Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.919
Filtrar
2.
Cardiovasc Interv Ther ; 35(1): 37-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482290

RESUMO

Individual studies IVUS vs angiography-guided DES implantation studies, whether randomized clinical trials or registries are underpowered, to show a reduction in mortality, especially at 1 year of follow-up. However, either meta-analyses or the few studies with long-term (> 5 year) follow-up showed that IVUS guidance reduced mortality and improved patient survival, even with second-generation DES.


Assuntos
Bibliografias como Assunto , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Saúde Global , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
3.
Educ Prim Care ; 30(5): 312-316, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502512

RESUMO

Key writings are those texts which represent a timeless contribution to the academic basis of general practice. We surveyed the 14 GP Specialist Training Programmes in Ireland and undertook focus group interviews with teachers and trainees in order to understand the extent to which such texts are currently used and whether they are valued in teaching. Our results indicate that traditional reading lists are not common in Irish GP training, that there are many barriers to trainees engaging with such literature but that both teachers and trainees see merit in providing access to a body of key writings. We suggest how this might be undertaken.


Assuntos
Bibliografias como Assunto , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Medicina Geral/educação , Docentes de Medicina , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Irlanda , Literatura
7.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measures to ensure research integrity have been widely discussed due to the social, economic and scientific impact of research integrity. In the past few years, financial support for health research in emerging countries has steadily increased, resulting in a growing number of scientific publications. These achievements, however, have been accompanied by a rise in retracted publications followed by concerns about the quality and reliability of such publications. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to investigate the profile of medical and life sciences research retractions from authors affiliated with Brazilian academic institutions. The chronological trend between publication and retraction date, reasons for the retraction, citation of the article after the retraction, study design, and the number of retracted publications by author and affiliation were assessed. Additionally, the quality, availability and accessibility of data regarding retracted papers from the publishers are described. METHODS: Two independent reviewers searched for articles that had been retracted since 2004 via PubMed, Web of Science, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS) and Google Scholar databases. Indexed keywords from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Descritores em Ciências da Saúde (DeCS) in Portuguese, English or Spanish were used. Data were also collected from the Retraction Watch website (www.retractionwatch.com). This study was registered with the PROSPERO systematic review database (CRD42017071647). RESULTS: A final sample of 65 articles was retrieved from 55 different journals with reported impact factors ranging from 0 to 32.86, with a median value of 4.40 and a mean of 4.69. The types of documents found were erratum (1), retracted articles (3), retracted articles with a retraction notice (5), retraction notices with erratum (3), and retraction notices (45). The assessment of the Retraction Watch website added 8 articles that were not identified by the search strategy using the bibliographic databases. The retracted publications covered a wide range of study designs. Experimental studies (40) and literature reviews (15) accounted for 84.6% of the retracted articles. Within the field of health and life sciences, medical science was the field with the largest number of retractions (34), followed by biological sciences (17). Some articles were retracted for at least two distinct reasons (13). Among the retrieved articles, plagiarism was the main reason for retraction (60%). Missing data were found in 57% of the retraction notices, which was a limitation to this review. In addition, 63% of the articles were cited after their retraction. CONCLUSION: Publications are not retracted solely for research misconduct but also for honest error. Nevertheless, considering authors affiliated with Brazilian institutions, this review concluded that most of the retracted health and life sciences publications were retracted due to research misconduct. Because the number of publications is the most valued indicator of scientific productivity for funding and career progression purposes, a systematic effort from the national research councils, funding agencies, universities and scientific journals is needed to avoid an escalating trend of research misconduct. More investigations are needed to comprehend the underlying factors of research misconduct and its increasing manifestation.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Retratação de Publicação como Assunto , Má Conduta Científica , Bibliografias como Assunto , Brasil , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Publicações , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Acad Psychiatry ; 43(4): 417-424, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper sought to compile an annotated bibliography for the outpatient year of adult psychiatry residents, providing resources for a foundation in psychodynamic theory which can be utilized in supervision to aid in ongoing psychotherapeutic work. METHODS: In selecting the readings, the ACGME Milestones sub-competencies considered were (i) empathy and process, (ii) boundaries, (iii) alliance and provision of psychotherapies, (iv) seeking and providing supervision, and (v) knowledge of psychotherapy (theories, practice, and evidence base). Once the readings were selected, two authors independently reviewed the articles to determine which key sub-competencies each article addressed. Chance corrected agreement between the reviewers was assessed using the Cohen kappa statistic. The kappa for interrater agreement was 0.83. RESULTS: A list of 32 readings was compiled sequentially, allowing for theoretical concepts to be progressively built upon. The content of the papers aligned well with multiple sub-competencies in the medical knowledge (MK) and patient care (PC) domains. The bibliography allows for close examination of therapeutic frame; active listening and reflecting on the meaning of the therapist's interventions; transference and the use of countertransference as a diagnostic/therapeutic tool; defense mechanisms; patient pressures towards reenactment; theoretical viewpoints on therapeutic action (e.g., ego psychology, self-psychology, relational therapy, object relations, classical/modern Kleinian); and meaning of lateness, treatment breaks, and termination. CONCLUSIONS: This list serves as an ancillary resource which can augment discussions in therapy supervision, while also aiding in standardizing the minimal knowledge base achieved in psychodynamic theory.


