Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.210
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229645, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119705

RESUMO

Solid-state drives (SSDs) that do not have internal dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) are being widely spread for client SSD and embedded SSD markets in recent years because they are cheap and consume less power. Obviously, their performance is lower than conventional SSDs because they cannot exploit advantages of DRAM in the controller. However, this problem can be alleviated by using host memory buffer (HMB) feature of Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe), which allows SSDs to utilize the DRAM of host. In this paper, we show that commercial DRAM-less SSDs clearly exhibit worse I/O performance than SSDs with internal DRAM, but this can be improved by using the HMB feature. We also present methods that reveal how the host memory buffer is used in commercial DRAM-less SSDs to improve I/O performance. Through extensive experiments, we conclude that DRAM-less SSDs evaluated in this study mainly exploit the host memory buffer as an address mapping table cache rather than a read cache or write buffer to improve I/O performance.


Assuntos
Periféricos de Computador/tendências , Dispositivos de Armazenamento em Computador/tendências , Computadores/tendências , Algoritmos , Periféricos de Computador/economia , Periféricos de Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos de Armazenamento em Computador/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910214

RESUMO

The number of people who use computers for business and personal purposes increases as technology grows. The application of ergonomic practices on computer workstations reduces the musculoskeletal discomfort experienced and increases the overall satisfaction of the users. Keyboards are available in various systems, from computers to mobile devices, and have difference shapes and sizes. The keyboard size and shape is known to influence the user's upper extremities. Alternative keyboard designs help diminish the pain in the arms that occurs due to awkward arm postures. Most previous studies tried to optimize the keyboard layout based on ergonomic typing and the frequency of letters' co-occurrence. This research considers the frequency of the appearance of the most used 3,000 words in the English language. First, the frequency of each letter pair is calculated by the Text Analyzer. Then, a genetic algorithm is applied to design an ergonomically optimized keyboard to minimize the total distance of finger travel among the selected alphanumeric characters. The results showed that the distance travelled obtained by the proposed keyboard layout is less than that for the QWERTY keyboard in all different types of texts, in which an average of 6.04% improvement was achieved. Therefore, the proposed design can be used for keyboards to reduce time and fatigue.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Periféricos de Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Ergonomia/instrumentação , Modelos Estatísticos , Postura/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Idioma
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(6): 406, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152251

RESUMO

Camera traps are becoming ubiquitous tools for ecologists. While easily deployed, they require human time to organize, review, and classify images including sequences of images of the same individual, and non-target images triggered by environmental conditions. For such cases, we developed an automated computer program, named EventFinder, to reduce operator time by pre-processing and classifying images using background subtraction techniques and color histogram comparisons. We tested the accuracy of the program against images previously classified by a human operator. The automated classification, on average, reduced the data requiring human input by 90.8% with an accuracy of 96.1%, and produced a false positive rate of only 3.4%. Thus, EventFinder provides an efficient method for reducing the time for human operators to review and classify images making camera trap projects, which compile a large number of images, less costly to process. Our testing process used medium to large animals, but will also work with smaller animals, provided their images occupy a sufficient area of the frame. While our discussion focuses on camera trap image reduction, we also discuss how EventFinder might be used in conjunction with other software developments for managing camera trap data.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Alberta , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Periféricos de Computador , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Software
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(9)2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052155

RESUMO

Typing skills are important in the digital information society of this generation. As a method to improve typing speed, in this study, we focused on the training of touch typing that enables typing a key without looking at the keyboard. For support of touch-typing training, it is efficient to apply a penalty if a learner looks at the keyboard; however, to realize the penalty method, the computer needs to be able to recognize whether the learner looked at the keyboard. We, therefore, proposed a method to detect a learner's eye gaze, namely, using eyewear to detect whether the learner looked at the keyboard, and then evaluating the detection accuracy of our proposed method. We examined the necessity for our system by analyzing the relationship between a learner's eye gaze and touch-typing skills.


