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1.
Med Probl Perform Art ; 35(3): 130-137, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870964

RESUMO

AIMS: The musician's hand represents a complex system, which requires important motor skills. Although several studies have already investigated rehabilitation outcomes and techniques in musicians after hand lesions, none have been addressed specifically to objectively quantifiable functional parameters. The purpose of our study was to study hand functionality in violinists in order to provide foundations on which to establish and develop more appropriate rehabilitation protocols. STUDY DESIGN: An observational cross-sectional cohort study consisting of 34 subjects, including 23 students and 11 professional violinists who were either studying or working at a conservatory. Results were compared to a data set of a non-musician control group. METHODS: Nine-hole peg test and hand test system (HTS) were used to perform the study. A hand-held dynamometer was used to measure hand grip and tripod pinch maximal isometric voluntary contraction of both hands. RESULTS: Hand strength did not significantly differ on either side between professional and student violinists. A significant difference was seen when comparing violinists as a whole versus the non-musician control group. HTS highlighted significant differences in dexterity. CONCLUSION: Violinists develop better overall motor performances of the left hand, and their performance is better than normal "non-musician" controls. Dexterity and precision of execution positively correlate to years of practice. We conclude that rehabilitation of a violinist's hand should be aimed at enhancing motor performance of the left hand and should be focused to maximize dexterity of both hands.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Destreza Motora , Música , Estudos Transversais , Mãos , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Estudantes
2.
Med Probl Perform Art ; 35(3): 138-144, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870965

RESUMO

AIMS: Musicians spend numerous hours perfecting their skills and art, often leading to overuse injuries of the hand; of specific concern to musicians is carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This study evaluated the median nerve cross-sectional area and hand function of musicians and made comparisons to non-musicians. METHODS: Seventy-six participants took part in the study, 38 music students and professors in the musician group and 38 participants in the control group. Participants completed patient-reported questionnaires to assess the level of pain and hand function. Ultrasound images were collected at the carpal tunnel inlet and outlet. The median nerve cross-sectional area and the depth of the carpal tunnel were measured on ultrasound images using software imbedded in the ultrasound unit. RESULTS: Musicians showed higher levels of hand dysfunction and CTS symptoms than the non-musicians. The median nerve cross-sectional area was greater in musicians than in the non-musician group on both the right (mean difference 1.5 mm2, p=0.002) and left sides (mean difference 0.9 mm2, p=0.036). The depth of the carpal tunnel at the carpal tunnel inlet and outlet did not differ between the groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The current research identified between-group differences in median nerve cross-sectional area and the level of hand dysfunction. Understanding the interaction between the anatomy of the wrist and wrist and hand dysfunction will benefit clinicians when evaluating and treating musicians.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Túnel Carpal , Nervo Mediano , Música , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/etiologia , Humanos , Nervo Mediano/anatomia & histologia , Nervo Mediano/patologia , Ultrassonografia , Punho
3.
Med Probl Perform Art ; 35(3): 153-161, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870967

RESUMO

AIMS: Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) are a significant health concern for percussionists. Although many of the known risk factors for PRMDs likely apply to all percussion subgroups (e.g., weekly practice hours, warm-ups/cool-downs, etc.), the rates and injury patterns in drummers (herein defined as 'percussionists who play the drum set') may differ due to differences in physical demands from those of other percussion subgroups. The goal of this study was to determine the drummer-specific rates and patterns of PRMDs. METHODS: An electronic survey including questions on respondent demographics, history and patterns of PRMDs, and potential drummer-specific risk factors for reporting PRMDs was distributed via social media using a snowball sampling technique. The target population included individuals aged 18 years or older who exclusively played the drum set (minimum 5 hrs/wk). The rates of PRMDs were analyzed by body region (e.g., upper/lower limb, etc.) and by location within body regions (e.g., shoulder, knee joint, etc.). RESULTS: The lifetime history of PRMDs in the study sample (n=831) was 68%, and 23% reported currently experiencing a PRMD. Most respondents reported multiple PRMDs (59%). The upper limb was the most commonly-affected body region (59%). The wrist joint (25%) and low back (24%) were the most commonly affected locations within body regions. CONCLUSIONS: Drummers' reporting of multiple PRMDs is consistent with previous findings in percussionists, but differences in the lifetime histories and patterns of injury supports the notion that risk factors may differ between percussion subgroups. Analysis of survey responses pertaining to drummer-specific risk factors is currently underway.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Música , Doenças Profissionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Med Probl Perform Art ; 35(3): 162-166, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870968

RESUMO

AIMS: Among musicians, string players have the highest prevalence for musculoskeletal overuse. Playing a violin or viola requires rapid, repetitive, and complicated movements of the hands and fingers. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine whether violin/viola, violin/cello, and violin/French horn players experience more intense musculoskeletal pain than other instrumentalists. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 590 orchestra musicians (354 male, 236 female, mean age 36 yrs). Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess pain of the back, neck, shoulder, face, jaw, and upper extremity. Pain intensity during the last 7 days was measured by an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) with a score from 0 to 10, as well as was disadvantage at work and leisure. RESULTS: Of the interviewed musicians, 20% presented playing-related musculoskeletal disorders at the time of the interview. Compared to other professional orchestra musicians, violin and viola players reported significantly more intense pain in the hand during the last week. Also, they had experienced more frequent neck pain ever and in 5 years than the others. During the past 30 days, violin and viola players had also perceived more harm in their upper limb joints. Violin/cello and violin/French horn players did not differ from the others. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that musicians playing the violin or viola have more intense hand pain and more frequent neck pain than other musicians, but these seem to disturb their daily tasks only a little.


Assuntos
Dor Musculoesquelética , Música , Cervicalgia , Doenças Profissionais , Adulto , Braço , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Med Probl Perform Art ; 35(3): 167-179, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886734

RESUMO

AIMS: Classical guitarists may experience unique occupational health problems due to a constellation of biopsychosocial demands associated with the physical characteristics of the classical guitar, performance techniques, repertoire, and performance practices consistent with the classical music genre. Unfortunately, epidemiologic studies of classical guitarists are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal problems in classical guitarists. METHODS: A sample of 190 classical guitarists completed a web-based survey. The survey assessed demographics, music-related variables, musician identity, non-musculoskeletal problems, and site-specific pain. Novel interactive body and hand maps were deployed to assess site-specific frequency, intensity, influence on playing, and quality of pain. RESULTS: A total of 168 subjects (88.9%) reported experiencing classical guitar-related pain in the past year at one or more musculoskeletal sites. The left thenar (25%) was the most prevalent pain site. Pain at the right upper back was reported to influence performance the most. Classical guitarists reported problems with non-musculoskeletal problems at rates similar or higher to other instrument-specific groups. CONCLUSION: Classical guitarists are an understudied group of musicians who experience occupational health problems. The novel assessment protocols developed for this study produced outcomes that may be helpful to both clinicians and pedagogues.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Música , Doenças Profissionais , Saúde do Trabalhador , Humanos , Dor , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 37(4): 587-595, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840074

RESUMO

Background music has been increasingly affecting people's lives. The research on the influence of background music on working memory has become a hot topic in brain science. In this paper, an improved electroencephalography (EEG) experiment based on n-back paradigm was designed. Fifteen university students without musical training were randomly selected to participate in the experiment, and their behavioral data and the EEG data were collected synchronously in order to explore the influence of different types of background music on spatial positioning cognition working memory. The exact low-resolution brain tomography algorithm (eLORETA) was applied to localize the EEG sources and the cross-correlation method was used to construct the cortical brain function networks based on the EEG source signals. Then the characteristics of the networks under different conditions were analyzed and compared to study the effects of background music on people's working memory. The results showed that the difference of peak periods after stimulated by different types of background music were mainly distributed in the signals of occipital lobe and temporal lobe ( P < 0.05). The analysis results showed that the brain connectivity under the condition with background music were stronger than those under the condition without music. The connectivities in the right occipital and temporal lobes under the condition of rock music were significantly higher than those under the condition of classical music. The node degrees, the betweenness centrality and the clustering coefficients under the condition without music were lower than those under the condition with background music. The node degrees and clustering coefficients under the condition of classical music were lower than those under the condition of rock music. It indicates that music stimulation increases the brain activity and has an impact on the working memory, and the effect of rock music is more remarkable than that of classical music. The behavioral data showed that the response accuracy in the state of no music, classical music and rock music were 86.09% ± 0.090%, 80.96% ± 0.960% and 79.36% ± 0.360%, respectively. We conclude that background music has a negative impact on the working memory, for it takes up the cognitive resources and reduces the cognitive ability of spatial location.


Assuntos
Música , Encéfalo , Cognição , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21535, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study sought the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy-based music group (CBT-Music) intervention program on primary school children's test-taking behavior in Southeast Nigeria. METHODS: A pretest, posttest randomized controlled trial experimental design was adopted for the study using a sample of 53 primary three (3) children. A test-taking behavior questionnaire was used for data collection. The instrument was face validated by test development experts. Construct validation of the instrument was done by subjecting the instrument to factor analysis after trial testing. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test and paired samples t-test. RESULTS: The findings of the study revealed that CBT-Music had a significant effect on the management of test-taking behavior of among children. Furthermore, the test-taking scores of children in the music-based CBT group were significantly lower than those in the control group at the follow-up measure. This implies that the test-taking behavior of the children can be better managed using the CBT-music intervention program to enable the children to grow better academically and contribute to the community they belong to. CONCLUSION: Music-based CBT demonstrated significant efficacy in the management of children's test-taking behavior. Thus, primary school teachers should be enlightened on how to make use of CBT-Music in the management of test-taking behavior among children.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Musicoterapia , Habilidades para Realização de Testes/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Música , Ciência/educação , Planejamento Social
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847040

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop a physical education fitness program for adolescents to counteract the declining physical activity levels caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to investigate the program's effect. This mixed-methods study developed and implemented a five-component "Music Beeps" (MB) program to promote adolescents' physical fitness. A total of 240 students from two high schools in South Korea-divided into experimental and control groups-participated in 32 sessions over 16 weeks. The changes in students' fitness were analyzed, and the educational effects were examined via inductive analysis of the observation logs and group and in-depth interviews. The results demonstrated that, whereas the comparison group demonstrated no statistically significant changes in power, muscular strength and endurance, or cardiopulmonary endurance, the experimental group showed changes in all these variables, along with changes in flexibility. Further, the MB program had significant educational effects. First, students reported that musical cues enhanced their fitness motivation and sense of responsibility. Second, record-keeping and active participation contributed to self-led fitness management. Third, activity in a small space with few pieces of equipment led to the positive perception that the program was efficient and enabled regular exercise regardless of climate conditions.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Música , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Aptidão Física , Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , República da Coreia , Instituições Acadêmicas
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235435, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this clinical study, stereo perception of music samples and its contribution to music enjoyment in CI users is investigated. It is studied in free field as well as direct audio presentation. METHODS: 20 bilateral and 9 bimodal CI users performed stereo detection tests and music enjoyment ratings. Music was presented either in mono or in stereo in free field or with direct audio presentation. Stereo detection was assessed with a 3-AFC paradigm. Music enjoyment was studied with scale ratings. RESULTS: For bilateral CI users, stereo detection increased from 52% correct in free field to 86% with direct audio presentation. Increased music enjoyment with improved stereo detection was obtained. Bimodal CI users could not identify stereo sounds. Music enjoyment did not increase for stereo presentations in bimodal subjects. DISCUSSION: For bilateral CI users, improved stereo detection might increase music enjoyment with direct audio presentation, which is likely due to bypassing the room acoustics. In bimodal CI users, no clear improvement was found, which is likely attributed due to the different hearing losses and therefore individually different interaural frequency overlaps between the hearing aid and the cochlear implant. CONCLUSION: Direct audio presentation is an efficient method to improve music enjoyment in bilateral CI users.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Implante Coclear/instrumentação , Implantes Cocleares , Surdez/terapia , Prazer , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Acústica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Implante Coclear/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Música
13.
Can J Public Health ; 111(4): 477-479, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696141

RESUMO

To promote the population's adherence to COVID-19 public health preventive measures, the Quebec (Canada) government solicited the assistance of local music artists. This commentary aims to demonstrate how music has been utilized to communicate the public health recommendations relative to the COVID-19 pandemic and to discuss the relevance of using music in this context, as supported by research. More specifically, music is discussed in terms of its powerful capacity to reach out to a large population pool; to capture the population's attention quickly and massively in spite of age, language, or cultural barriers; to effectively communicate messages; and to affect individuals' behaviours. In this regard, the current COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates how music can be utilized as a communication tool and offers an interesting perspective for the consideration of music in future public health research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Música , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quebeque/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235770, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639987

RESUMO

In real music, the original melody may appear intact, with little elaboration only, or significantly modified. Since a melody is most easily perceived in music, hearing significantly modified melody may change a brain connectivity. Mozart KV 265 is comprised of a theme with an original melody of "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star" and its significant variations. We studied whether effective connectivity changes with significantly modified melody, between bilateral inferior frontal gyri (IFGs) and Heschl's gyri (HGs) using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Among the 12 connectivities, the connectivity from the left IFG to the right HG was consistently increased with significantly modified melody compared to the original melody in 2 separate sets of the same rhythmic pattern with different melody (p = 0.005 and 0.034, Bonferroni corrected). Our findings show that the modification of an original melody in a real music changes the brain connectivity.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva , Conectoma , Música , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(3)2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609440

RESUMO

Efforts to increase patient comfort by minimizing pain and anxiety have been shown to improve clinical outcomes, reduce pain thresholds, decrease analgesic requirements and complication risk, strengthen the physician-patient relationship, and increase overall patient satisfaction. Patients also have a strong preference for patient-centered communication and educational discussion with physicians. In recent years, the increasing emphasis on patient experience scores as a metric for quality care has had significant implications for physician practice and has reinforced attempts to provide more patient-centered care. Though different pharmacologic agents and techniques have been extensively reviewed in the dermatologic literature, there have been few studies of non-pharmacologic strategies for improving patient-centered care. This evidence-based review describes alternative techniques that have been suggested for use in dermatologic surgery. Mechanoanesthesia, cold therapy, verbal and audiovisual distraction, music, optimal needle insertion methods, hypnosis and guided-imagery, perioperative communication, and educational strategies have been reported to improve the patient experience in dermatologic surgery. These interventions are often cost-effective and easy to implement, avoid medication side effects, and serve as adjunct approaches to enhance patient comfort. This review examines the corresponding evidence for these nonpharmacologic strategies to provide a clinical resource for the dermatologic surgeon seeking to optimize the patient experience.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos/psicologia , Humanos , Hipnose , Imagens, Psicoterapia , Terapias Mente-Corpo , Filmes Cinematográficos , Música , Dor/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Satisfação do Paciente
16.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e143, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624050

RESUMO

Hierarchical structures are rapidly and flexibly built up in the domains of human language and music. These domains require a tree-building capacity - "dendrophilia" - to dynamically infer hierarchical structures from sensory input (or to hierarchically structure output), based on subunits stored in a lexicon. This dynamic process involves a crucial class of abstracta overlooked in the target article.


Assuntos
Música , Encéfalo , Cognição , Humanos , Idioma
17.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 9-14, 2020 06.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638596

RESUMO

Searching for an answer whether medicine is a science or an art, especially in today's time when the emphasis is on the biotechnological aspects of treatment, the intention of this paper is to reflect on the outcomes of the encounter of medicine and art. Those that are recognised at least in the complementarity of the methodology, creating additional life values. By presenting authentic actions, this is a call for additional health improvement interventions, without allowing the biopsychosocial approach to human integrity to be forgotten. The inspiration for this view was the prestigious title of the European Capital of Culture that the Town of Rijeka was awarded for the year 2020. This city is also a kind of capital of health culture in many ways.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Cultura , Medicina nas Artes , Croácia , História do Século XXI , Música
18.
J Music Ther ; 57(3): 251-281, 2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602546

RESUMO

While literature exists supporting the use of music for health promotion, scholars have also noted the potential for music-induced harm and other maladaptive effects of music. Harm is a multifaceted construct that can include affective, behavioral, cognitive, identity, interpersonal, physical, and spiritual aspects. As music also represents a multifaceted experience, the relationship between music and harm is complex and can include numerous contextual-, deliverer-, music-, and recipient-based factors. Music-induced harm (MIH) also needs to be clearly defined to understand and protect against it. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to explore the numerous factors influencing how music can result in harm and develop a theoretical model that could be used to inform safe music practices. Drawing from existing models of emotional responses to music, music intervention reporting guidelines, therapeutic functions of music, and holistic wellness, we explored how the interplay between the deliverer, music, and recipient can result in various types of MIH in diverse contexts. We then developed the MIH model to integrate these factors and connect the model with the existing literature. The MIH model highlights the relevance of academic and clinical training, credentialing, occupational regulation, continuing education, and professional organizations that provide accredited curricular oversight to protect people from MIH. Implications for clinical application, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.


Assuntos
Musicoterapia/educação , Musicoterapia/métodos , Música , Credenciamento , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
19.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 35(4): 762-766, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724929

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dental anxiety causes patients to avoid or delay dental treatments. This delay leads to more serious dental problems, which can then lead to more invasive and expensive treatment with possible emergency situations. The purpose of this study was to determine the most successful and effective kind of music to lessen the anxiety of patients during dental implant surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a prospective observational randomized controlled study. Eighty dental implant surgery patients aged between 40 and 70 years were chosen for the study. Patients were divided into four groups: group 1-classic Turkish music group (Saba or Rast Tune); group 2-classical music (Vivaldi); group 3-slow rock music; and group 4-control group. Blood pressures, heart rate, and O2 saturations of the patients were evaluated along with Corah's Dental Anxiety Survey (CDAS) at admittance. After 5 minutes of music in the room, the same evaluations were recorded, and the survey was repeated. RESULTS: All the groups with music treatment had a significant decrease in anxiety levels. It was observed that listening to music had a positive effect on dental anxiety regardless of the kind of music. There were significant differences in CDAS values postoperatively. Turkish music and classical music were much more effective in diminishing dental anxiety compared with soft rock music (P = .000 and .002, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study indicated that regardless of the kind of music, listening to music diminishes dental anxiety significantly; Turkish music and classical music were the most effective kinds of music.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Musicoterapia , Música , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade , Pressão Sanguínea , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Turquia
20.
Med Probl Perform Art ; 35(2): 81-88, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repetitive actions while playing piano may overload forearm muscles and tendons, leading to playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs), including lateral epicondylitis. METHODS: In this pilot study, surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) was captured in 10 conservatory piano students while playing a fast and a slow music score selected from the individual's repertoire, each 3 minutes long. Measurements were made at baseline and again after 2 hrs and 4 hrs of rehearsal time of the piano études. The amplitude of the sEMG signal was processed by a smoothing algorithm, and the frequency component with a non-orthogonal wavelets procedure. Amplitude of the sEMG was expressed in percent of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC) at baseline. Statistical analysis encompassed 2-way repeated measures ANOVAs for the amplitude and frequency components of the sEMG signal (a set at 5%). The students also rated the intensity of rehearsals using a VAS. RESULTS: The ECR presented with a mean amplitude of 23%MVC for the slow scores, which increased significantly to 36%MVC for the fast scores. The sEMG signal presented a significant though small decrease of 1.9%MVC in amplitude between baseline and 4 hrs of rehearsal time and no shift in frequency, which may indicate that the rehearsals were held at a physiological steady-state and suggesting optimization or complementary muscle loading. CONCLUSIONS: These data accentuated that the loading of the ECR (as reflected in the amplitude component) was higher than that seen for computer keyboard workers. The augmented loading of the ECR and reduced blood flow to forearm muscles may be a factor in the development of PRMDs in pianists.


Assuntos
Antebraço , Músculo Esquelético , Música , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Contração Muscular , Projetos Piloto , Estudantes
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