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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-536771

RESUMO

Virus outbreaks are threats to humanity, and coronaviruses are the latest of many epidemics in the last few decades in the world. SARS-CoV (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Associated Coronavirus) is a member of the coronavirus family, so its study is useful for relevant virus data research. In this work, we conduct a proposed approach that is non-medical/clinical, generate graphs from five features of the SARS outbreak data in five countries and regions, and offer insights from a visual analysis perspective. The results show that prevention measures such as quarantine are the most common control policies used, and areas with strict measures did have fewer peak period days; for instance, Hong Kong handled the outbreak better than other areas. Data conflict issues found with this approach are discussed as well. Visual analysis is also proved to be a useful technique to present the SARS outbreak data at this stage; furthermore, we are proceeding to apply a similar methodology with more features to future COVID-19 research from a visual analysis perfective.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Fatores de Tempo , Organização Mundial da Saúde
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503333

RESUMO

Virus outbreaks are threats to humanity, and coronaviruses are the latest of many epidemics in the last few decades in the world. SARS-CoV (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Associated Coronavirus) is a member of the coronavirus family, so its study is useful for relevant virus data research. In this work, we conduct a proposed approach that is non-medical/clinical, generate graphs from five features of the SARS outbreak data in five countries and regions, and offer insights from a visual analysis perspective. The results show that prevention measures such as quarantine are the most common control policies used, and areas with strict measures did have fewer peak period days; for instance, Hong Kong handled the outbreak better than other areas. Data conflict issues found with this approach are discussed as well. Visual analysis is also proved to be a useful technique to present the SARS outbreak data at this stage; furthermore, we are proceeding to apply a similar methodology with more features to future COVID-19 research from a visual analysis perfective.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Fatores de Tempo , Organização Mundial da Saúde
3.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(6): 700-712, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: According to the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review was followed by a consensus meeting to develop this update involving 28 international taskforce members in May 2019. Levels of evidence and strengths of recommendations were determined. RESULTS: The updated recommendations comprise 6 overarching principles and 12 recommendations. The overarching principles address the nature of PsA and diversity of both musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal manifestations; the need for collaborative management and shared decision-making is highlighted. The recommendations provide a treatment strategy for pharmacological therapies. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and local glucocorticoid injections are proposed as initial therapy; for patients with arthritis and poor prognostic factors, such as polyarthritis or monoarthritis/oligoarthritis accompanied by factors such as dactylitis or joint damage, rapid initiation of conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs is recommended. If the treatment target is not achieved with this strategy, a biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) targeting tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-17A or IL-12/23 should be initiated, taking into account skin involvement if relevant. If axial disease predominates, a TNF inhibitor or IL-17A inhibitor should be started as first-line disease-modifying antirheumatic drug. Use of Janus kinase inhibitors is addressed primarily after bDMARD failure. Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibition is proposed for patients in whom these other drugs are inappropriate, generally in the context of mild disease. Drug switches and tapering in sustained remission are addressed. CONCLUSION: These recommendations provide stakeholders with an updated consensus on the pharmacological management of PsA, based on a combination of evidence and expert opinion.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Sociedades Médicas , Consenso , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Interleucina-12/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-17/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-23/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 4/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Sintéticos/uso terapêutico , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
4.
Braz Oral Res ; 34(supp1 1): e027, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294680

RESUMO

Periodontal diseases are considered a worldwide public health problem, owing to their high prevalence in developed and developing countries. Periodontitis may lead to tooth loss, which can impact oral health-related quality of life. Gingivitis and periodontitis have been extensively studied regarding their etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, prevention and treatment outcomes. However, most of these aspects are studied and discussed globally, which may hamper a clear interpretation of the findings and the design of effective plans of action for specific regions or populations. For example, in Latin America, epidemiological data about the distribution of periodontal diseases is still scarce, mainly when it comes to nationwide representative samples. This Consensus aimed to address the following topics related to periodontal diseases in Latin America: a) The impact of the global burden of periodontal diseases on health: a global reality; b) Periodontal diseases in Latin America; c) Strategies for the prevention of periodontal diseases in Latin America; d) Problems associated with diagnosis of periodontal conditions and possible solutions for Latin America; e) Treatment of Periodontitis. This consensus will help to increase awareness about diagnosis, prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases, in the context of Latin American countries.