Assuntos
Bibliografias como Assunto , Internato e Residência , Psiquiatria/educação , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/educação , Humanos
13.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 59(2): 117, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799387
14.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211963, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735548

RESUMO

In the era of big science, countries allocate big research and development budgets to large scientific facilities that boost collaboration and research capability. A nuclear fusion device called the "tokamak" is a source of great interest for many countries because it ideally generates sustainable energy expected to solve the energy crisis in the future. Here, to explore the scientific effects of tokamaks, we map a country's research capability in nuclear fusion research with normalized revealed comparative advantage on five topical clusters-material, plasma, device, diagnostics, and simulation-detected through a dynamic topic model. Our approach captures not only the growth of China, India, and the Republic of Korea but also the decline of Canada, Japan, Sweden, and the Netherlands. Time points of their rise and fall are related to tokamak operation, highlighting the importance of large facilities in big science. The gravity model points out that two countries collaborate less in device, diagnostics, and plasma research if they have comparative advantages in different topics. This relation is a unique feature of nuclear fusion compared to other science fields. Our results can be used and extended when building national policies for big science.


Assuntos
Fusão Nuclear , Física Nuclear/instrumentação , Pesquisa , Bibliografias como Assunto , Canadá , China , Humanos , Índia , Estudos Interdisciplinares , Japão , Modelos Teóricos , Países Baixos , Energia Renovável , República da Coreia , Suécia
15.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(3): 1020-1026, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288671

RESUMO

Though citations are critical for communicating science and evaluating scholarly success, properties unrelated to the quality of the work-such as cognitive biases-can influence citation decisions. The primacy effect, in particular, is relevant to lists, which for in-text citations could result in citations earlier in the list receiving more attention than those later in the list. Therefore, how citations are ordered could influence which citations receive the most attention. Using a sample of 150,000 articles, we tested whether alphabetizing in-text citations biases readers into citing more often articles with first authors whose surnames begin with letters early in the alphabet. We found that surnames earlier in the alphabet were cited more often than those later in the alphabet when journals ordered citations alphabetically compared with chronologically or numerically. This effect seemed to be stronger in psychology journals (which have a culture of alphabetizing citations) compared with biology or geoscience journals (which primarily order chronologically or numerically) and was strongest among moderately and highly cited articles. Therefore, alphabetizing in-text citations biases citation decisions toward authors with surnames occurring early in the alphabet. These citation decisions result from an interaction between cognitive biases (more attention devoted to items earlier in a list) and the structure of the citation environment (the style in which citations are ordered). We suggest that journals using alphabetically ordered citations switch to chronological ordering to minimize this arbitrary alphabetical citation bias.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Bibliografias como Assunto , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Humanos
17.
Epilepsy Behav ; 90: 31-36, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: When writing about the bidirectional etiological relationship between depression and epilepsy, neuropsychiatrists often cite Lewis (1934) [Lewis AJ. Melancholia: a historical review. Journal of Mental Science 1934; 80: 1-42] who cited Hippocrates - namely, "melancholics ordinarily become epileptics, and epileptics, melancholics". In this paper, the complicated reference for this citation from Lewis (1934) was critically reappraised. METHODS: The Greek-Latin edition of Hippocratic writings by Ermerins to which Lewis (1934) referred and most volumes of the standard Greek-English edition of the Hippocratic writings in The Loeb Classical Library were freely available as facsimile pdf documents in the Internet Archive (archive.org). RESULTS: Melancholia (i.e., "the black bile disease") is defined as a persistent mental state of fear and sadness ("Aphorisms", section 6, aphorism 23) which appears more consistent with a dysthymic disorder or depressive personality disorder than an acute (episodic) depressive disorder. Confusingly, the term melancholia also signifies a humoral etiology, namely a surplus of black bile, which causes several distinct diseases including epilepsy (aphorism vi/56). The quote addressing the conversion of melancholia into epilepsy and vice versa was taken from the writing "Epidemics" (book 6, section 8, paragraph 31). The famous treatise on epilepsy, "De Morbo Sacro", does not mention melancholia but instead, attributes epilepsy to two other humors: phlegm and (yellow) bile. This writing proposes an etiological relationship between (inherited) personality and epilepsy, wherein a phlegmatic temperament represents an epilepsy risk while a bilious (choleric) temperament offers protection against epilepsy. SIGNIFICANCE: With only a few clarifications, the neuropsychiatric quotation from Hippocrates and the reference to Lewis (1934) could generally be approved as appropriate. However, the proper framework of the quote seems to be personality and not mood. A more precise reference to a standard edition of "Epidemics" book 6 is also suggested.


