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1.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(6): 560-567, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962615

RESUMO

The corpus of Old English verse is an indispensable source for scholars of the Indo-European tradition, early Germanic culture and English literary history. Although it has been the focus of sustained literary scholarship for over two centuries, Old English poetry has not been subjected to corpus-wide computational profiling, in part because of the sparseness and extreme fragmentation of the surviving material. Here we report a detailed quantitative analysis of the whole corpus that considers a broad range of features reflective of sound, metre and diction. This integrated examination of fine-grained features enabled us to identify salient stylistic patterns, despite the inherent limitations of the corpus. In particular, we provide quantitative evidence consistent with the unitary authorship of Beowulf and the Cynewulfian authorship of Andreas, shedding light on two longstanding questions in Old English philology. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of high-dimensional stylometric profiling for fragmentary literary traditions and lay the foundation for future studies of the cultural evolution of English literature.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados , Linguística , Literatura Medieval , Modelos Teóricos , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Poesia como Assunto , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Inglaterra , História Medieval , Humanos , Linguística/métodos , Literatura Medieval/história , Poesia como Assunto/história
2.
Sci Adv ; 5(1): eaau7126, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30662947

RESUMO

During the European Middle Ages, the opening of long-distance Asian trade routes introduced exotic goods, including ultramarine, a brilliant blue pigment produced from lapis lazuli stone mined only in Afghanistan. Rare and as expensive as gold, this pigment transformed the European color palette, but little is known about its early trade or use. Here, we report the discovery of lapis lazuli pigment preserved in the dental calculus of a religious woman in Germany radiocarbon-dated to the 11th or early 12th century. The early use of this pigment by a religious woman challenges widespread assumptions about its limited availability in medieval Europe and the gendered production of illuminated texts.


Assuntos
Silicatos de Alumínio/história , Cálculos Dentários/história , Literatura Medieval/história , Freiras/história , Datação Radiométrica , Restos Mortais , Cor , Feminino , Alemanha , História Medieval , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pinturas , Espectrometria por Raios X , Análise Espectral Raman
3.
Med Humanit ; 45(1): 2-9, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087161

RESUMO

The medieval English romance The King of Tars gives an account of a birth of a lump of flesh. This has been considered as fantastic and monstrous in past literature, the horrific union of a Christian and Saracen. However, while the text certainly speaks to miscegenation, we propose that this lump of flesh is actually a hydatidiform mole. We trace the hydatidiform mole from antiquity, surrounding it with contextual medieval examples, from theology, history and medicine, that also describe abnormal births as 'lumps of flesh'. By discussing medieval ideas of monsters as a warning sign, we interpret the lump of flesh in terms of abnormal births, seed transmission, parental contribution and sin. Ideas of warning, blame and intervention present themselves as a response to moles both in medieval texts as well as in modern reactions to hydatidiform moles. We explore the epigenetics of hydatidiform moles and relate them to the medieval text. In The King of Tars, the fault for the lump of flesh could reside with either parent; we find that this is also the case in the genetic formation of the hydatidiform mole; we also argue that the epigenetics supports medieval theories of seed transmission.


Assuntos
Mola Hidatiforme/história , Literatura Medieval , Feminino , História Medieval , Humanos , Mola Hidatiforme/genética , Gravidez
4.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 77(12): 888-895, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The establishment of modern medicine in Brazil was marked by the arrival of the Portuguese Court in 1808, when the Bahia and Rio de Janeiro Faculties of Medicine were founded. METHODS: The French School of Medicine exerted a strong influence on Brazilian medicine and on the main pioneers of Brazilian neurology. The elite of "Parisian neurology" trained students and doctors from around the world, and were mentors to the pioneers of Brazilian neurology in the early 20th century. CONCLUSION: In this article, the authors review the origins of neurology faculties in Brazilian medicine and the main pioneers of Brazilian neurology. RESULTS: Neurology is certainly a continuously changing field and has always adapted to new advances and discoveries, and it is an honor for the authors to pay homage to their pioneers.


Assuntos
Neurologia/história , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Brasil , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Literatura Medieval/história , Psiquiatria/história , Universidades/história
5.
Morphologie ; 102(337): 61-68, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778635

RESUMO

Ibn Sina (also known as Avicenna in the West) was the most famous physician and medical scientist of the medieval era. His book, the Canon of Medicine comprised a vast collection of medical information ranging from basic medical sciences to specialised medical fields. Herein, we present an analysis of the cardiovascular system, particularly giving an in-depth comparison of the structural and functional anatomy of the arteries and veins of the body as described by Avicenna in the Canon of Medicine and comparing them to modern extant anatomical literature.