Assuntos
Computadores , Fixação Ocular , Aprendizagem , Interface Usuário-Computador , Periféricos de Computador , Humanos
5.
Appl Ergon ; 78: 197-209, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046951

RESUMO

Establishing the best layout configuration for software-generated interfaces and control panels is a complex problem when they include many controls and indicators. Several methods have been developed for arranging the interface elements; however, the results are usually conceptual designs that must be manually adjusted to obtain layouts valid for real situations. Based on these considerations, in this work we propose a new automatized procedure to obtain optimal layouts for software-based interfaces. Eye-tracking and mouse-tracking data collected during the use of the interface is used to obtain the best configuration for its elements. The solutions are generated using a slicing-trees based genetic algorithm. This algorithm is able to obtain really applicable configurations that respect the geometrical restrictions of elements in the interface. Results show that this procedure increases effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of the users when they interact with the obtained interfaces.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Periféricos de Computador , Apresentação de Dados , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Humanos
6.
J Vis Exp ; (146)2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058886

RESUMO

As rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens continue to rise, outpacing the development of new antimicrobials, novel approaches to treatment of MDR bacteria are increasingly becoming a necessity. One such approach is combination therapy, in which two or more antibiotics are used together to treat an infection against which one or both of the drugs may be ineffective alone. When two drugs, in combination, exert a greater than additive effect, they are considered synergistic. In vitro investigation of synergistic activity is an important first step in evaluating the possible efficacy of drug combinations. Two main in vitro synergy testing methods have been developed: the checkerboard array and the time-kill study. In this paper, we present an automated checkerboard array method that makes use of inkjet printing technology to increase the efficiency and accuracy of this technique, as well as a standard manual time-kill synergy method. The automated checkerboard array can serve as a high-throughput screening assay, while the manual time-kill study provides additional, complementary data on synergistic activity and killing. The checkerboard array is a modification of standard minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing, in which bacteria are incubated with antibiotics at different concentration combinations and evaluated for growth inhibition after overnight incubation. Manual performance of the checkerboard array requires a laborious and error-prone series of calculations and dilutions. In the automated method presented here, the calculation and dispensing of required antibiotic stock solution volumes are automated through the use of inkjet printer technology. In the time-kill synergy assay, bacteria are incubated with the antibiotics of interest, both together and individually, and sampled at intervals over the course of 24 h for quantitative culture. The results can determine whether a combination is synergistic and whether it is bactericidal, and provide data on inhibition and killing of bacteria over time.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Periféricos de Computador , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/instrumentação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Tempo
7.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(7): 502-509, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: It has often been suggested that screen work (ie, work on desktop, laptop, notebook or tablet computers) is a risk factor for neck and upper extremity symptoms. However, an up-to-date overview and quantification of evidence are lacking. We aimed to systematically review the association of exposure to screen work with neck and upper extremity symptoms from prospective studies. METHODS: An electronic database search (PubMed, Embase, Cinahl and Scopus) for prospective studies on the association of exposure to screen work and musculoskeletal symptoms was conducted. Studies were synthesised regarding extracted data and risk of bias, and meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS: After screening 3423 unique references, 19 articles from 12 studies (with 18 538 participants) were included for the current review, with the most recent exposure assessment reported in 2005. Studies described duration and input frequency of screen work (ie, computer, keyboard and mouse use, assessed using self-reports or software recordings) and musculoskeletal symptoms (ie, self-reported neck/shoulder and distal upper extremity symptoms and diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome [CTS]). Although there was overall an increased occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms with larger exposure to screen work (relative risk: 1.11 [1.03 1.19]), findings were rather inconsistent with weaker (and statistically non-significant) risks when screen work was assessed by software recording (1.05 [0.91 1.21]) compared to with self-report (1.14 [1.03 1.19]). CONCLUSIONS: We found an increased risk of musculoskeletal symptoms with screen work. However, the evidence is heterogeneous, and it is striking that it lacks information from contemporary screen work using laptop, notebook or tablet computers.