Assuntos
Bibliografias como Assunto , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/etiologia , Neuropsiquiatria/história , História do Século XX , História Antiga , Humanos
18.
Early Hum Dev ; 128: 118-119, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241900

RESUMO

In the scholarly environment, research findings are disseminated as journal papers which support/dispute extant knowledge or add further to what is already known. The entire manuscript needs to be cited (in-text) and referenced (at the end of article), in order for readers to ascertain the validity of the research claim/s. This must be done in proper and accepted fashion as plagiarism is a serious misdeed and inappropriate referencing mars a paper. Recent advancements in technology have led to the development of bibliographic management software tools. These tools are available as both commercial and open source software, and constitute a database wherein researchers search, store and cite references. Furthermore, authors can not only create personalized databases but also cite stored articles when compiling a manuscript or report or indeed any other form of document. This software obviates human manual inputting errors and inaccurate referencing, while conveniently enabling citation and referencing in any referencing style required, for example, after rejection, when an author must almost perforce resubmit a prepared but rejected paper to a different journal after suitable amendments.


Assuntos
Bibliografias como Assunto , Escrita Médica/normas , Software , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
19.
Early Hum Dev ; 128: 105-106, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241901

RESUMO

To date, these WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) Best Practice Guidelines have dealt with various aspects of conducting research and writing it up. The papers in this set will review some practical and material aspects related to paper writing, particularly those pertaining to online resources that may potentially be utilized for research, how to structure a scientific paper using the conventional IMRaD (Introduction - Method - Results - and - Discussion) format, the use of bibliographic software for handling references, and the practicalities of dealing with a pathology lab for research purposes.


Assuntos
Escrita Médica/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Bibliografias como Assunto
20.
Top Cogn Sci ; 11(3): 468-481, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29630770

RESUMO

Implicit learning and statistical learning are two contemporary approaches to the long-standing question in psychology and cognitive science of how organisms pick up on patterned regularities in their environment. Although both approaches focus on the learner's ability to use distributional properties to discover patterns in the input, the relevant research has largely been published in separate literatures and with surprisingly little cross-pollination between them. This has resulted in apparently opposing perspectives on the computations involved in learning, pitting chunk-based learning against probabilistic learning. In this paper, I trace the nearly century-long historical pedigree of the two approaches to learning and argue for their integration under the heading of "implicit statistical learning." Building on basic insights from the memory literature, I sketch a framework for statistically based chunking that aims to provide a unified basis for understanding implicit statistical learning.


Assuntos
Ciência Cognitiva , Aprendizagem , Memória , Bibliografias como Assunto , Ciência Cognitiva/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA