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1.
Mikrochim Acta ; 186(7): 483, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250112

RESUMO

A one-pot hydrothermal method was developed for the synthesis of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs). It is making use of toner waste as the precursor and H2O2 as the oxidant. Synthesis takes 4 h and does not require strong acids or complex purification steps and does not produce environmentally harmful metal ions. The GOQDs display blue fluorescence with excitation/emission maxima at 340/445 nm. The feasibility of detecting specific DNA sequence was promoted using polyethyleneimine to modify the GOQDs surface. A method was developed to recognized a specific DNA sequence. This is based on electrostatic aggregation of GOQDs and ssDNA labeled with Dabcyl at the 3' end, which promotes fluorescence quenching of GOQDs. The possible fluorescence quenching mechanism (which is mainly dynamic) was investigated using the Stern-Volmer equation. When a target sequence was added, which is complementary to the ssDNA, the dabcyl-labeled ssDNA is released due to strict complementary base pairing. This promotes fluorescence recovery of GOQDs. The assay has a 0.17 nM detection limit and a linear range of 0.5-30 nM. The method was used to quantify specific DNA sequences from extracts of genetically modified plant tissues. Graphical abstract Graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) were synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal method using waste toner, and the surface was modified by polyethyleneimine (PEI). Through the interaction of PEI-GOQDs with Dabcyl-DNA single strands to dynamically quench the fluorescence of GOQDs. Based on DNA hybridization technology, we established specific DNA sequence detection nanoprobe.


Assuntos
DNA de Cadeia Simples/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Grafite/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Processos de Cópia , Sondas de DNA/química , Sondas de DNA/genética , DNA de Cadeia Simples/química , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Limite de Detecção , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Plantas/química , Polietilenoimina/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Resíduos
2.
Med Pr ; 70(4): 403-410, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The photocopying occupation contributes to various health issues in workers. Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been found to be associated with respiratory problems in occupational workers. The intention of the current research is to evaluate the association between the pulmonary function parameters, a biomarker of oxidative stress, and the photocopying occupation in Lahore, Pakistan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed on a group of photocopying operators (N = 100) and a control group (N = 100). A structured questionnaire was developed to gather the demographic attributes. Lung function testing was done with the spirometer. The blood lipid peroxides level, as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), was assessed spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: A statistically significant reduction was found in the pulmonary function parameters as compared to the control group. In the study group, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, including cough (31%), sneezing (18%), wheezing (9%) and breathing issues (19%), was high as compared to the control group. A significantly higher plasma TBARS concentration was observed in the photocopying workers. A negative correlation prevailed between FVC (-0.081), FVC% predicted (-0.038) and FEV1 (-0.043), and the duration of exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the occupational exposure could have a significant effect on the normal pulmonary function and the oxidative potential of well-being. The profound emissions in the vicinity of photocopying centers may be responsible for the variations in the pulmonary function parameters and oxidative stress. Med Pr. 2019;70(4):403-10.


Assuntos
Processos de Cópia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Paquistão , Espirometria , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise , Adulto Jovem
3.
Environ Geochem Health ; 41(3): 1187-1211, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350125

RESUMO

"Knowledge is power" and distribution of knowledge is fueled by printing and photocopying industry. Even as printing and photocopying industry have revolutionized the availability of documents and perceptible image quickly at extremely inexpensive and affordable cost, the boon of its revolution has turned into a bane by irresponsible, uncontrolled and extensive use, causing irreversible degradation to not only ecosystem by continuous release of ozone and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) but also the health of workers occupationally exposed to it. Indoor ozone level due to emission from different photocopying equipment's increases drastically and the condition of other air quality parameters are not different. This situation is particularly sedate in extremely sensitive educational and research industry where sharing of knowledge is extremely important to meet the demands. This work is an attempt to catalogue all the environmental as well as health impacts of printing or photocopying. It has been observed that printing/photocopying operation is a significant factor contributing to indoor air quality degradation, which includes increase in concentration of ozone, VOCs, semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and heavy metals such as cadmium, selenium, arsenic, zinc, nickel, and other pollutants from photocopy machines. The outcome of this study will empower the manufactures with information regarding ozone and other significant emission, so that their impact can be reduced.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Processos de Cópia/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Impressão/métodos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ergonomia , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
5.
Nurs Res ; 67(2): 74-80, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489628

RESUMO

OVERVIEW: Two influential publications in nursing, Nursing Research and Perspectives on Nursing Theory, are used to illustrate how a specific technology change-the invention and marketing of the photocopier-influenced knowledge dissemination and information utilization in nursing, perhaps in ways not immediately apparent. METHODS: Content analysis and historical comparison, using editorials from Nursing Research, historical reports on technology development, and personal reflections on the genesis of Perspectives on Nursing Theory are used to create an argument for the role of technology in peer review, information utilization, and knowledge development in nursing. CONCLUSION: Multiple forces influence nursing science. Scholars should be alert to data inputs from many sources and respond accordingly.


