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1.
Med Care ; 58(1): 45-51, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited English proficiency is associated with decreased access to ambulatory care, however, it is unclear if this disparity leads to increased use of emergency departments (EDs) for low severity ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs). OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the association between the patient's preferred language and hospital utilization for ACSCs. RESEARCH DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all ED visits in New Jersey in 2013 and 2014. The primary outcome was hospital admission for acute ACSCs, chronic ACSCs, and fractures (a nonambulatory care sensitive control condition). Secondary outcomes included intensive care unit (ICU) utilization and length of stay. Mixed-effect regression models estimated the association between preferred language (English vs. non-English) and study outcomes, controlling for demographics, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics. RESULTS: We examined 201,351 ED visits for acute ACSCs, 251,193 visits for chronic ACSCs, and 148,428 visits for fractures, of which 13.5%, 11.1%, and 9.9%, respectively, were by non-English speakers. In adjusted analyses, non-English speakers were less likely to be admitted for acute ACSCs [-3.1%; 95% confidence interval (CI), -3.6% to -2.5%] and chronic ACSCs (-2.3%; 95% CI, -2.8% to -1.7%) but not fractures (0.4%; 95% CI, -0.2% to 1.0%). Among hospitalized patients, non-English speakers were less likely to receive ICU services but had no difference in length of stay. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest non-English-speaking patients may seek ED care for lower acuity ACSCs than English-speaking patients. Efforts to decrease preventable ED and increase access to ambulatory care use should consider the needs of non-English-speaking patients.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Linguagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Jersey , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Percept Mot Skills ; 126(5): 1024-1041, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345113

RESUMO

This article reports on a study that tested Jin and Zhang's Chinese version of the Foreign Language Enjoyment Scale for classroom learning through confirmatory factor analysis and compared the resulting scale with Li, Jiang, and Dewaele's 11-item scale. Four hundred five Chinese first language senior high school students of English in years 1-3 participated in this study. We found that Jin and Zhang's version of the Foreign Language Enjoyment Scale could be reduced to a 16-item scale that preserved the same factor structure as the original scale. This revised 16-item scale showed a more solid dimensional division and better psychometric properties than Li et al.'s scale. We discussed our findings in relation to the scale's wider application for improving foreign language teaching and learning.


Assuntos
Estudos de Linguagem , Aprendizagem , Prazer , Estudantes , Ensino , Adolescente , Emoções , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Psicometria
3.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e024404, 2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The life course determinants of midlife and later life cognitive function have been studied using longitudinal population-based cohort data, but far less is known about whether the pattern of these pathways is similar or distinct for clinically relevant cognitive state. We investigated this for Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination third edition (ACE-III), used in clinical settings to screen for cognitive impairment and dementia. DESIGN: Longitudinal birth cohort study. SETTING: Residential addresses in England, Wales and Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 1762 community-dwelling men and women of European heritage, enrolled since birth in the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). PRIMARY OUTCOME: ACE-III. RESULTS: Path modelling estimated direct and indirect associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, father's social class, childhood cognition, education, midlife occupational complexity, midlife verbal ability (National Adult Reading Test; NART), and the total ACE-III score. Controlling for sex, there was a direct negative association between APOE ε4 and the ACE-III score (ß=-0.04 [-0.08 to -0.002], p=0.04), but not between APOE ε4 and childhood cognition (ß=0.03 [-0.006 to 0.069], p=0.10) or the NART (ß=0.0005 [-0.03 to 0.03], p=0.97). The strongest influences on the ACE-III were from childhood cognition (ß=0.20 [0.14 to 0.26], p<0.001) and the NART (ß=0.35 [0.29 to 0.41], p<0.001); educational attainment and occupational complexity were modestly and independently associated with the ACE-III (ß=0.08 [0.03 to 0.14], p=0.002 and ß=0.05 [0.01 to 0.10], p=0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The ACE-III in the general population shows a pattern of life course antecedents that is similar to neuropsychological measures of cognitive function, and may be used to represent normal cognitive ageing as well as a screen for cognitive impairment and dementia.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Cognição , Demência/epidemiologia , Estudos de Linguagem , Classe Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Apolipoproteína E4/metabolismo , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/etiologia , Demência/metabolismo , Escolaridade , Inglaterra , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Escócia , País de Gales , Escalas de Wechsler , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nurse Educ Today ; 72: 6-11, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384083

