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2.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexually explicit media exposure during early adolescence has been found to be associated with risky sexual behavior. However, previous study suffered from methodological issue, such as selection bias. Furthermore, little is known about the effect of multi-modality sexually explicit media exposure on risky sexual behavior, and how this relationship can be applied to non-western societies. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to improve upon previous studies by using instrumental variable estimation. In addition, this study also included multi-modality of sexually explicit media and three risky sexual behavior measure from a sample of Taiwanese adolescents. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a prospective longitudinal study (Taiwan Youth Project). All were in 7th grade (mean age = 13.3) when the study was initiated in 2000. Sexually explicit media exposure, including ever-exposure and number of modalities exposed to, was measured in wave 2 (8th grade). Risky sexual behavior was measured in waves 8 (mean age = 20.3) and 10 (mean age = 24.3). A two-stage least squares regression was employed, with pubertal timing as the instrumental variable. RESULTS: About 50% of participants had been exposed to sexual media content by 8th grade, from an average of one modality. Sexually explicit media exposure predicted early sexual debut, unsafe sex, and multiple sexual partners (all: p < .05). Furthermore, exposure to more media modalities increased the likelihood of risky sexual behaviors. However, only the effect on early sexual debut was gender invariant. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to sexually explicit media in early adolescence had a substantive relationship with risky sexual behavior in the emerging adulthood. Knowledge of this causal like effect provides a basis for building better preventive programs in early adolescence. One prominent way is early education on media literacy, and physicians themselves may need to be familiar with such content to initiate it.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação , Literatura Erótica , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Taiwan
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e17985, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000354

RESUMO

Monkeypox is a zoonotic viral disease. Media campaigns are planned to create awareness about the disease. This is because mass media is often the leading source of information and mobilization during important health issues or crisis. The main objective of this study was to assess the media coverage of monkeypox outbreak in Nigeria.The study adopted a cross-sectional survey of residents in Southern Nigeria. A total of 600 respondents were sampled for this study through a multi-stage cluster random sampling technique. Research assistants helped in collecting data from respondents through structured questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using percentages, mean score, and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA).Respondents had little or no knowledge of monkeypox virus, its nature, mode of transmission, and prevention mechanism (2.30 ±â€Š.918, P = .000). Respondents stated that they learnt about the virus through friends and social institutions instead of media (4.44 ±â€Š.945, P = .006). Media failed to create effective and comprehensive awareness campaigns to mobilize the public (1.86 ±â€Š1.196, P = .001), while inappropriate and insufficient media programs and lack of funds were blamed for media ineffectiveness (4.18 ±â€Š1.352, P = .004).The outbreak of monkeypox virus is a public health concern in Nigeria. Media campaigns are planned to raise awareness about the disease; however, these campaigns have not demonstrated effectiveness in changing people's health behavior toward monkeypox. Media, health professionals, and government should synergize to promote a consistent health policy for the control and prevention of monkeypox virus.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Monkeypox , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMJ ; 367: l6789, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801735
10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(674): 2266-2267, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804044
12.
Curr Obes Rep ; 8(4): 504-516, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673982