Assuntos
Computadores , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/epidemiologia , Periféricos de Computador , Computadores de Mão , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia
8.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e026437, 2019 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent and type of microbial contamination of computer peripheral devices used in healthcare settings, evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce contamination of these devices and establish the risk of patient and healthcare worker infection from contaminated devices. DESIGN: Systematic review METHODS: We searched four online databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase and Scopus for articles reporting primary data collection on contamination of computer-related equipment (including keyboards, mice, laptops and tablets) and/or studies demonstrating the effectiveness of a disinfection technique. Pooling of contamination rates was conducted where possible, and narrative synthesis was used to describe the rates of device contamination, types of bacterial and viral contamination, effectiveness of interventions and any associations between device contamination and human infections. RESULTS: Of the 4432 records identified, a total of 75 studies involving 2804 computer devices were included. Of these, 50 studies reported contamination of computer-related hardware, and 25 also measured the effects of a decontamination intervention. The overall proportion of contamination ranged from 24% to 100%. The most common microbial contaminants were skin commensals, but also included potential pathogens including methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus, Clostridiumdifficile, vancomycin-resistantenterococci and Escherichia coli. Interventions demonstrating effective decontamination included wipes/pads using isopropyl alcohol, quaternary ammonium, chlorhexidine or dipotassium peroxodisulfate, ultraviolet light emitting devices, enhanced cleaning protocols and chlorine/bleach products. However, results were inconsistent, and there was insufficient data to demonstrate comparative effectiveness. We found little evidence on the link between device contamination and patient/healthcare worker colonisation or infection. CONCLUSIONS: Computer keyboards and peripheral devices are frequently contaminated; however, our findings do not allow us to draw firm conclusions about their relative impact on the transmission of pathogens or nosocomial infection. Additional studies measuring the incidence of healthcare-acquired infections from computer hardware, the relative risk they pose to healthcare and evidence for effective and practical cleaning methods are needed.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Periféricos de Computador , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfecção/métodos , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos
9.
J Appl Biomech ; 35(2): 149-156, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676185

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of 4 micro-travel keyboards on forearm muscle activity, typing force, typing performance, and self-reported discomfort and difficulty. A total of 20 participants completed typing tasks on 4 commercially available devices with different key switch characteristics (dome, scissors, and butterfly) and key travels (0.55, 1.3, and 1.6 mm). The device with short-travel (0.55 mm) and a dome-type key switch mechanism was associated with higher muscle activities (6%-8%, P < .01), higher typing force (12%, P < .01), slower typing speeds (8%, P < .01), and twice as much discomfort (P < .05), compared with the other 3 devices: short-travel (0.55 mm) and butterfly switch design and long travel (1.3 and 1.6 mm) with scissor key switches. Participants rated the devices with larger travels (1.3 and 1.6 mm) with least discomfort (P = .02) and difficulty (P < .01). When stratified by sex/gender, these observed associations were larger and more significant in the female participants compared with male participants. The devices with similar travel but different key switch designs had difference in outcomes and devices with different travel were sometimes not different. The results suggest that key travel alone does not predict typing force or muscle activity.


Assuntos
Periféricos de Computador , Ergonomia , Antebraço/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Dedos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Adulto Jovem
10.
Appl Ergon ; 74: 10-16, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487088

RESUMO

This study investigated the relative impact of ultra-low travel keyboards on typing force, muscle activity, wrist posture, typing performance, and self-reported comfort/preference as compared to a conventional keyboard. In a repeated-measures laboratory-based study, 20 subjects were invited to type for 10 min on each of five keyboards with different travel distances of 0.5, 0.7, 1.2, 1.6 (ultra-low travel keyboards), and 2.0 mm (a conventional keyboard). During the typing sessions, we measured typing force; muscle activity in extrinsic finger muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis and extensor digitorum communis), shoulder (trapezius) and neck (splenius capitis); wrist posture; typing performance; and self-reported comfort/preference. While using the ultra-low travel keyboards, subjects typed with less force and wrist extension, and had more ulnar deviation (p's < 0.0001) compared with conventional keyboard. However, these differences in typing forces were less than 0.5 N and less than 4° for both wrist extension and ulnar deviation. The general trend of data did not show any consistent or substantial differences in muscle activity (less than 2 %MVC) and typing performance (<5 WPM in speed; < 3% in accuracy), despite the observed statistical difference in the finger flexors and extensors muscle activity (p's < 0.19) and typing performance (p < 0.0001). However, the subjects preferred using conventional keyboards in most of the investigated self-reported comfort and preference criteria (p's < 0.4). In conclusion, these small differences indicate that using ultra-low travel keyboards may not have substantial differences in biomechanical exposures and typing performance compared to conventional keyboard; however, the subjective responses indicated that the ultra-low keyboards with the shortest key travel tended to be the least preferred.


Assuntos
Periféricos de Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Ergonomia , Postura , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Dedos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Autorrelato , Punho/fisiologia
11.
IEEE Trans Haptics ; 12(1): 18-33, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106740

RESUMO

We present a novel input/output device to display the tactile properties of surface materials. The proposed Tactile Computer Mouse (TCM) is equipped with a series of actuators that can create perceptually relevant tactile cues to a user. The display capabilities of our TCM match the major tactile dimensions in human surface material perception, namely, hardness, friction, warmth, microscopic roughness, and macroscopic roughness. The TCM also preserves necessary interaction capabilities of a typical computer mouse. In addition to the TCM design, we introduce data acquisition procedures and concepts that are necessary to derive a parametric representation of a surface material and further demonstrate the corresponding rendering approach on the TCM. We conducted subjective experiments to determine tactile property ratings of real materials, perceived property ratings using the TCM, and how precisely subjects match the real materials to corresponding virtual material representations using the TCM in the absence of visual and audible clues. Our experimental results show that our TCM successfully displays the five fundamental tactile dimensions and that the twenty participants were able to perceive the TCM-produced virtual surface material tactile sensations with a recognition rate of 89.6 percent for ten different materials.


Assuntos
Periféricos de Computador , Percepção do Tato , Interface Usuário-Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Propriedades de Superfície , Tato
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD008570, 2018 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Work-related upper limb and neck musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the most common occupational disorders worldwide. Studies have shown that the percentage of office workers that suffer from MSDs ranges from 20 to 60 per cent. The direct and indirect costs of work-related upper limb MSDs have been reported to be high in Europe, Australia, and the United States. Although ergonomic interventions are likely to reduce the risk of office workers developing work-related upper limb and neck MSDs, the evidence is unclear. This is an update of a Cochrane Review which was last published in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of physical, cognitive and organisational ergonomic interventions, or combinations of those interventions for the prevention of work-related upper limb and neck MSDs among office workers. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science (Science Citation Index), SPORTDiscus, Embase, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health database, and the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, to 10 October 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of ergonomic interventions for preventing work-related upper limb or neck MSDs (or both) among office workers. We only included studies where the baseline prevalence of MSDs of the upper limb or neck, or both, was less than 25%. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We included studies with relevant data that we judged to be sufficiently homogeneous regarding the interventions and outcomes in the meta-analysis. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence for each comparison using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 RCTs (2165 workers). We judged one study to have a low risk of bias and the remaining 14 studies to have a high risk of bias due to small numbers of participants and the potential for selection bias.Physical ergonomic interventionsThere is inconsistent evidence for arm supports and alternative computer mouse designs. There is moderate-quality evidence that an arm support with an alternative computer mouse (two studies) reduced the incidence of neck or shoulder MSDs (risk ratio (RR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27 to 0.99), but not the incidence of right upper limb MSDs (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.32 to 1.66); and low-quality evidence that this intervention reduced neck or shoulder discomfort (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.41; 95% CI -0.69 to -0.12) and right upper limb discomfort (SMD -0.34; 95% CI -0.63 to -0.06).There is moderate-quality evidence that the incidence of neck or shoulder and right upper limb disorders were not considerably reduced when comparing an alternative computer mouse and a conventional mouse (two studies; neck or shoulder: RR 0.62; 95% CI 0.19 to 2.00; right upper limb: RR 0.91; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.72), and also when comparing an arm support with a conventional mouse and a conventional mouse alone (two studies) (neck or shoulder: RR 0.91; 95% CI 0.12 to 6.98; right upper limb: RR 1.07; 95% CI 0.58 to 1.96).Workstation adjustment (one study) and sit-stand desks (one study) did not have an effect on upper limb pain or discomfort, compared to no intervention.Organisational ergonomic interventionsThere is very low-quality evidence that supplementary breaks (two studies) reduce discomfort of the neck (MD -0.25; 95% CI -0.40 to -0.11), right shoulder or upper arm (MD -0.33; 95% CI -0.46 to -0.19), and right forearm or wrist or hand (MD -0.18; 95% CI -0.29 to -0.08) among data entry workers.Training in ergonomic interventionsThere is low to very low-quality evidence in five studies that participatory and active training interventions may or may not prevent work-related MSDs of the upper limb or neck or both.Multifaceted ergonomic interventionsFor multifaceted interventions there is one study (very low-quality evidence) that showed no effect on any of the six upper limb pain outcomes measured in that study. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found inconsistent evidence that the use of an arm support or an alternative mouse may or may not reduce the incidence of neck or shoulder MSDs. For other physical ergonomic interventions there is no evidence of an effect. For organisational interventions, in the form of supplementary breaks, there is very low-quality evidence of an effect on upper limb discomfort. For training and multifaceted interventions there is no evidence of an effect on upper limb pain or discomfort. Further high-quality studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of these interventions among office workers.