RESUMO

Academic English tests are used to ascertain if international English as a Second Language nursing students have sufficient language skills to commence their nursing degrees, and later, if they have sufficient English for nursing registration. However, an academic English test may not be appropriate for clinical contexts. This study examines the relationship between two types of English test and the performance of forty-nine undergraduate international nursing students in both their first year of theory-centred academic topics and practice-centred clinical topics. An academic English test, called the International English Language Testing System (IELTS), and a general English proficiency/processing speed test using a variation of the cloze-test (C-test) format were administered at the commencement of the students' course of study. At the end of one year, grade percentages were collected. It was found that both the IELTS test and the C-test were significantly correlated to both types of topic, albeit with different patterns. The two English tests were also tested for similarities in the constructs they measured, with a significant overlap found. The implications are to rethink the way English tests are applied to entry in university degrees involving a clinical component and, by extension, to direct universities to rethink how nursing students are supported during their degree. The question is also raised about the practice of using academic English tests for professional nursing registration purposes. The benefits of the two testing approaches are also considered, particularly the large differences in monetary outlay and time found between the two tests, given their performance in explaining the variance in grade outcomes.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional/normas , Estudos de Linguagem/normas , Testes de Linguagem/normas , Enfermeiras Internacionais/educação , Enfermeiras Internacionais/normas , Austrália , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Estudos de Linguagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Linguagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermeiras Internacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Behav Res Methods ; 50(4): 1461-1481, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855811

RESUMO

In this article, we present Procura-PALavras (P-PAL), a Web-based interface for a new European Portuguese (EP) lexical database. Based on a contemporary printed corpus of over 227 million words, P-PAL provides a broad range of word attributes and statistics, including several measures of word frequency (e.g., raw counts, per-million word frequency, logarithmic Zipf scale), morpho-syntactic information (e.g., parts of speech [PoSs], grammatical gender and number, dominant PoS, and frequency and relative frequency of the dominant PoS), as well as several lexical and sublexical orthographic (e.g., number of letters; consonant-vowel orthographic structure; density and frequency of orthographic neighbors; orthographic Levenshtein distance; orthographic uniqueness point; orthographic syllabification; and trigram, bigram, and letter type and token frequencies), and phonological measures (e.g., pronunciation, number of phonemes, stress, density and frequency of phonological neighbors, transposed and phonographic neighbors, syllabification, and biphone and phone type and token frequencies) for ~53,000 lemmatized and ~208,000 nonlemmatized EP word forms. To obtain these metrics, researchers can choose between two word queries in the application: (i) analyze words previously selected for specific attributes and/or lexical and sublexical characteristics, or (ii) generate word lists that meet word requirements defined by the user in the menu of analyses. For the measures it provides and the flexibility it allows, P-PAL will be a key resource to support research in all cognitive areas that use EP verbal stimuli. P-PAL is freely available at http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/tools .


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Cognição , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estudos de Linguagem , Linguística , Vocabulário , Estimulação Acústica , Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Pesquisa Comportamental/normas , Humanos , Internet , Portugal , Fala , Interface Usuário-Computador
7.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 44(4): 604-614, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608079

RESUMO

The structure of natural languages give rise to many dependencies in the linear sequences of words, and within words themselves. Detecting these dependencies is arguably critical for young children in learning the underlying structure of their language. There is considerable evidence that human adults and infants are sensitive to the statistical properties of sequentially adjacent items. However, the conditions under which learners detect nonadjacent dependencies (NADs) appears to be much more limited. This has resulted in proposals that the kinds of learning mechanisms learners deploy in processing adjacent dependencies are fundamentally different from those deployed in learning NADs. Here we challenge this view. In 4 experiments, we show that learning both kinds of dependencies is hindered in conditions when they are embedded in longer sequences of words, and facilitated when they are isolated by silences. We argue that the findings from the present study and prior research is consistent with a theory that similar mechanisms are deployed for adjacent and nonadjacent dependency learning, but that NAD learning is simply computationally more complex. Hence, in some situations NAD learning is only successful when constraining information is provided, but critically, that additional information benefits adjacent dependency learning in similar ways. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Estudos de Linguagem , Psicolinguística , Aprendizagem Seriada/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Behav Res Methods ; 50(3): 1285-1307, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28791657

RESUMO

Using the megastudy approach, we report a new database (MEGALEX) of visual and auditory lexical decision times and accuracy rates for tens of thousands of words. We collected visual lexical decision data for 28,466 French words and the same number of pseudowords, and auditory lexical decision data for 17,876 French words and the same number of pseudowords (synthesized tokens were used for the auditory modality). This constitutes the first large-scale database for auditory lexical decision, and the first database to enable a direct comparison of word recognition in different modalities. Different regression analyses were conducted to illustrate potential ways to exploit this megastudy database. First, we compared the proportions of variance accounted for by five word frequency measures. Second, we conducted item-level regression analyses to examine the relative importance of the lexical variables influencing performance in the different modalities (visual and auditory). Finally, we compared the similarities and differences between the two modalities. All data are freely available on our website ( https://sedufau.shinyapps.io/megalex/ ) and are searchable at www.lexique.org , inside the Open Lexique search engine.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Tomada de Decisões , Estudos de Linguagem , Ferramenta de Busca , Confiabilidade dos Dados , França , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Análise de Regressão
9.
Behav Res Methods ; 50(3): 1030-1046, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28699123