Assuntos
Processos de Cópia/história , Invenções , Teoria de Enfermagem , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares/tendências , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Pesquisa em Enfermagem
6.
Urology ; 114: 41-44, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29371161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test whether duplicate imaging relates to a lack of information sharing among providers, we measured the association between emergency department (ED) switching during a kidney stone episode and receipt of a repeat computed tomography (CT) scan. METHODS: Using the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database, we identified adults between the ages 18 and 64 with an ED visit for a diagnosis of kidney stones. Among patients who had an abdominal or pelvic CT scan at their initial encounter, we then determined the subset that made an ED revisit within 30 days of their first, distinguishing between those to the same vs a different ED. Finally, we fit multivariable logistic regression models to estimate the risk of receiving a repeat CT scan associated with ED switching. RESULTS: Twelve percent of patients who received a CT scan at their initial ED encounter had a revisit within 30 days of discharge. One-third of their revisits were made to a different ED than the index one. Duplicate CT scans were obtained at nearly 40% of all revisits. On multivariable analysis, the risk of receiving a repeat CT was 12% higher if this revisit was made to a different ED (risk ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.21; P = .010). CONCLUSION: Our study reveals that ED switching during an acute kidney stone episode is associated with higher levels of repeat CT imaging. These findings support the role of better health information exchange among providers to help reduce waste in the health-care system.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Desnecessários/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Processos de Cópia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 37(2): 205-217, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233006

RESUMO

Photocopier machines are inevitable office equipment, but they are also sources of air pollution. Millions of people across the world are involved in the operation and maintenance of photocopiers. We aimed to evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of exposure to photocopiers in photocopier operators and maintenance personnel by Comet assay. This study involved 50 photocopier operators, 61 maintenance personnel and 52 controls. Both the photocopier exposed groups exhibited significantly increased DNA damage when compared to controls. Cumulative exposure to photocopiers was the most significant contributor for genotoxicity ( p < 0.001). Genotoxicity among photocopier maintenance personnel may be due to the presence of carbon black, iron, silicon, magnetite and the high levels of other elements in the photocopier toners. Genotoxicity among photocopier operators might be due to exposure to high levels of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds emitted by photocopiers during operation. Research is essential to improve toner manufacturing processes and chemical composition of toners to reduce genotoxicity. Clean technologies are the need of the day to cut down on particulate matter and volatile organic compound emissions from photocopiers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Processos de Cópia , Dano ao DNA , Tinta , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Impressão , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio Cometa , Monitoramento Ambiental , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Silício/efeitos adversos , Fuligem/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Arch Environ Occup Health ; 73(3): 169-175, 2018 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29116891

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to measure the concentration of carbon black and BTEXs at three photocopy centers and to assess the health risk following exposure. Air samples were collected by sampling in the breathing zone of workers during the class and examination periods. The results found that the concentration of carbon black before operation was higher than morning and afternoon in both class and examination periods. These levels are considerably lower than the suggested limited value set by OSHA. Toluene had the highest concentration but did not exceed of recommended exposure limit by NIOSH. The carbon black and toluene concentrations were higher in examination period than during the normal class period. The results from interview indicate that cough and sneeze are the highest symptom among workers. Carbon black and toluene concentrations in photocopy centers should be concerned in terms of indoor air quality and human health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Processos de Cópia , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fuligem/análise , Adulto , Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Risco , Estireno/análise , Tailândia , Tolueno/análise , Xilenos/análise
9.
Top Stroke Rehabil ; 25(1): 28-36, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934907