Assuntos
Ergonomia/métodos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/prevenção & controle , Pescoço , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Extremidade Superior , Adulto , Periféricos de Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Descanso
13.
Forensic Sci Int ; 291: 216-229, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241096

RESUMO

This article focuses on dynamic signatures and their features. It provides a detailed and critical review of dynamic feature variations and circumstantial parameters affecting dynamic signatures. The state of the art summarizes available knowledge, meant to assist the forensic practitioner in cases presenting extraordinary writing conditions. The studied parameters include hardware-related issues, aging and the influence of time, as well as physical and mental states of the writer. Some parameters, such as drug and alcohol abuse or medication, have very strong effects on handwriting and signature dynamics. Other conditions such as the writer's posture and fatigue have been found to affect feature variation less severely. The need for further research about the influence of these parameters, as well as handwriting dynamics in general is highlighted. These factors are relevant to the examiner in the assessment of the probative value of the reported features. Additionally, methodology for forensic examination of dynamic signatures is discussed. Available methodology and procedures are reviewed, while pointing out major technical and methodological advances in the field of forensic handwriting examination. The need for sharing the best practice manuals, standard operating procedures and methodologies to favor further progress is accentuated.


Assuntos
Ciências Forenses , Escrita Manual , Envelhecimento , Disfunção Cognitiva , Periféricos de Computador , Fadiga , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Postura , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
Ergonomics ; 61(11): 1519-1529, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856276

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the touch characteristics during tapping tasks on membrane touch interface and investigate the effects of posture and gender on touch characteristics variables. One hundred participants tapped digits displayed on a membrane touch interface on sitting and standing positions using all fingers of the dominant hand. Touch characteristics measures included average force, contact area and dwell time. Across fingers and postures, males exerted larger force and contact area than females, but similar dwell time. Across genders and postures, thumb exerted the largest force and the force of the other four fingers showed no significant difference. The contact area of the thumb was the largest, whereas that of the little finger was the smallest; the dwell time of the thumb was the longest, whereas that of the middle finger was the shortest. Relationships among finger sizes, gender, posture and touch characteristics were proposed. The findings helped direct membrane touch interface design for digital and numerical control products from hardware and software perspectives. Practitioner Summary: This study measured force, contact area and dwell time in tapping tasks on membrane touch interface and examined effects of gender and posture on force, contact area and dwell time. The findings will direct membrane touch interface design for digital and numerical control products from hardware and software perspectives. Abbreviations: M: mean; SD: standard deviation; ISO: International Organization for Standardization; LCD: liquid crystal display; ANOVA: analysis of variance; ANSI: American National Standards Institute; HFES: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.


Assuntos
Dedos/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Tato , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Periféricos de Computador , Ergonomia , Feminino , Dedos/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina ; 49(5): 346-354, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29772045

RESUMO

Electronic displays have become an integral part of life in the developed world since the revolution of mobile computing a decade ago. With the release of multiple consumer-grade virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) products in the past 2 years utilizing head-mounted displays (HMDs), as well as the development of low-cost, smartphone-based HMDs, the ability to intimately interact with electronic screens is greater than ever. VR/AR HMDs also place the display at much closer ocular proximity than traditional electronic devices while also isolating the user from the ambient environment to create a "closed" system between the user's eyes and the display. Whether the increased interaction with these devices places the user's retina at higher risk of damage is currently unclear. Herein, the authors review the discovery of photochemical damage of the retina from visible light as well as summarize relevant clinical and preclinical data regarding the influence of modern display devices on retinal health. Multiple preclinical studies have been performed with modern light-emitting diode technology demonstrating damage to the retina at modest exposure levels, particularly from blue-light wavelengths. Unfortunately, high-quality in-human studies are lacking, and the small clinical investigations performed to date have failed to keep pace with the rapid evolutions in display technology. Clinical investigations assessing the effect of HMDs on human retinal function are also yet to be performed. From the available data, modern consumer electronic displays do not appear to pose any acute risk to vision with average use; however, future studies with well-defined clinical outcomes and illuminance metrics are needed to better understand the long-term risks of cumulative exposure to electronic displays in general and with "closed" VR/AR HMDs in particular. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:346-354.].