Assuntos
Anatomia/história , Artérias/anatomia & histologia , Medicina na Literatura/história , Medicina Arábica/história , Veias/anatomia & histologia , História Medieval , Humanos , Literatura Medieval , Literatura Moderna
7.
Int J Psychoanal ; 98(6): 1699-1717, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28726328

RESUMO

The power of Dante's Divine Comedy is unmistakable, but surprising in view of its theological structure and assumptions that are no longer current among most modern readers. This paper suggests that its power derives from the deep psychological truthfulness with which Dante deals with the painful personal crisis that underlies the poem and is his starting point. It attempts to clarify what may have constituted that crisis, and why the structure of the Comedy, and in particular its use of two guides, Virgil and Beatrice, who might be thought a somewhat incompatible pairing, point significantly to the nature of the solution Dante arrived at. In particular it suggests that the puzzling fictions to do with Statius in the Purgatorio are a clue to Dante's own difficulties in bridging the classical and Christian traditions, and that his highly original solution to these difficulties, by no means conforming to conventional Christian orthodoxy in the 13th/14th century, was needed with special urgency in a time of pervasive civil conflict.


Assuntos
Literatura Medieval , Poesia como Assunto , Interpretação Psicanalítica , Religião e Psicologia , Humanos
10.
BMJ ; 355: i6603, 2016 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27974364
12.
Strabismus ; 24(3): 136-7, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27593906

RESUMO

The eminent Greek physician Paul of Aegina, native of the Saronic island Aegina and pupil of the Alexandrian School, understood both exotropia and endotropia, his designation for esotropia and proposed therapeutic measures for their treatment during baby or toddler age. He had introduced an innovative method for the newborns to have a straight vision, "the congenital strabismus of the newborns must be treated with the placement of a facial mask (with 2 open holes in the middle axes of the eyes), so that the babies could only see in a straight line", combined with a small oil lamp to assure a direct eye alignment. Although not even a diagram of the masks was saved until nowadays, Paul was the first to suggest the early correction of the eyes deviation, and considered to be the father of orthoptics.


Assuntos
Máscaras/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/história , Estrabismo/história , Bizâncio , Grécia , História Medieval , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Literatura Medieval/história , Estrabismo/terapia
13.
J Bioeth Inq ; 13(4): 477-483, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27565167

RESUMO

This essay examines constructions of deafness in medieval culture, exploring how deaf experience disrupts authoritative discourses in three textual genres: medical treatise, literary fiction, and autobiographical writing. Medical manuals often present deafness as a physical defect, yet they also suggest how social conditions for deaf people can be transformed in lieu of treatment protocols. Fictional narratives tend to associate deafness with sin or social stigma, but they can also imagine deaf experience with a remarkable degree of sympathy and nuance. Autobiographical writing by deaf authors most vividly challenges diagnostic models of disability, exploring generative forms of perception that deafness can foster. In tracing the disruptive force that deaf experience exerts on perceived notions of textual authority, this essay reveals how medieval culture critiqued the diagnostic power of medical practitioners. Deafness does not simply function as a symptom of an individual problem or a metaphor for a spiritual or social condition; rather, deafness is a transformative capacity affording new modes of knowing self and other.


Assuntos
Cultura , Surdez/história , Pessoas com Deficiência/história , Literatura Medieval , Medicina na Literatura , Narração/história , Livros de Texto como Assunto/história , Autobiografias como Assunto , Surdez/diagnóstico , Surdez/terapia , Empatia , História Medieval , Humanos , Conhecimento , Línguas de Sinais , Meio Social , Estigma Social , Percepção Visual
18.
Epilepsy Behav ; 57(Pt B): 251-4, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26907926

RESUMO

Dante Alighieri is the greatest Italian poet and one of the most important writers in Western literature. He is best known for the epic poem "Commedia", later named "La Divina Commedia" that has profoundly influenced not only poetic imagination but also all subsequent allegorical creations of imaginary worlds in literature. This paper examines the poetic description of some episodes of loss of consciousness in Dante's poetry discussing how and why typical elements of epileptic seizures have been used. On the 750th anniversary of Dante's birth, his poetry still remains to be an inspiring source of debate and reflection. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity".


Assuntos
Criatividade , Epilepsia/história , Literatura Medieval/história , Medicina na Literatura , Poesia como Assunto , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Estado de Consciência , História Medieval , Humanos , Imaginação , Itália , Masculino
20.
Gynecol Oncol ; 136(3): 582-8, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25575482

RESUMO

The vast majority of trainees entering a fellowship express a sincere interest in pursuing an 'academic career'. However, even the most dedicated souls will find their own path toward that worthy goal fraught with a number of unanticipated hazards--any one of which could result in a fullstop of professional advancement. Of interest, many of the obstacles are actually self-imposed, usually buried within the subconscious self. Without guidance of how to recognize and address these shortcomings, abandonment of one's original career trajectory may be seriously considered, and often acted upon. By the time any one of us has completed training, taken the boards, and gotten to this inflection point, we are at least in our mid- to late-30s. What then, is there to do, about this looming phenomenon, whenever it may occur? Perhaps we can draw comfort from a historical figure who has been there, and done that. His journey embodies the value of mentoring in traversing the succession of personal perils that are commonplace in today's professional environment.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Docentes de Medicina , Personalidade , Médicos/psicologia , Humanos , Literatura Medieval , Mentores
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