RESUMO

This study introduces the second release of the Tool for the Automatic Analysis of Lexical Sophistication (TAALES 2.0), a freely available and easy-to-use text analysis tool. TAALES 2.0 is housed on a user's hard drive (allowing for secure data processing) and is available on most operating systems (Windows, Mac, and Linux). TAALES 2.0 adds 316 indices to the original tool. These indices are related to word frequency, word range, n-gram frequency, n-gram range, n-gram strength of association, contextual distinctiveness, word recognition norms, semantic network, and word neighbors. In this study, we validated TAALES 2.0 by investigating whether its indices could be used to model both holistic scores of lexical proficiency in free writes and word choice scores in narrative essays. The results indicated that the TAALES 2.0 indices could be used to explain 58% of the variance in lexical proficiency scores and 32% of the variance in word-choice scores. Newly added TAALES 2.0 indices, including those related to n-gram association strength, word neighborhood, and word recognition norms, featured heavily in these predictor models, suggesting that TAALES 2.0 represents a substantial upgrade.


Assuntos
Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Redação/normas , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/métodos , Humanos , Estudos de Linguagem , Análise Numérica Assistida por Computador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Validação de Programas de Computador
10.
Eval Program Plann ; 66: 53-62, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031191

RESUMO

We describe an environmental and natural science program called Nurture thru Nature (NtN) that seeks to improve mathematics and science performance of students in disadvantaged communities, and to increase student interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) careers. The program draws conceptual guidance from the Head-Heart-Hands model that informs the current educational movement to foster environmental understanding and sustainability. Employing an experimental design and data from seven cohorts of students, we find some promising, albeit preliminary, indications that the program can increase students' science knowledge and grades in mathematics, science and language arts. We discuss the special adaptations that environmental and sustainability education programs need to incorporate if they are to be successful in today's resource depleted urban schools.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Disciplinas das Ciências Naturais/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/organização & administração , Afro-Americanos , Ecologia/educação , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Estudos de Linguagem , Matemática/educação , New Jersey , Ciência/educação
11.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 32(11): 803-805, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28734592

RESUMO

Good writing takes time, but in a research environment where speed is master, is it a superfluous pursuit? Scientists spend most of their working life writing, yet our writing style obstructs its key purpose: communication. We advocate more accessible prose that boosts the influence of our publications. For those who change, the proof of their success will be science that is read, understood, and remembered.


Assuntos
Estudos de Linguagem , Redação/normas , Comunicação , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Editoração , Pesquisa
13.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0173614, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28282435

RESUMO

Languages employ different strategies to transmit structural and grammatical information. While, for example, grammatical dependency relationships in sentences are mainly conveyed by the ordering of the words for languages like Mandarin Chinese, or Vietnamese, the word ordering is much less restricted for languages such as Inupiatun or Quechua, as these languages (also) use the internal structure of words (e.g. inflectional morphology) to mark grammatical relationships in a sentence. Based on a quantitative analysis of more than 1,500 unique translations of different books of the Bible in almost 1,200 different languages that are spoken as a native language by approximately 6 billion people (more than 80% of the world population), we present large-scale evidence for a statistical trade-off between the amount of information conveyed by the ordering of words and the amount of information conveyed by internal word structure: languages that rely more strongly on word order information tend to rely less on word structure information and vice versa. Or put differently, if less information is carried within the word, more information has to be spread among words in order to communicate successfully. In addition, we find that-despite differences in the way information is expressed-there is also evidence for a trade-off between different books of the biblical canon that recurs with little variation across languages: the more informative the word order of the book, the less informative its word structure and vice versa. We argue that this might suggest that, on the one hand, languages encode information in very different (but efficient) ways. On the other hand, content-related and stylistic features are statistically encoded in very similar ways.


Assuntos
Bíblia , Barreiras de Comunicação , Estudos de Linguagem , Humanos
14.
J Sch Health ; 86(10): 709-16, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27619761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Researchers have emphasized the importance of integrating mental health education with academic curriculum. The focus of the current studies was Mental Health Matters (MHM), a mental health curriculum that is integrated with English language arts. It is taught by trained community member volunteers and aims to increase knowledge and decrease stigma toward individuals with mental health disorders. METHODS: In Study 1, 142 sixth graders participated in MHM and completed pre- and postprogram measures of mental health knowledge, stigma, and program acceptability. Teachers also completed ratings of acceptability. Study 2 (N = 120 seventh graders) compared participants who had participated in MHM the previous year with those who had not using the same measures. RESULTS: Sixth grade students and teachers rated the program as highly acceptable. Participants significantly increased their knowledge and decreased their levels of stigma. Seventh graders who had participated in MHM had significantly more mental health knowledge than peers who had not, but there were no differences in stigma. CONCLUSIONS: The model appears to be acceptable to students and teachers. Future research is needed to assess the long-term effectiveness of integrating mental health education with other academic curriculum such as language arts or science.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudos de Linguagem , Saúde Mental/educação , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Criança , Comportamento do Consumidor , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
16.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0158812, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27391085

RESUMO

Although there is variability in nonnative grammar learning outcomes, the contributions of training paradigm design and memory subsystems are not well understood. To examine this, we presented learners with an artificial grammar that formed words via simple and complex morphophonological rules. Across three experiments, we manipulated training paradigm design and measured subjects' declarative, procedural, and working memory subsystems. Experiment 1 demonstrated that passive, exposure-based training boosted learning of both simple and complex grammatical rules, relative to no training. Additionally, procedural memory correlated with simple rule learning, whereas declarative memory correlated with complex rule learning. Experiment 2 showed that presenting corrective feedback during the test phase did not improve learning. Experiment 3 revealed that structuring the order of training so that subjects are first exposed to the simple rule and then the complex improved learning. The cumulative findings shed light on the contributions of grammatical complexity, training paradigm design, and domain-general memory subsystems in determining grammar learning success.


Assuntos
Estudos de Linguagem , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Ensino , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Ann Dyslexia ; 66(1): 71-90, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26271914

RESUMO

This study explored American and Portuguese elementary teachers' preferences in planning for literacy instruction using the Language Arts Activity Grid (LAAG; Cunningham, Zibulsky, Stanovich, & Stanovich, 2009), on which teachers described their preferred instructional activities for a hypothetical 2-h language arts block. Portuguese teachers (N = 186) completed Portuguese versions of a background questionnaire and LAAG electronically, in Survey Monkey; American teachers (N = 102) completed identical English measures using paper and pencil. Results showed that teachers in both groups usually addressed comprehension and reading fluency on their LAAGs and that they also allocated the most time to these two areas. However, American teachers were more likely to include teacher-directed fluency activities, whereas Portuguese teachers were more likely to include fluency activities that were not teacher directed. Significantly more American than Portuguese teachers addressed phonics in their planning, whereas significantly more Portuguese than American teachers addressed writing processes such as revision. Both groups of educators demonstrated large variability in planning, with many teachers omitting important components of literacy identified by researchers, for writing as well as reading. The study highlights the importance of providing teachers with comprehensive, research-based core literacy curricula as well as professional development on key components of literacy. Study findings also suggest significant relationships between orthographic transparency and teachers' instructional planning.


Assuntos
Estudos de Linguagem , Alfabetização , Professores Escolares , Capacitação de Professores , Adulto , Compreensão , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética , Portugal , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Qual Health Res ; 26(1): 141-4, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26626614

RESUMO

We reflect on the experiences of a researcher conducting a pilot exercise project with marginalized research participants within the substance use disorder treatment field, in a language that was nonnative to her. While the project collected and analyzed quantitative data, the researcher was motivated by qualitative inquiry's commitment to reducing participant-researcher distance and power differences. Despite multiple sources of power imbalances favoring the researcher, the ability of participants to speak their native language to a nonnative researcher, and the researcher's active recognition of her linguistic vulnerability, appeared to afford them an unexpected source of power within the context of the project. We discuss the researcher's observations of these power dynamics and their implications for cross-cultural research and when working with marginalized research participants.


Assuntos
Estudos de Linguagem , Poder Psicológico , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Relações Pesquisador-Sujeito/psicologia , Humanos , Linguística , Noruega , Projetos Piloto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Estados Unidos
20.
Psychiatr Rehabil J ; 38(3): 283-5, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26348317

RESUMO

TOPIC: A Spanish course was heuristically designed to serve as a context to bring together components of various therapies and was offered to veterans with psychiatric disabilities enrolled in a psychosocial rehabilitation and recovery center. PURPOSE: Bilingualism has been associated with enhanced cognitive function and deserves more attention in psychiatric rehabilitation research. Developing opportunities for language instruction to potentially improve cognitive and community integration is explored. SOURCES USED: Relevant studies were reviewed to inform the design of the Spanish course and feedback was elicited from veterans who took the course. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Dialoguing with veterans can yield innovative and recovery-oriented changes to services, and may increase consumer satisfaction. Since leisure, social, and educational activities can draw from a person's interests and strengths, incorporating elements of therapies into these activities may create less stigmatizing and more engaging forms of treatment.


Assuntos
Estudos de Linguagem , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
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