Assuntos
Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Doenças Periodontais/terapia , Feminino , Gengivite/diagnóstico , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/terapia , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Periodontite/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
7.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1110): 20200117, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207989

RESUMO

Among lesions with uncertain malignant potential found at percutaneous breast biopsy, atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) carries both the highest risk of underestimation and the closest and most pathologist-dependent differential diagnosis with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), matching the latter's features save for size only. ADH is therefore routinely surgically excised, but single-centre studies with limited sample size found low rates of upgrade to invasive cancer or DCIS. This suggests the possibility of surveillance over surgery in selected subgroups, considering the 2% threshold allowing for follow-up according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. A recent meta-analysis on 6458 lesions counters this approach, confirming that, surgically excised or managed with surveillance, ADH carries a 29% and 5% upgrade rate, respectively, invariably higher than 2% even in subgroups considering biopsy guidance and technique, needle calibre, apparent complete lesion removal. The high heterogeneity (I2 = 80%) found in this meta-analysis reaffirmed the need to synthesise evidence from systematic reviews to achieve generalisable results, fit for guidelines development. Limited tissue sampling at percutaneous biopsy intrinsically hampers the prediction of ADH-associated malignancy. This prediction could be improved by using contrast-enhanced breast imaging and applying artificial intelligence on both pathology and imaging results, allowing for overtreatment reduction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/cirurgia , Inteligência Artificial , Biópsia/métodos , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/métodos , Mama/cirurgia , Calcinose/patologia , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Conduta Expectante
8.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAE4799, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215466

RESUMO

The Brazilian Consensus on Nutrition in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Graft- versus -host disease was approved by Sociedade Brasileira de Transplante de Medula Óssea , with the participation of 26 Brazilian hematopoietic stem cell transplantation centers. It describes the main nutritional protocols in cases of Graft- versus -host disease, the main complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


Assuntos
Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/dietoterapia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Terapia Nutricional/normas , Necessidades Nutricionais , Brasil , Congressos como Assunto , Gastroenteropatias/dietoterapia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Leukemia ; 34(4): 966-984, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127639

RESUMO

The therapeutic landscape of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has profoundly changed over the past 7 years. Most patients with chronic phase (CP) now have a normal life expectancy. Another goal is achieving a stable deep molecular response (DMR) and discontinuing medication for treatment-free remission (TFR). The European LeukemiaNet convened an expert panel to critically evaluate and update the evidence to achieve these goals since its previous recommendations. First-line treatment is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI; imatinib brand or generic, dasatinib, nilotinib, and bosutinib are available first-line). Generic imatinib is the cost-effective initial treatment in CP. Various contraindications and side-effects of all TKIs should be considered. Patient risk status at diagnosis should be assessed with the new EUTOS long-term survival (ELTS)-score. Monitoring of response should be done by quantitative polymerase chain reaction whenever possible. A change of treatment is recommended when intolerance cannot be ameliorated or when molecular milestones are not reached. Greater than 10% BCR-ABL1 at 3 months indicates treatment failure when confirmed. Allogeneic transplantation continues to be a therapeutic option particularly for advanced phase CML. TKI treatment should be withheld during pregnancy. Treatment discontinuation may be considered in patients with durable DMR with the goal of achieving TFR.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Anilina/uso terapêutico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/mortalidade , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Monitorização Fisiológica , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 124(5): 479-486, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy is a potentially severe and lifelong allergy, with few effective treatments or preventive measures. OBJECTIVE: To convene an expert panel of allergists, pediatricians, and advocates to discuss and highlight unmet needs in the prevention and management of peanut allergies. METHODS: Literature searches of PubMed were performed. The panel evaluated published data on the prevention of peanut allergy, treatment of existing peanut allergy, and management of reactions after unintentional peanut exposures. RESULTS: The following key unmet needs in the prevention and management of peanut allergy were identified: (1) enhancing and optimizing implementation of early peanut introduction as a means of preventing the development of peanut allergy, (2) developing knowledge translation strategies regarding the safety and efficacy data for current and emerging immunotherapies for peanut-allergic children to support their use in clinical practice, and (3) promoting understanding of true exposure risk in allergic individuals and ensuring access to epinephrine for unintentional exposures that provoke severe reactions. Practitioners should help educate caregivers about the actual risks associated with peanut allergy and its prevention and management so that treatment decisions can be evidence based rather than fear based. Support tools are needed to help address caregiver goals, expectations, and psychological barriers, as well as identify facilitators for prevention and treatment strategies. CONCLUSION: There are significant unmet needs in our understanding of peanut allergy; addressing these needs will help to enhance understanding of how to most effectively prevent and treat peanut allergy, as well as educate the food-allergic and nonallergic community regarding current evidence-based practices.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Anafilaxia/prevenção & controle , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Cuidadores , Criança , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 50-52, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074188

RESUMO

Although headaches have recognized impact, there are no public policies in Brazil addressing this problem. The Brazilian Headache Society and the Brazilian Association of Cluster Headache and Migraine promoted a summit to discuss Public Policy and Advocacy for headache disorders. Professionals from various segments, representing various sectors of society, gathered in April 2019 in Brasília, defining the most important points for achieving advances in public policies in headache in Brazil, such as: inclusion in the chronic diseases surveillance agenda; improving public understanding and access to diagnosis and treatment; teaching in colleges and medical residences, structuring care networks, intervention models, clinical protocols and legislation supporting public policies in headache.