Assuntos
Periféricos de Computador , Olho/efeitos da radiação , Luz/efeitos adversos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Humanos
16.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 17(7): 605-611, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29546995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of wrist-worn activity monitors has increased over the past few years; however, the use of the Fitbit® Charge HR (FCHR) in a community setting in patients with heart failure has not been tested. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility, practicality and acceptability of utilizing the FCHR to validate self-reported exercise diaries and monitor exercise in community dwelling patients with heart failure. METHODS: Thirty heart failure patients (12 females and 18 males) aged 64.7 ± 11.5 years were provided with a FCHR. Participants were provided with an exercise routine and for eight weeks, recorded their exercise sessions in self-reported exercise diaries and used the FCHR to record those exercise sessions. RESULTS: Exercise data from the self-reported exercise diaries were validated with data from the FCHR. Participants' perception and acceptance of using the FCHR was positive. Validation of exercise and physical activity interventions using the FCHR appears feasible and acceptable in patients with heart failure. CONCLUSION: Wrist-worn activity monitors can be useful for objective measurement of exercise adherence and monitoring of physical activity in patients with heart failure in a community setting.


Assuntos
Periféricos de Computador , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/reabilitação , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Procurador/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato
17.
Behav Res Methods ; 50(6): 2523-2530, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520633

RESUMO

The development of a touchscreen platform for rodent testing has allowed new methods for cognitive testing that have been back-translated from clinical assessment tools to preclinical animal models. This platform for cognitive assessment in animals is comparable to human neuropsychological tests such as those employed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, and thus has several advantages compared to the standard maze apparatuses typically employed in rodent behavioral testing, such as the Morris water maze. These include improved translation of preclinical models, as well as high throughput and the automation of animal testing. However, these systems are relatively expensive, which can impede progress for researchers with limited resources. Here we describe a low-cost touchscreen operant chamber based on the single-board computer, Raspberry PiTM, which is capable of performing tasks similar to those supported by current state-of-the-art systems. This system provides an affordable alternative for cognitive testing in a touchscreen operant paradigm for researchers with limited funding.


Assuntos
Computadores , Condicionamento Operante , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Animais , Periféricos de Computador , Roedores , Software
18.
Rev Infirm ; 67(237): 49-50, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29331197

RESUMO

Emilia is a young woman admitted to the hospital for pyelonephritis. Sophie finds out, from the morning reports about her, that she stays awake very late every night watching television or chatting on her mobile phone.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comunicação , Apresentação de Dados , Barreiras de Comunicação , Periféricos de Computador , Apresentação de Dados/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Idioma , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Televisão , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Surg Orthop Adv ; 27(4): 281-285, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777827

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of microbial contamination of surfaces in the operating room (OR) and to understand the relationship between time and location of contamination. Five OR surfaces were sampled at two time points on three consecutive Mondays and Thursdays. Each sample was cultured on a blood agar plate and introduced to a liquid nutrient broth. The most sterile surface was the OR lights with only one positive growth sample at each time. At both times, the most commonly contaminated surface was the staff keyboard. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus was the most common isolated species. Contamination rate of OR surfaces was not affected by time of day or day of the week. Simple cleaning and daily decontamination of staff keyboards can significantly reduce bacterial burdens and should be of primary importance to optimize OR sterility. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 27(4):281-285, 2018).


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Fômites/microbiologia , Salas Cirúrgicas , Periféricos de Computador , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Am J Infect Control ; 46(4): 474-476, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129271

RESUMO

Computer keyboards may contribute to patient infections. We cultured new keyboards, with/without keyboard covers, before placing them in adult inpatient rooms and recultured after 6 months. Nonpathogenic bacteria were present initially but potentially pathogenic bacteria were cultured only after use. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus colonization increased after use (P < .001). Keyboards with a cover had more potentially pathogenic bacteria (22% vs 16%), which although not significant statistically (P = .72), likely due to sample size, trended against covers offering protection.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Periféricos de Computador , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Pacientes Internados , Desenho de Equipamento , Fômites , Hospitais , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA