multiple arm before and after comparisons, were reviewed. RESULTS: 31 studies were identified and analysed, and 20 studies at moderate risk of bias were included in the main analyses. The risk of suicide increased by 13% in the period after the media reported a death of a celebrity by suicide (rate ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.18; 14 studies; median follow-up 28 days, range 7-60 days). When the suicide method used by the celebrity was reported, there was an associated 30% increase in deaths by the same method (rate ratio 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 1.44; 11 studies; median follow-up 28 days, range 14-60 days). For general reporting of suicide, the rate ratio was 1.002 (0.997 to 1.008; five studies; median follow-up 1 day, range 1-8 days) for a one article increase in the number of reports on suicide. Heterogeneity was large and partially explained by celebrity and methodological factors. Enhanced funnel plots suggested some publication bias in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: Reporting of deaths of celebrities by suicide appears to have made a meaningful impact on total suicides in the general population. The effect was larger for increases by the same method as used by the celebrity. General reporting of suicide did not appear to be associated with suicide although associations for certain types of reporting cannot be excluded. The best available intervention at the population level to deal with the harmful effects of media reports is guidelines for responsible reporting. These guidelines should be more widely implemented and promoted, especially when reporting on deaths of celebrities by suicide. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019086559.


Assuntos
Pessoas Famosas , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Viés de Publicação
11.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1138): 502, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139469
12.
Nature ; 579(7799): 343, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184484
16.
Am Surg ; 86(1): 2-7, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077409

RESUMO

As many have studied in the past, the real question of a presidential assassination failure or completion of the attempt should focus on the medical outlook, albeit sometimes surgical in nature. In this article, injuries sustained by various assassination attempts will be examined thoroughly to ensure they received the most appropriate medical care possible at that time and, then in turn, evaluate the medical outcomes in light of contemporary medical knowledge. The five presidents include Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William McKinley, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, and Ronald Reagan. Although the advent of Advanced Trauma Life Support has dramatically altered the care of the critically ill patient, it was rehabilitated in response to the orthopedic surgeon listed in the following paragraph.


Assuntos
Cuidados de Suporte Avançado de Vida no Trauma/história , Pessoas Famosas , Homicídio/história , Política , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/terapia
17.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(2): 147-162, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969019

RESUMO

During the winter of 1930, Princess Alice of Battenberg was admitted to Kurhaus Schloß Tegel, where she was diagnosed with schizophrenic paranoia. When Freud was consulted about her case by Ernst Simmel, the Sanatorium's Director, he recommended that the patient's ovaries be exposed to high-intensity X-rays. Freud's suggestion was not based on any psychoanalytic treatment principles, but rooted in a rejuvenation technique to which Freud himself had subscribed. In recommending that psychotic patients should be treated with physical interventions, Freud confirmed his conviction that the clinical applicability of psychoanalysis should not be extrapolated beyond the neuroses, yet he also asserted that a proper consideration of endocrinological factors in the aetiology and treatment of the psychoses should never be excluded.


Assuntos
Pessoas Famosas , Ovário , Radioterapia/história , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/história , Feminino , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos , Ovário/efeitos da radiação , Psicanálise/história , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/terapia
18.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(2): 131-146, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969026

RESUMO

Nineteenth-century art historian John Addington Symonds coined the term hæmatomania (blood madness) for the extremely bloodthirsty behaviour of a number of disturbed rulers like Ibrahim II of Ifriqiya (850-902) and Ezzelino da Romano (1194-1259). According to Symonds, this mental pathology was linked to melancholy and caused by an excess of black bile. I explore the historical credibility of this theory of 'wild melancholy', a type of melancholia that crucially deviates from the lethargic main type. I conclude that in its pure form Symonds' black bile theory of hæmatomania was never a broadly supported perspective, but can be traced back to the nosology of the ninth-century physician Ishaq ibn Imran, who practised at the Aghlabid court, to which the sadistic Ibrahim II belonged.


Assuntos
Bile , Transtorno Depressivo/história , Teoria Humoral , Psicologia/história , Mundo Árabe/história , Transtorno Bipolar/história , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Pessoas Famosas , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Filosofia Médica/história , Teoria Psicológica , Sadismo/história
20.
Lancet ; 395(10220): 264-265, 2020 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982059
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