RESUMO

Background Through the concept of ageism, we highlight and explain how the society prejudices the elderly. WHO classifies 12 most common stereotypes pertaining to old age. Elderly people are being excluded from social life due to their chronological age rather than any actual reduced physical and/or mental ability. Some of these stereotypes are directly related to the (un)willingness and the ability of the elderly to use technology in everyday life. Objectives The study presented in this article aims to explain the phenomenon of technology use among elderly people who had had a stroke. Method A qualitative study, namely a qualitative content analysis, was performed. Six in-depth interviews with older people who have suffered a stroke were conducted and explored their views on the daily use of technology. Results All older people included in this study used different technologies, which have been divided into technologies that support mobility, technologies for personal care, technologies that support household chores, and technologies for maintaining a social network. An elderly person's attitude toward the use of technology is connected to their social network and assistance from professional staff, as well as the severity of their physical disability. We have found that using various technologies, elderly people are developing various coping strategies. Conclusions After a stroke, a certain degree of physical deterioration can be expected. Nonetheless, our participants managed to compensate for this also with the help of assistive devices and technologies, which negates the myth of simply "surrendering" to the aging process.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Atividades Cotidianas , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Processos de Cópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia
10.
Radiography (Lond) ; 23(4): e103-e107, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965903

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Radiography provides many advantages in the diagnosis and management of dental conditions. However, dental X-ray images may be subject to manipulation with malicious intent using easily accessible computer software. METHODS: In this study, we sought to evaluate a dentist's ability to identify a manipulated dental X-ray images, when compared with the original, using a variant of the methodology described by Visser and Kruger. Sixty-six dentists were invited to participate and evaluate 20 intraoral dental X-ray images, 10 originals and 10 modified, manipulated using Adobe Photoshop to simulate fillings, root canal treatments, etc. RESULTS: Participating dentists were correct in identifying the manipulated image in 56% of cases, 6% higher than by chance and 10% more than in the study by Visser and Kruger. CONCLUSION: Malicious changes to dental X-ray images may go unnoticed even by experienced dentists. Professionals must be aware of the legal consequences of such changes. A system of detection/validation should be created for radiographic images.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Fraude , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radiografia Dentária Digital , Segurança Computacional , Processos de Cópia , Humanos , Software
11.
J Med Syst ; 41(9): 130, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28744599

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to analyze pistol and compact rifle marksmanship in close quarter combat (CQC). There is currently a controversy about what weapon is most appropriate to use in CQC, short weapon as pistols or long weapons as rifle. Forty two participants conducted two close quarter combat simulations, one with pistol and one with compact rifle. Marksmanship and time to cover the simulation were measured. Data obtained showed no significant differences between pistol and compact rifle. In addition, it was observed a tendency to obtain higher scores with compact rifle, probably be due to the higher stability provided in the shot action. Compact rifle could be an effective election in actual theaters of operation in which asymmetrical and symmetrical combat are combined and also in police interventions due to compact rifle provide higher fire power and range and obtained the same shooting performance than pistol. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that provides empirical data to solve the discussion about the efficiency of the use of rifle and pistol in close quarter combat in military and police interventions. These results could be used to improve the military and police interventions efficiency.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Processos de Cópia , Humanos , Militares
12.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 61(1): 110-122, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28395317

RESUMO

Background: Photocopiers emit large amounts of nanoparticles (NP) and are a significant source of indoor air pollution. These emissions induce airway inflammation, irritation, and systemic oxidative stress in humans, lung injury and inflammation in animals, and cytotoxicity and epigenetic modifications in vitro. However, little is known regarding NP exposures at the workstation in the photocopy work environment, or the extent and use of emission controls. Objective: To survey the photocopy work environment with regards to emissions controls and to evaluate IAQ with emphasis on NP exposure at the operator's workstation. Methods: Work process, physical characteristics of the centers, and use of controls were recorded. Particle total number concentration (TNC), temperature, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and percent relative humidity were measured during a random workday. Results: Geometric mean (GM) TNC at workstations ranged between 1900 and 23000 particles cm-3, GSD 1.2-2.8, and maximum of 217000 particles cm-3. Fresh air ventilation was found to be less than American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) guidelines in 7 of 15 centers. Only one center used any type of emissions control. Elevated TNC at workstations was significantly correlated with number of copies (r = 0.72). While indoor/outdoor TNC ratios might be expected to be ≤1.0, the ratio here was >1.0 in 40% of centers visited, supporting the finding that copier emissions are a significant source of indoor air pollution. Number of copies per day was the most significant contributor to TNC. Conclusion: High NP concentrations at workstations were common and specific emission controls almost nonexistent. While 46% of copy centers had insufficient ventilation, high exposures were documented even for cases when ASHRAE ventilation guidelines per person were met or exceeded. We present various options to address IAQ in photocopy environment, including new clean photocopy technologies, engineering controls, and a comprehensive awareness campaign to improve the environmental health and safety, design, and operational conditions of these workplaces.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Processos de Cópia , Exposição por Inalação/normas , Nanopartículas/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Carbono , Monóxido de Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Nanopartículas/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional , Temperatura , Local de Trabalho/normas
14.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 67(2): 275-279, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28138185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the genotoxic effects associated with workers in relation to the emissions at photocopying centres. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted at the Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan, from August to November 2015, and comprised photocopying operators and controls. Micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in exfoliated buccal cells were analysed. A structured questionnaire was designed and interviews were conducted face-to-face. Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate the significance of differences. RESULTS: Of the 200 participants, there were 100(50%) in each group. There were 24(24%) smokers and 76(76%) non-smokers among the controls compared to 29(29%) smokers and 71(71%) non-smokers among the cases. The mean age was 31.08±10.97 years and 28.19±7.58 years in the controls and the cases, respectively. The frequency of deoxyribonucleic acid damage and cell death parameters was high in photocopying operators compared to the controls (p<0.05). Positive correlation was observed between work span and the frequency of deoxyribonucleic acid damage (r=0.226) and cell death parameters (r=0.115). Smoking was positively associated with the frequencies of deoxyribonucleic acid damage (r=0.65) and cell death parameters (r=0.37). The differences were statistically significant (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A highly significant difference was observed in deoxyribonucleic acid damage and cell death of workers associated with photocopy profession.