Assuntos
Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários/terapia , Política Pública , Brasil , Humanos
16.
Radiology ; 295(1): 35-41, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043946

RESUMO

Background When there are discordant results between individual readers interpreting screening mammograms, consensus by independent readers may reduce unnecessary recalls for further work-up. Few studies have looked at consensus outcomes following the introduction of full-field digital mammography (FFDM). Purpose To determine outcomes of women discussed at consensus meetings during a 5-year period after introduction of FFDM, including recall rates, cancer detection, and interval cancers. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study from January 2010 to December 2014, the authors reviewed all screening mammograms from a single unit of a biennial Irish national breast screening program after the introduction of FFDM. Screening mammograms were double reported. Abnormalities detected at discordant screening mammography readings were discussed at biweekly consensus meetings. Outcomes of consensus meetings were reviewed in terms of referral for assessment, biopsy rates, cancer detection, and outcomes from later rounds of screening. Statistical analysis was performed by using a χ2 test to compare recall rate and cancer detection rates between FFDM and screen-film mammography based on a previously published study from the authors' institution. Results A total of 2565 women (age range, 50-64 years) with discordant mammographic findings were discussed at consensus meetings. Of these 2565 women, 1037 (40%) were referred for further assessment; 108 cancers were detected in these women. Of the 1285 women who returned to biennial screening, malignancy was detected at the site of original concern in 12 women at a further round of screening. Three true interval cancers were identified. Sensitivity (88.5% [108 of 122]; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 81.5%, 93.6%) and negative predictive value (99.1% [1528 of 1542]; 95% CI: 98.5%, 99.4%) of consensus review remained stable after the introduction of FFDM. Specificity of consensus review increased from 57.6% (729 of 1264; 95% CI: 54.9%, 60.4%) to 62.2% (1528 of 2457; 95% CI: 60.2%, 64.1%) (P = .008). Conclusion Consensus review of discordant mammographic screening-detected abnormalities remains a valuable tool after introduction of full-field digital mammography as it reduces recall for assessment and demonstrates persistently high sensitivity and negative predictive values. © RSNA, 2020 See also the editorial by Hofvind and Lee in this issue.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Mamografia , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Am Osteopath Assoc ; 120(1): 35-44, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904773

RESUMO

Background: Osteopathic distinctiveness is a result of professional education, identity formation, training, credentialing, and qualifications. With the advancement of a single graduate medical education (GME) accreditation system and the continued growth of the osteopathic medical profession, osteopathic distinctiveness and professional identity are seen as lacking clarity and pose a challenge. Summit: To achieve consensus on a succinct definition of osteopathic distinctiveness and to identify steps to more clearly define and advance that distinctiveness, particularly in professional self-regulation, a representative group of osteopathic medical students, residents, physicians, and members of the licensing, GME, and undergraduate medical education (UME) communities convened the 2019 United States Osteopathic Medical Regulatory Summit in February 2019. Key features of osteopathic distinctiveness were discussed. Growth in the profession; changes in health care delivery, technology, and demographics within the profession and patient communities; and associated challenges and opportunities for osteopathic medical practice and patients were considered. Consensus: Osteopathic medicine is a distinctive practice that brings unique, added value to patients, the public, and the health care community at large. A universal definition and common understanding of that distinctiveness is lacking. Efforts to unify messaging that defines osteopathic distinctiveness, to align the distinctive elements of osteopathic medical education and professional self-regulation across a continuum, and to advance research on care and educational program outcomes are critical to the future of the osteopathic medical profession. Recommendations: (1) Convene a task force of groups represented at the Summit to develop a succinct and consistent message defining osteopathic distinctiveness. (2) Demonstrate uniqueness of the profession through research demonstrating efficacy of care and patient outcomes, adding to the public good. (3) Harmonize GME and UME by beginning to align entrustable professional activities with UME milestones. (4) Convene representatives from osteopathic specialty colleges and certification boards to define curricular elements across GME, certification, and osteopathic continuous certification. (5) Build on the Project in Osteopathic Medical Education and Empathy study.


Assuntos
Acreditação/normas , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/normas , Medicina Osteopática/organização & administração , Medicina Osteopática/normas , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Humanos , Estados Unidos
18.
Am Heart J ; 219: 1-8, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707323
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