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes policy and regulatory strategies to prevent obesity and summarizes worldwide progress and impediments to scaling up strategies globally. RECENT FINDINGS: While there is considerable variation in the breadth and depth of uptake of recommended strategies, the adoption of effective obesity prevention policies has been slow and inconsistent. There is broad consensus that strong government, corporate, and consumer actions, including regulatory measures, are needed to advance obesity prevention policies. Governments have lacked sufficient will to take necessary action, the food industry has actively worked to thwart policies to protect its commercial interests, and consumers have not exerted sufficient influence or demand to produce change. Advancing obesity prevention will require the use of effective strategies to shape and influence the information environments and political environments towards messages and actions to support public health. Greater emphasis is needed on reducing the influence of commercial interests, mobilizing civil society, and targeting vulnerable populations through equity-focused frameworks.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Construído , Meios de Comunicação , Indústria Alimentícia , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Marketing , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Administração em Saúde Pública , Instituições Acadêmicas
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(10)2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-time video communication software such as Skype and FaceTime transmits live video and audio over the Internet, allowing counsellors to provide support to help people quit smoking. There are more than four billion Internet users worldwide, and Internet users can download free video communication software, rendering a video counselling approach both feasible and scalable for helping people to quit smoking. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of real-time video counselling delivered individually or to a group in increasing smoking cessation, quit attempts, intervention adherence, satisfaction and therapeutic alliance, and to provide an economic evaluation regarding real-time video counselling. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO and Embase to identify eligible studies on 13 August 2019. We searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify ongoing trials registered by 13 August 2019. We checked the reference lists of included articles and contacted smoking cessation researchers for any additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), randomised trials, cluster RCTs or cluster randomised trials of real-time video counselling for current tobacco smokers from any setting that measured smoking cessation at least six months following baseline. The real-time video counselling intervention could be compared with a no intervention control group or another smoking cessation intervention, or both. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data from included trials, assessed the risk of bias and rated the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis for the primary outcome of smoking cessation, using the most stringent measure of smoking cessation measured at the longest follow-up. Analysis was based on the intention-to-treat principle. We considered participants with missing data at follow-up for the primary outcome of smoking cessation to be smokers. MAIN RESULTS: We included two randomised trials with 615 participants. Both studies delivered real-time video counselling for smoking cessation individually, compared with telephone counselling. We judged one study at unclear risk of bias and one study at high risk of bias. There was no statistically significant treatment effect for smoking cessation (using the strictest definition and longest follow-up) across the two included studies when real-time video counselling was compared to telephone counselling (risk ratio (RR) 2.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 12.04; 2 studies, 608 participants; I2 = 66%). We judged the overall certainty of the evidence for smoking cessation as very low due to methodological limitations, imprecision in the effect estimate reflected by the wide 95% CIs and inconsistency of cessation rates. There were no significant differences between real-time video counselling and telephone counselling reported for number of quit attempts among people who continued to smoke (mean difference (MD) 0.50, 95% CI -0.60 to 1.60; 1 study, 499 participants), mean number of counselling sessions completed (MD -0.20, 95% CI -0.45 to 0.05; 1 study, 566 participants), completion of all sessions (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.79; 1 study, 43 participants) or therapeutic alliance (MD 1.13, 95% CI -0.24 to 2.50; 1 study, 398 participants). Participants in the video counselling arm were more likely than their telephone counselling counterparts to recommend the programme to a friend or family member (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11; 1 study, 398 participants); however, there were no between-group differences on satisfaction score (MD 0.70, 95% CI -1.16 to 2.56; 1 study, 29 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is very little evidence about the effectiveness of real-time video counselling for smoking cessation. The existing research does not suggest a difference between video counselling and telephone counselling for assisting people to quit smoking. However, given the very low GRADE rating due to methodological limitations in the design, imprecision of the effect estimate and inconsistency of cessation rates, the smoking cessation results should be interpreted cautiously. High-quality randomised trials comparing real-time video counselling to telephone counselling are needed to increase the confidence of the effect estimate. Furthermore, there is currently no evidence comparing real-time video counselling to a control group. Such research is needed to determine whether video counselling increases smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/terapia , Terapia Comportamental , Aconselhamento/métodos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766650

RESUMO

The present study investigated the associations of media use of children, media use of mothers, and parent-child interactions with behavioral strengths and difficulties in children. Screen time of 553 2- to 9-year-old children and their mothers were indicated by the daily durations of their TV/games console/computer/mobile phone use. The amount of parent-child interaction was indicated by the frequencies of shared activities at home. Behavioral strengths and difficulties of children were investigated using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children whose mothers reported high screen times (>/= 5 h/day) were significantly more likely to show high screen times (>/= 2 h/day). High screen time of children was associated with more conduct problems, more symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention and less prosocial behavior. High screen time of mothers was associated with emotional problems, conduct problems, and symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention. In contrast, a higher frequency of parent-child interactions was associated with fewer conduct problems, fewer peer-relationship problems, and more prosocial behavior of children. Children might use the media behavior of their mothers as a role model for their own media use. Furthermore, the findings suggest that media use of children and mothers and parent-child interaction contribute independently to behavioral strengths and difficulties of children.