Assuntos
Processos de Cópia , Dano ao DNA/genética , Mucosa Bucal/citologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/genética , Humanos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , não Fumantes , Paquistão , Fumantes , Adulto Jovem
15.
Mod Healthc ; 47(15): 28, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423227

RESUMO

Copy-and-pasting safely. Implement mechanisms that clearly identify copy-and-pasted content and offer data on the source of the text. Train staff on when it's safe to copy and when it's important to manually replicate text. Monitor copy-and-paste use among your staff and warn staff who may be abusing the functionality.


Assuntos
Processos de Cópia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/normas , Fatores de Risco
16.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 22(6): 68-73, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plaster dental casts are routinely used during clinical practice to access maxillary dental arch form and assist on fabrication of individualized orthodontic archwires. Recently introduced, digital model technology may offer a limitation for the obtainment of a dental physical record. In this context, a tool for dental arch form assessment for chairside use is necessary when employing digital models. In this regard, paper print of the dental arch seems thus to be useful. METHODS: In the present study, 37 lower arch models were used. Intercanine and intermolar widths and dental arch length measurements were performed and compared using plaster dental casts, digital models and paper print image of the models. Ortho Insight 3D scanner was employed for model digitalization. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were noted regarding the measurements performed on the plaster or digital models (p> 0.05). Paper print images, however, showed subestimated values for intercanine and intermolar widths and overestimated values for dental arch length. Despite being statistically significant (p< 0.001), the differences were considered clinically negligible. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that paper print images obtained from digital models are clinically accurate and can be used as a tool for dental arch form assessment for fabrication of individualized orthodontic archwires.


Assuntos
Arco Dental/anatomia & histologia , Arco Dental/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Dentários , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Impressão Tridimensional , Análise de Variância , Moldes Cirúrgicos , Processos de Cópia , Técnica de Moldagem Odontológica , Humanos , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Anatômicos , Ortodontia/instrumentação , Ortodontia/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software , Tecnologia Odontológica
19.
Ind Health ; 54(5): 448-459, 2016 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27021062

RESUMO

This study examines the acute and chronic respiratory effects of toner exposure based on markers for interstitial pneumonia, oxidative stress and pulmonary function tests. A total of 112 subjects working in a Japanese toner and photocopier manufacturing company participated in this study in 2004. We annually conducted personal exposure measurements, pulmonary function tests, chest X-ray examinations, biomarkers, and questionnaires on respiratory symptoms to the subjects. We report in this paper the results of the analysis of combined annual survey point data from 2004 to 2008 and data from three annual survey points, 2004, 2008, and 2013. During these survey periods, we observed that none of subjects had a new onset of respiratory disease or died of such a disease. In both the analyses, there were no significant differences in each biomarker and pulmonary function tests within the subjects, nor between a toner-handling group and a non-toner-handling group, except for a few results on pulmonary function tests. The findings of this study suggest that there were no acute and chronic respiratory effects of toner exposure in this cohort group, although the number of subjects was small and the level of toner exposure in this worksite was low.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Processos de Cópia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Manufaturas , Testes de Função Respiratória , Inquéritos e Questionários
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