Assuntos
Uso do Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Meios de Comunicação , Mães/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Tempo de Tela , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752324

RESUMO

To understand how the sustainable development goals (SDGs) are involved and cited in different fields, the current study aimed to explore the key SDGs and SDG-pairs from the viewpoints of academia and the media. The academic publications with SDG(s)-related keywords in the Scopus database and the entry videos of the "2018 SDG Lions" were collected and analyzed through content and network analysis. It was found that SDG 3 and SDG 10 shared the highest preferences in both industries, but apparent gaps happened to SDG 5. The tied frequencies of the possible SDG pairs were also examined, and SDG 3-10 was identified taking the lead in both industries. Network analysis using degree centrality as the vital parameter demonstrated that SDG 8 and SDG 5 has strong connections with several SDGs for the academia and the media, respectively. The SDG-2-6-7 combination or "water-energy-food" nexus was also found the most frequent combination of three SDGs in the academia. Overall, SDG 3 can be treated as a unifying theme when seeking to acquire evidence-based knowledge for integrated implementation of the SDGs. Important implications for policy-making of the SDGs were also discussed.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Educação/psicologia , Pessoal de Educação/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Objetivos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Public Health Res Pract ; 29(3)2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569205

RESUMO

Objectives and importance of study: News media portrayal of public health issues influences public opinion, policy action and decision making. This study aimed to analyse the use of 'nanny state' frames in Australian news media coverage; identify the stakeholders invoking this frame; determine which public health-related policies attract such framing; and investigate whether 'nanny state' framing is directly challenged in news coverage. STUDY TYPE: A qualitative framing analysis. METHODS: Articles featuring the term 'nanny state' that were published in Australian print newspapers during matched periods between March and September in 2017 and 2018 were sourced through Factiva, coded and analysed for content and 'nanny state' framing. Content analysis was used to identify any public health-related issues that the terminology nanny state was applied to, and who was portrayed as imposing the nanny state. Frame analysis was used to analyse what meanings are co-presented with the phrase nanny state. RESULTS: Out of 81 print newspaper articles that included the term 'nanny state', 19% linked the term to restricting personal choice or creating dissatisfaction with too many health-related rules and regulations broadly, across a range of issues, including: bike helmets, e-cigarettes, firearm restrictions, seatbelts, pool fences and smoking bans. The next most frequent links were to regulations on alcohol (17%), road safety (14%), obesity-related issues (7%) and tobacco control (6%). Of the 81 articles, 53% appeared in news publications owned by News Corporation Australia, 20% in Fairfax Media (Nine Entertainment) publications, 17% in Daily Mail and General Trust and 10% in publications owned by other organisations. Governments were the entity most frequently framed as imposing the nanny state. Most nanny state framings (73%) were negative towards public health controls and focused on policies and regulations. Nanny state was portrayed as an assault on freedom and choice (14%) and used to attack proponents of nanny state controls (11%), while few articles framed the nanny state (7%) in a favourable light. CONCLUSIONS: 'Nanny state' is a rhetorical device commonly used in Australian news media that may contribute to discrediting of the regulation of a range of health-related issues. News Corp publications are a major propagator of nanny state rhetoric in Australian newspaper media. Public health advocates are not commonly represented within nanny state debates within the news media.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Opinião Pública , Austrália , Humanos
19.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(8): 417-425, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548450

RESUMO

Objectives This study aimed to examine methods of providing information to improve the recognition of people with developmental disorders by comparing recognition of developmental disorders among education and health care professionals within the general public.Methods A cross-sectional internet-based survey was conducted in January 2016. The subjects were Japanese adults aged between 20 and 69 years. Of all the respondents, 418 were males and 424 were females. The questionnaire was used to assess recognition of the names of developmental disorders and to determine the corresponding methods through which the information was obtained. We analyzed cognitive states by classifying the respondents by occupation (education and health care professionals) and by whether the subject had a developmental disorder or was a family member or friend of a person with a developmental disorder separately.Results The percentage of respondents that reported having heard about developmental disorders was 91.5%. However, only 26.5% reported having provided some form of support to people with developmental disabilities. The percentages of education and health care professionals who were aware of developmental disorders were close to 100%; however, only 63.9% and 42.9%, respectively, could cite how they had become aware of developmental disorders. With regard to the sources of information on developmental disorders, the most frequent answers were television and radio programs (67.1%), followed by the internet. Of all the respondents, 11.3% had heard about developmental disorders in a school setting and 9.9% had heard about the disorders in the workplace.Conclusion To increase understanding of developmental disorders among education and health care professionals, basic and in-service education must be improved. Furthermore, it is important to provide information on developmental disorders through the media.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Pessoal de Educação/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adulto , Idoso , Meios de Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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